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A PLATISMA MYOIDES— broad muscle of the neck. 

a STERNO-HYOIDEUS— muscle between the breast and tonjfue 

b MASTOIDEUS— mastoid muscle. 

B DELTOIDES — the muscle covering the shoulder-joint. 

C BICEPS BRACHTI— two-headed muscle of the arm. 

D PRONATOR RADII TERES— pronating muscle of the arm. 

E SUPINATOR RADII LONGUS— supinating muscle of the arm. 

F FLEXOR CARPI RADIALIS— radial flexor of the wrist. 

G PALMARIS LONGUS— long bending muscle of the hand. 

II FLEXOR CARPI ULNARIS— ulnar flexor of the wrist. 

I PECTORALIS MAJOR— large muscle of the chest. 

K OBLIQUUS DESCENDENS— oblique descending muscle. 

LL RECTUS— straight muscle. 

L LINEA SEMILUNARIS— semilunar line. 

M LINEA ALBA— white line. 

N POUP ART'S LIGAMENT— Poupart's ligament. 

SARTORIUS— the "tailor's muscle." 

P TENSOR VAGINAE FEMORIS— stretcher of the fascia lata. 

U PSOAS MAGNUS— large lumbar muscle. 

V VASTUS EXTERNUS— great external muscle. 
AV RECTUS FEMORIS— straight femoral muscle. 
X VASTUS INTERNUS— great internal muscle. 

Y GASTROCNEMIUS— muscle of the calf of the leg. 
y SOLEUS — a broad flat muscle of the leg. 

Z TIBIALIS ANTICUS— anterior muscle of the leg. 

i E8 Of THE SIDE linn I 


A DELTOIDES — muscle covering the shoulder-joint. 

B BICEPS BRACHII— two-headed muscle of the arm. 

C BRACHIALIS INTERNUS— internal muscle of the arm. 

D SUPINATOR RADII LONGUS— long supinator of the radius. 

E TRICEPS— three-headed muscle. 

F TRAPEZIUS— trapezium-shaped muscle. 

G LATISSIMUS DORSI— lateral muscle of the back. 

H SERRATUS MAJOR ANTICUS— large serrated anterior muscle. 

I OBLIQUUS DESCENDENS EXTERNUS— -external oblique de- 
scending muscle. 

K GLUTEUS MAXIMUS— largest thigh muscle. 

L GLUTEUS MEDIUS— middle-sized tlngla^'isde. .,„• j 

M RECTUS FEMORIS— straight muscle of 

N VASTUS INTERNUS— great internal mGUS— lc 

O VASTUS EXTERNUS— great external m 

DINOSUS MUSCLES, forming the inner hamstring. 

Q TENDON OF THE BICEPS FEMORIS, forming the outer 

R ILLACUS INTERNUS— internal iliac muscle. 

S GASTROCNEMIUS EXTERNUS— external muscle of the calf. 

T SOLEUS— a broad flat mjjscle of the leg. 

U PERONEUS TERTIUS— fibular muscle of the leg. 

muscle of the toes. 

W TIBIALIS ANTICUS— anterior muscle of the leg. 



A MASTOIDEUS— mastoid muscle. 

B TRAPEZIUS — trapezium-shaped muscle. 

INFRA SPINATUS — the muscle beneath the spine of the 


b TERES MINOR— long round'smaller muscle. 

c TERES MAJOR — long round larger muscle. 

C LATISSIMUS DORSI— lateral muscle of the back. 

D DELTOIDES — muscle covering the shoulder-joint. 

/ TRICEPS BRACHIALIS— three-headed muscle of the arm. 

g ANCONEUS— muscle of the elbow. 

tensor of the wrist. 

E SACRO LUMBALIS — muscle of the sacrum and loins. 

F LONGISSIMUS DORSI— long muscle of the back. 

G GLUTEUS MEDIUS— middle-sized muscle of the thigh. 

H GLUTEUS MAXIMUS— largest muscle of the thigh 

1 SEMITENDINOSUS— half-tendinous muscle. 

K SEMIMEMBRANOSUS— half-membranous muscle. 

L BICEPS FEMORIS— two-headed thigh muscle. 

M GASTROCNEMIUS EXTERNUS— external muscle of the calf. 


\V,W \%'D ITA^D. 


A PRONATOR TERES— long round pronator muscle. 

B SUPINATOR RADII LONGUS— long radial supinator. 

C FLEXOR CARPI RADIALIS— radial flexor of the wrist 

D PALMARIS LONGUS— long muscle of the palm. 

E PERFORATUM & PERFORANS— perforated, and perforating 

G ABDUCTOR POLLICIS MANUS— abductor of the thumb. 

II PALMARIS BREVIS— short muscle of the palm. 

k EXTENSOR POLLICIS— extending muscle of the thumb. 

K EXTENSOR PRIMI INTERNODII— extensor of the first finger. 

sor of the wrist 

sor of the wrist 

N EXTENSOR DIGITORUM— extensor of the fingers. 

O EXTENSOR CARPI ULNARIS— ulnar extensor of the wrist 

P ANCONEUS— muscle of the elbow. 

Q EXTENSOR SECUNDI INTERNODII— supinator and exten- 
sor of the thumb. 

R EXTENSOR MINIMI DIGITI— extensor of the little finger. 

S FLEXOR CARPI ULNARIS— ulnar flexor of the wist 


A CARPUS— bones of the wrist 

B METACARPUS— bones of the hand. 

C DIGITUS PRIMUS— bones of the thumb 

D PHALANGES— bones of the fingers. 


A OS CALCIS— heel-bone. 

B TARSUS— bones of the instep. 

METATARSUS— bones of the foot. 

D PHALANGES— bones of the toes. 



-The figure is an ideal view of the circulation in the lungs and sys- 
tem. From the right ventricle of the heart (2), the dark, impure 
blood is forced into the pulmonary artery (3), and its branches (4, 5) 
carry the blood to the left and right lung. In the capillary vessels 
(6, 6) of the lungs, the blood becomes pure, or of a red color, and is 
returned to the left auricle of the heart (9) by the veins (7, 8). 
Prom the left auricle the pure blood passes into the left ventricle 
(10). By a forcible contraction of the left ventricle of the heart, 
the blood is thrown into the aorta (11). Its branches (12, 13, 13) 
carry the pure blood to every organ or part of the body. The 
divisions and subdivisions of the aorta terminate in capillary ves- 
sels, represented by 14, 14. In these hair-like vessels the blood 
becomes dark colored, and is returned to the right auricle of the 
heart (1) by the vena cava descendens (15) and vena cava ascen- 
dens (16). The tricuspid valves (IV) prevent the reflow of the 
blood from the right ventricle to the right auricle. The semilunar 
valves (18) prevent the blood passing from the pulmonary artery to 
the right ventricle. The mitral valves (19) prevent the reflow of 
blood from the left ventricle to the left auricle. The semilunar 
valves (20) prevent the reflow of blood from the aorta to the loft 

To effect the complete purification of the whole mass of blood, 
in an adult of ordinary size, requires a pint of atmospheric air to 
be taken into the lungs at each inspiration; and as the usual num- 
ber of inspirations is about eighteen per minute, the daily supply 
amounts to three thousand two hundred and forty gallons, or one 
hundred and thirty-five gallons per hour. 





3ti dftgjjt ^artn: 









EffiJfti) Wunretous SSngraneti JHlustratfoni. 



Entered, ascordicg to act Df Congress, in the year 1851, by 

hi the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern District 
of New York. 


In the infancy of a system, so comprehensive in its principles 
and so multitudinous in its details as to embrace all the laws of 
hygiene, and all the facts of anatomy, physiology, and organic 
chemistry, it can hardly be expected that its literature will be 
otherwise than crude and incoherent. 

Of the many valuable works extant on Water-Cure, no one 
embodies all the departments of science relating to the cure of 
disease and the preservation of health, into a consistent and philo- 
sophical system ; nor do all of them together treat of, or even 
mention, the majority of subjects or diseases inseparably con- 
nected with, and forming parts of a complete plan of hydro-thera- 

In attempting to supply this desideratum, the author has, 
through the kindness and liberality of the publishers, been enabled 
to avail himself of nearly all that has been published in this coun- 
try and Europe directly or remotely connected with Hydrcpathy, 
as well as an extensive range of private correspondence, and 
written but unpublished experience in domestic practice. 

The great number of topics embraced in the scope of the work, 
rendered the utmost brevity of language indispensable ; hence, in 
advancing new doctrinal propositions, and in controverting posi- 
tions deemed erroneous, but little space was left for details ami 

For imperfections in style and arrangement, the only available 
apology is, the many cares incident to the medical direction of 
two hydropathic establishments during the whole time occupied 
in the preparation of the work. 

New York, 15 Laight Street, 185E. 



History of Medicine. — The Earliest Ancient Physicians— The Early Grecian Physi- 
cians — The Dogmatic and the Empirical Physicians — Medical Philosophers — Hippo- 
crates — The first Irregular Physician — The Alexandrian School — The Regulars banished 
from Rome — The first Heroic Practitioner — The Pneumatics and Eclectics — The first 
Pharmacopoeia — Galen — The Arabian School — The Monks and Alchemists — The Chem- 
ical Physicians — The Prince of Empirics — The Regular and Irregular Controversy — 
The Anatomical Physicians — Revival of the Hippocratean Doctrine — The Fermenta- 
tionists — The Mathematical Physicians — The Vitalists — The Solidists — The Metaphys- 
ical Physicians — Boerhaave — Haller — The Semi-animists — Cullen — The Brunonian 
System — Medicine at the end of the Eighteenth Century — Medicine in the United 
States ■ 9-36 

Hi3toiiy op Bathing. — Ancient Bathing — Bathing in the Middle Ages — Bathing Habits 
of different Nations — Medicated Baths — Medical Testimony in favor of the Remedial 
Use of Water 36-52 


Chapter I. Of the Bones: Osteology. — Structure of Bone — Development — Stages 
of Ossification — The Skeleton — Vertebral Column — Bones of the Head — Sutures of tha 
Skull— Orbits of the Eye— The Teeth— Bones of the Chest— The Thorax— Upper Ex- 
tremities — Pelvis — Lower Extremities — Sesamoid Bones 53-78 

Chapter II. Of the Ligaments : Syndesmology. — Vertebral Joints — Neck-joint — 
Lower-jaw — Costo-vertebral — Costo-sternal — Sternal — Vertebro-pelvic — Pelvis— Sacro- 
coccygean — Pubic — Sternoclavicular — Shoulder — Elbow — Wrist — Carpal — Carpo-me- 
tacarpol— Metacarpophalangeal — Phalangeal — Hip — Knee — Ankle — Tarsal — Tarsu-me- 
tatarsal — Metatarsophalangeal — Toe 78-92 

Chapter III. Of the Muscles : Myology.— Structure— Development— Cranial Group 
-Orbital, Ocular— Nasal—Superior Labal— Inferior Lnbal— Maxillary— Auricular— 
Superficial of the Neck, Laryngea — Lmguinal— Pharyngeal— Palatal— Prevertebral- 
Oi the Back-Ot the Phorax-Ot the Abdomen-Of the Trunk-Periueal-Upper Ex- 
tremity — Lower Extremity flo-l "6 

C % A ^ R t! ° F T" n FASCI f L £ PON ? DEO '-°GV.-CeUulo-fibrous" Fas'cia-Aponeurotic 
Fascm-Temporal-Cervical-Thoracic-Abdominal-Inguinal Hernia-Iliac Fascia- 
Pelvic— Perineal— Upper Extremity— Lower Extremity-Femoral Hernia A-j31 

Chapt-r V. Of the Arteries : Anokiology.— Structure-Distribution— Intercom- 
munic^ion-Systemic Arteries-Aorta-Innominata-Cai-otids-llmnor^-MaSuTv 
-Subc avian-Circle of Willis-Thyroid Axis-Internal Mammary-K ,ry-Br c I 
VeTpnt,; ^ ar_ T- h ° ra , C , IC Aort a-Abdominal Aorta-Gastric-Hepatic-Splenic-. 
Mesenteric - Spermatic - Ihacs - Femoral - Popliteal - Tibials - Plantar- Pulmona. 

^StaJLXLn?^™^ T EI ?t 3 : ANGEI0L OGY.-Structure-Of'tne Head-Diploe-Brain 
ties Pr?r?h7?i t? Neck -Upper Extremities-Axillary, Subclavian, Lower Extremi- 
-PuTmonL,y emol " al_ ° f the Trunk-Venae Cavae-Portal System-Vena Portra 

PHAPTPn VTf r\r- i ■--*------...---.... j. _ii— J.55 

LymphatiJ'Gla^s-^cte^s'I-Th^cic ^""^orbent System-Valves 


Chapter IX. Organs of the External Senses. — Organ of Smell — Organ of Sight — 
Organ of Hearing — Organ of Taste — Organ of Touch 189-203 

Chapter X. Of the Viscera : Splanchnology. — Heart — Larynx — Trachea — Thy- 
roid Gland— Lungs — Pleura — Abdominal Regions — Peritoneum — Alimentary Canal — 
Pharynx — CEsophagus — Stomach — Intestines^-Liver — Gall-bladder — Pancreas — Spleen 
— Supra-renal Capsules — Kidneys — Pelvic Viscera — Mammary Glands — General Anat- 
omy of the Foetus 204-234 


Chapter I. Of the Tissues. — General Characters of the Tissues— Development of 
Cells — Areolar Tissue— Muscular — Nervous — Motory System — Sentient System— Re- 
flex System — Mental System — Philosophy of Mind — Nervous Influence — Rationale of 
Muscular Action — Mesmeric Phenomena — Order of Structural Development.. 235-230 

Chapter II. Of the Special Senses. — Sensation — Sense of Touch— Sense of Taste — 
Sense of Smell— Sense of Hearing — Philosophy of Sound — Sense of Sight 250-257 

Chapter III. Of Voice and Speech. — Voice — Speech — Vowels — Consonants — Diph. 
thongs — Triphthongs — Tones — Pitch — Volume — Compass — Musical Notes — Ventrilc 
quism 257-29. 

Chapter IV. Of the Individual Functions. — Digestion — Circulation — Respiration 
— Absorption — Nutrition— Secretion — Excreti ..3 — Calorification — Endosmose and Ex- 
osmose 260-287 

Chapter V. Of Temperaments. — Nervous — Sanguine — Bilious — Lymphatic . 287-290 

Chapter VI. Races of Men. — Caucasian — Mongolian — Ethiopic — American — Malay — 
Origin of Races — Theory of Population 290-294 


Chapter I. Of Air. — Vital Property of Air — Quantity Respired — Purity of Air — Change 
of Air — Position and Habits affecting Respiration — Catching Cold — Purifying the Air — 
Sleeping Rooms — Stoves and Fireplaces — Lamps — Candles — Gas-burners — Public Con- 
veyances 295-304 

Chapter II. Of Light. — Relation to Organization — physiological Influences — Thera- 
peutic Considerations — Sanatory Inferences 3U4-307 

Cmapter III. Of Drink. — Nature's Beverage — Is Man a Drinking Animal? — Quantity — 
Temperature — Artificial Drinks — Natural Waters — Purification — Adulterations 307-320 

Chapter IV. Of Food. — Chemical Elements — Proximate Elements — Aliments, or Foods 
Proper — Animal Food — Vegetable Food— Condiments 320-363 

Chaptek V. Of Temperature. — Vicissitudes of Weather — Generation of Animal Heat 
— Capacity to Endure External Heat — Artificial Heat — Healthfulness of Climate — Com- 
mon Colds — Mean Temperatures 363-367 

Chapter VI. Of Exercise. — Necessity for Exercise — Physiology of Exercise — Varie- 
ties — Exercises of Children — Times for Exercising 367-370 

Chapter VII. Of Sleep. —Definition — Phenomena — Natural Term of Sleep — After 
Meals — Position during Sleep — Beds. and Bedding 370-374 

Chapter VIII. Of Clothing. — Physiological Nature of Clothing — Materials — Color — 
Particular Garments — Bed and Body Linen — General Rules 374-377 

Chapter IX. Of Bathing. — Reasons for Bathing — Methods — Time and Temperature 
of Baths — Precautions 377-378 

Chapter X. Of the Excretions. — Relation to Nutrition — Involuntary Evacuations — 
Voluntary Evacuations 379-380 

Chapter XI. Of the Passions. — Mental Hygiene — Passions as Affecting Health — 
Healthful Exercise — Relation to Longevity — Relation to the Secretions — Physiological 
Law of the Passions 38 1-383 

Chapter XII. Of Longevity. — Natural Duration of Life — Examples of Longevity — 
Natural Death — Advantages of Longevity — Special Means — Occupations as Affcijag 
Longevity 383-396 


Chapter I. Dietetic Character of Man.— Bible Evidence — Anatomical Evidence — 
Physiological Evidence — Medical Evidence — Chemical Evidence — Experimental Evi- 
dence 397-117 


Chapter ]). Hvdbopathic Cookery. — Practical Considerations — Preparations of Ani- 
mal Food — Preparations of Vegetable Food — Breads — deeds— Mushes — Gruels and 
Soups — Puddings — Pastry — Cukes — Roots — Green Vegetables — Fruits — Nuts — Condi- 
ments 417-44 1 

Chapter 111. Dietaries. — General Rules for Invalids — Therapeutic Divisions of Diet — • 
Diet lor Fublic Institutions 441-460 


Chapter I. Philosophy of Water-Cube. — Relations of Water to the Healthy Organ- 
ism — Modus Operandi — Water and Drug-treatment Contrasted — Rationale of Drug-med- 
ication 3-22 

Chapter II. Wateb-C'ube Processes. — Wet-sheet Packing — Half-pack — Douche — 
Rubbing Wet sheet — Hip, or Sitz-bath — Hall-bath — Plunge — Footbath — Head-bath — 
Shower — Cataract-bath — Dry Pack, or Sweating-bath — Vapor-bath — Wave-bath — River- 
bath — Rain-bath — Fountain, or Spray-bath — Portable Shower-bath — Affusion— Tow"- 1 , 
or Sponge-bath — Wet-dress Hath — Warm and Hot Baths — Swimming-bath — Eye and 
tar Baths — Nasal bath — Oral, or Mouth-bath — Arm-bath — Hand-bath — Finger-bath — 
Leg-bath — Drop-bath — Air-bath — Fomentations — Bandages — Chest-wrapper — Abdom- 
inal-wrapper — Friction — Temperature of Baths — Duration of Baths — General Rules for 
Hydropathic Bathing — Water-drinking — Lavements and Injections 22-59 

Chapter III. Crises. — Docrine of Crisis — Forms of Crisis — Management of Crises — 
Rationale of Crisis 59-67 

Chapter IV. Of the Pulse — Nature of the Pulse — Varieties of Pulse — Indications of 
the Pulse 67-71 


Chapter I. Of Fevers. — Classification of Fevers — General Characters — Causes — The- 
ory — Type — Rationale — Crisis — Duration — General Treatment — Ephemeral — Inflam- 
matory — Yellow — Nervous — Putrid — Ship — Spotted — Camp — Jail — -Hospital — Marsh — . 
Typhoid — Remittent — Intermittent — Symptomatic — Small-pox — ChicKen-pox — Cow- 
pox — Measles — Scarlatina — Erysipelas — Miliary — Plague 72-107 

Chapteb II. Visceral Inflammations — Theory of Inflammation — Rationale — Varie- 
ties — Terminations — General Treatment — l'hrenitis — Quinsy — Laryngitis — Croup — 
Mumps— Pneumonia, or Pleurisy — Carditis — Hepatitis — Splenitis — Gastritis — Enteritis 
— Peritonitis — Hysteritis — Orchitis 108—122 

Chapt.eb III. Arthritis. — Podagra, or Gout — Rheumatism — Lumbago — Sciatica 122-128 

Chapteb IV. Indigestion. — Dyspepsia — Liver Complaint — -Misdentition— Colic — Chol- 
era — Diarrhea — Intestinal Concretions — Worms — Hemorrhoids, or Piles 128-150 

Chapter V. Fluxes. — Catarrh — Influenza — Dysentery 151-153 

Chapter VI Cachexies. — Consumption — Marasmus — Atrophy — Anhgemia — Tabes — 
Elephantiasis — Epis taxis — Haemoptysis — Hajmatemesis — Hematuria — Scurvy — Pleth- 
ora — Scrofula — Cancer — Melanosis — Catacausis 154-180 

Chapteb VII. Diseases of the Eye. — Ophthalmia— Nebulffl — Ulcers — Pterygium— 
Staphyloma — Closed Pupil — Cataract — Amaurosis — Strabismus — Psorophthalmia— 
Trichiasis — Entropiuin — Ectropium — Hordeolum — Excrescences — Ptosis — Fistula 
Lachiymaiis— Asthenopia— Hemeralopia — Nyctalopia — Myopia — Presbyopia — Ecchy- 
. mosis — Extraneous Substances — Burst Eye t80-187 

Chai tek VIII. Diseases of the Ear.— Otitis— Otorrhcea— Deafness— Otalgia For- 
eign Bodies and Insects 1S7-195 

Chapter IX. Erythematous Inflammations. — OEdematous — Erysipelatous — Gan- 
grenous — Anatomical — Chilblain — Fret — Nettle-rash — Aptha, or Thrush — Pemphigus — 
««*i 195-203 

Chapter X. Spasmodic Diseases. — Convulsions — Epilepsy — Hysterics — Tremor 

Delirium Tremens— Shaking Palsy— St. Vitus' Dance — Kaphania — Barbiers— Cough — 
Dyspncea— A^hrna — Laryngismus — Incubus — Bronchitis — Sternalgia — Pleuralgia— 
Hiccough — Sneezing — Palpitation— Nictitation— Subsultus — Stretching— Hydrophobia 

— Aerotismus — Tetanus — Locked-jaw — Cramp — Muscular Distoition of the Spine 

Miucular ^t,ft joint— Wry Neck 204-230 

Ciiaptkh XI. Diseases of General Torpitude. — Asphyxia — Ecstasy — Catalepsy 

Lethargy — Apoplexy — Palsy 2:19-248 

Chatter XII. Visceral TiiBGESCENcr. — Hepatic — Splenic — Pancreatic — Mesenteric— 
Intestinal— Omental — Complicated 249-253 


Chapter XIII. Dropsical Diseases— Anasarca — CEdema — Hydrocephalus — Spina- 
bifida — Hydrothorax — Ascites— Hydrops Ovarii — Hydrops Tubalis — Hydrops Uteri— 
Hydrocele — Emphysema — Puerperal Tumid Leg — Tropical Tumid Leg 252-261 

Chapter XIV. Diseases of Mis-ossification. — Rickets — Cretinism — MollitiesOssium 
— Fragilitas Ossiuin — Osthexy — Exostosis 262-264 

Chapter XV. Diseases of Sensation. — Headache— Neuralgia — Sleeplessness— Rest- 
lessness — Antipathy — Vertigo — Syncope — Morbid Sight— Morbid Hjaring — Morbid 
Smell — Morbid Taste— Morbid Touch 264-272 

Chapter XVI. Mental Diseases. — Insanity — Melancholy — Madness — Fury — Despond- 
ency — Hallucination — Sentimentalism — Hypochondriacism — Revery — Absent-minded- 
ness—Mental Abstraction — Brown-study — Somnambulism — Sleep-talking — Fatuity — 
Irrationality — Imbecility 27:1-280 

Chapter XVII. Diseases of the Vocal Avenues.— Catarrh — Ozsena — Polypus — 
Snoring — Wheezing — Speechlessness — Dissonant Voice — Stammering — Misenuncia- 
tion 280-284 

Chapter XVIII. Diseases of the Sexual Function. — Miemenstruation — Amenor- 
rhea — Dysmenorrhea — Chlorosis — Leucorrhcea — Spermorrhcea — -Venereal Diseases 
— Satyriasis — Nymphomania — Displacements 285-296 

Chapter XIX. Diseases of the Urinarv Organs. — Suppression of Urine — Ischuria 
— Strangury — Diabetis — Eneuresis — Urinary Diarrhea — Vicarious Urination — Gravel — 
btone 206-300 

Chapter XX. Diseases of the Skin. — Roseola — Gum Rash — Lichenous Rash — Pru- 
riginous Rash — Millet Rash — Water-blebs — Herpes — Rhypia — Eczema — Veal Skin — 
Mole — Freckles — Sunburn — Orange Skin — Piebald Skin — Albino Skin — Cyanosis — Lou- 
siness — Insect Bites — Worms — Dandruff — Leprosy — Psoriasis — Icthyiasis — Impetigo— 
Porrigo — Ecthyma— Scabies, or Iich — Morbid Sweat — Morbid Hair 301-31 1 

Chapter XXI. Poisons. — Acids. — Alkalies — Neutral Salts — Mercurial — Arsenical — An- 
timonial — Lead — Copper — Bismuth — Tin — Silver — Gold — Iron — Zinc — Manganese — Io- 
dine—Phosphorous — Sulphur — Chrome — Bromine — Alum— Platina — Barytes — Metallic 
Salts and Oxides — Narcotics — Acrids — Mushrooms — Poisonous Fish — Serpents and In- 
sects 31 1-32-1 


Chapter I. Surgical Appliances. — Instruments — Compress — Ligature — Sponge- 
Adhesive Plaster — Tents and Pledgets — Dry-cuppii.g — Bandages — Splints — Caustics- 
Torsion — The Tourniquet — Congelation — Fomentations — Emeiles — Anaesthesia — Has- 
mastasis — Transfusion 325-331 

Chapter II. Wounds. — Distinctions — General Consequences — Treatment 332-334 

Chapter III. Injuries. — Concession — Compression — Bruises — Strains — Bums and 
Scalds — Particular Wounds and Injuries 334-339 

Chapter IV. Tumors. — Whelk — Sycosis— Warts — Corns — Bunion — Ony xis — Gangli- 
ons — Itanula — Epulis — Bronchocele — Whitlow — Schirrus and Cancer — Fungus Ilsema- 
todes — Bone cancer — Carbuncle — Lupus — Aneurism — Varix— White Swelling — Hy- 
drops Artieuli — Varicocele — Hematocele — Sarcocele — Hernia Humoralis — Cystic 
Sarcoma— Polypi — Enlarged Prostate Gland 340-355 

Chapter V. Ulcers. — Furunculus — Parulis — Fever Sores — Caries and Necrosis — Fis- 
tula in Ano — Fistula in Perineo — Strictures and Fissures — Salivary Fistula — Fistulas 
Lachry malis 356-364 

Chapter VI. Abscesses. — Empyema — Maxillary Ab9cess — Mammary Abscess — Onyx 
— Lumbar, or Psoas Abscess — Hip-disease — Prostatic Abscess 365-36S 

Chapter VII. Hernia, or Ruptures. — Varieties of Hernis — Technology — Path- 
ological Distinctions — Special Causes — Diagnosis — General Treatment — Radirnl 
Cure '- 369-377 

Chapter VIII. Deformities. — Hare-lip — Tied-tongue — Enlarged Tonsils and Uvula — . 
Squinting— Superfluous Fingers and Toes — Web Fingers — Wry Neck— Spiia Biiida — 
Spinal Curvatures — Mercurialized Tongue — Pseudarthrosis — Club-foot — Contracted 
Smews 377-384 

Chapter IX. Dislocations. — Technology — Dislocation of the Jaw— Clavicle— Shoul- 
der — Elbow — Wrist— Carpal and Metacarpal — Fingers — Hip — Knee — Ankle— Foot- 
Toes 385-407 

Chapter X. Fractures. — Technology — Fractures of the Cranium — Nose — Lower-jaw 

Scapula — Clavicle — Sternum — Ribs — Spine — Pelvis — Humerus — Elbow — Fore-arm— 

Wrist— Hand— F : .igers— Thigh— Patella— Leg— \nkle— Foot 407-423 


Chapter XI. Particular Operations. — Trephining — Paracentesis Capitis — Paracen- 
tesis Oculi — Fistula Lachrymalis — Entropium and Ectropiuni — Ankyloblepharon and 
Symblepharon — Ptosis and Lagophthalmos — Blepharidoplastice and Khinorrhape — 
Khinoplastice — Sthlnsekotomy — -Keratoplastice — Otoplastice — Chelio and Genio-plas- 

tica Couching— Extraction, Absorption, or Solution — Teeth-drawing — Pumping the 

Stomach — Catceterism — Inoculation — GSsophagotorny — Choking — Laryngtomy — Tra- 
cheotomy — Paracentesis Abdominis — Paracentesis Vesicas— Imperforate Anus — Imper- 
forate Urethra — Lithontripsy and Lithotomy — Amputation — Ligating and Compressing 
Arteries 423-437 


Chapter I. History of Midwifery. — Ancient Midwifery — Modern Midwifeiy — Fe 
male Authors and Practitioners— Man-midwifery — Who should be Midwives?.. 439-44 J 

Chapter II. Reproduction. — Theories of Reproduction— Transmission of Organiza- 
tion—The Marriageable Age — Physiological Law of Marriage 443-447 

Chapter III. Physiology of the Fostus. — Fcetal Development — Fcetal Circulation — 
The Thymus Gland — The Placenta— The Umbilical Cord — The Liquor Amnii. 447-452 

Chapter IV. Obstetrical Anatomy. — Bones of the Pelvis — Cavity of the Pelvis- 
Diameters of the Pelvis — Deformities of the Pelvis 452-455 

Chapter V. Pregnancy. — Signs of Pregnancy — Duration of Pregnancy — Extra-uter 
ine Pregnancy — Superfcetation — Pathology of the Foetus — Hygienic Management dur- 
ing Pregnancy— Accidents of Pregnancy 455-460 

Chapter VI. Parturition.— Rationale of Labor— The Pains of Childbirth — Medicating 
Labor Pains— Natural Labor— Diagnosis of Presentations— Stages of Labor— Position 
during Labor — Management during Labor — The After-birth — After-management — 
Convalescence of Lying-in Women— Accidents during the Lying-in Period... 461-475 

chapter VII. Infant Nursing. — Dress of Infants — Bathing — Food— Drink — Sleep — 
Exercise— Excretions— Teething— Drugging— Infantile Diseases 475-482 

Chapter VIII. Complicated Labors. — Tedious, or Protracted Labors — Preternatural 
Presentations — Operations in Midwifery — Face Presentations — Breech Presentations — 
Foot and Knee Presentations — Presentations of the Superior Extremities — Compound 
Presentations— Plural Births — Monsters — Prolapsed Cord — Retained Placenta— Hem- 
orrhage Convulsions — Puerperal Mania— Lacerations 483-49'J 

Appendix.— The oi y of Conception 493-491 



Before the prevailing medical practice can be revolutionized, and a 
system introduced at variance with established usages — in direct antag- 
onism with the general habits, customs, education, and prejudices of 
the people ; in utter contempt of the teachings and practices of great 
and venerable names, and opposed to the pride, interest, reputation, 
and even conscientious convictions of a learned, honorable, and influen- 
tial profession — the intelligent portion of the community will demand 
reasons the most profound and evidences the most conclusive, while the 
illiterate will require an accumulation of facts and details absolutely 

The philosophy of life and health, the laws of the human organism, 
and its relations to surrounding nature, have been, in my judgment, al- 
ready sufficiently demonstrated to satisfy the intellectual mind of the 
former class, and their application to the preservation of health and 
cure of disease amply demonstrated by actual experiment for the ex- 
ercise of the faith of the latter class. All that seems necessary now, 
in order to achieve that great reform in human society, which shall 
restore to the individuals who compose it " sound minds in sound bo- 
dies," and that exalted state of happiness which human nature is sus- 
ceptible of, even in this world, is, to commend these great truths to the 
thoughts and feelings of human beings in such a manner that they 
shall be exemplified in their live.3. 

A short sketch of the origin and progress of what is called medical 
science will exhibit the baseless fabric we are laboring to demolish ; and 
a brief review of the histoiy of bathing, as it has been employed rem- 
edially in all ages of the world, will prove that the Water-Cure, though 
in its infancy as a system of the healing art, has had, in all its essentia 
particulars, the sanction of the most learned men of all professions in 


all ages. These topics, therefore, present themselves as forming a 
pertinent introduction to this work. 

Many of the historical data relative to these subjects are collected 
from Bostock's History of Medicine, and Bell's work on Baths and the 
Water Regimen. In the application and generalization of these data, 
and in relation to the principles to which they refer, I have, however, 
differed often and widely from these authors 


Writers generally agree that medicine first became a profession 
among the Egyptians. Its origin, however, is involved in fabulous and 
impenetrable obscurity. In Egypt and in most of the earlier nations 
the priests were the practitioners of the healing art ; and unfortunate 
was it for the human race when medicine was "elevated to the dignity 
of a distinct profession." To me the priest appears to be the proper 
person to teach the body as well as the soul " the straight and narrow 
way." The functions of mind and body are so intimately related, all 
the powers of the one and organs of the other constantly acting and 
reacting on each other, that I cannot imagine how it is possible for the 
spiritual or physiological teacher to do full justice to man in either re- 
lation of his existence without understanding the laws of both. Nay, 
I would have the same person exercise the function of priest, doctor, 
lawyer, and schoolmaster; and that individual who can present to his 
fellow-creatures the most harmonious whole of a human being— who 
can best teach in theory, and most faithfully exemplify in practice, the 
laws of being in his moral, physiological, legal, and social relations, 
should belong to the learned profession and be a leader among men. 

The Earliest Ancient Physicians. — The Egyptian priests prac- 
ticed the healing art by means of magical incantations, which, of 
course, produced their good or bad impressions through the medium 
of the imagination, the efficacy of their prescriptions bearing a pretty 
exact ratio to the superstition and credulity of their patients. The 
medical practice of the Assyrian priests consisted mainly of magical 
arts, while the actual learning they possessed was carefully concealed 
in a mystical technicality. Among the early Jews the priests, who 
were the physicians also, treated the leprosy and other diseases with 
various ceremonies to affect the imagination, at the same time enforc- 
ing judicious regulations to avoid the sources of contagion, and promote 
personal cleanliness 

Thk Early Grecian Physicians — In Greece the genius of Hip- 


pocrates first caused medicine to be regarded as a science, though 
Chiron, who lived about 1300 B.C., is accredited for having introduced 
the healing ait to his countrymen. iEsculapius, a pupil of Chiron, is 
considered the first person who made medicine an exclusive study and 
practice. His sons, Machaon and Fodalirius, are celebrated in Ho- 
mer's Iliad for their medical skill, though, as they were employed 
principally as surgeons in the Greek armies, their medication was 
doubtless mostly confined to crude yet simple methods of dressing 
wounds and recent injuries, which were exceedingly common in that 
warlike age. The descendants of iEsculapius, called Asclepiadce, were 
the priests of the temples ; and the temples were the hospitals to which 
the sick were brought, where the priests performed numerous imposing 
ceremonies to inspire confidence, and gave various directions conducive 
to temperance, cleanliness, and simplicity of diet. The temples were 
located in the most salubrious places, and in them frequent ablutions 
were recommended for the sick ; these were, no doubt, the real cura- 
tive agencies. 

We have no knowledge that iEsculapius, or his immediate successors, 
ever conceived the idea of curing diseases by drugs administered inter- 
nally. Ablutions, bandages, fomentations, ointments, mechanical sup- 
port, and the application of balsamic and astringent herbs, with the 
occasional use of wine or other stimulating substances, constituted their 
whole and their ample materia medica ; and these were all employed 

The Dogmatic a*d the Empirical Physicians. — For several 
centuries succeeding the age of iEsculapius and his sons, we have no 
records that medicine made the least progress. Numerous temples 
were erected in honor of iEsculapius, who was deified as the god of 
medicine ; and in these temples a practice obtained among the patients 
of recording on a tablet, for the benefit sf others, a statement of their 
diseases and the means by which they were relieved, thus converting 
the temples into schools of medicine. But then there were men of 
superior sagacity and inordinate selfishness, who desired to turn the 
common knowledge to individual advantage. The temples of Cos and 
Gnidos became rival establishments. One assumed to be philosophical, 
by uniting reason with experience, while the other professed to be 
governed solely by facts and observations. Thus arose two medical 
sects — the Dogmatists and the Empirics, who long divided the medical 
world, and whose influence is not yet extinct, for we find at this day 
many physicians who follow wherever theory leads, regardless of facts 
or consequences ; and another set of practitioners who are morely 


routine imitators, without a particle of pretension to any rational 

Medical Philosophers. — Pythagoras, in the sixth century before 
Christ, was the pioneer of a class of scholars of general information and 
philosophical mind, who gave much attention to the investigation of the 
structures, functions, and diseases of the human body. He established 
a school at Crotona, to which students resorted from most parts of 
Greece and Italy. More than twenty years of his life were spent in 
Egypt, Chaldea, and Eastern Asia, and he prosecuted the study of 
comparative anatomy by dissecting animals. His pupils were not ex- 
clusively devoted to medical studies, but were among the men most 
celebrated for general erudition in that and in the succeeding age. 
Among the most illustrious of his followers were Democritus and Hera- 
clitus, the former being regarded as the first person who attempted the 
dissection of a human subject. Acron is mentioned by Pliny as among 
the first who undertook to apply philosophical reasoning to medicine. 
Herodicus is considered the inventor of gymnastic exercises, which the 
Greeks regarded as an important branch of the healing art. 

Hippocrates. — One of the most sagacious, observing, and indus- 
trious men that ever lived was the " Coan Sage," who has been enti- 
tled the " Father of Medicine." Hippocrates was a pupil of Herodicus, 
brought up among the Asclepiadse, in the temple of Cos. He traveled 
much in foreign countries, devoting himself to the study and practice 
of medicine with untiring energy, and his works became text-books for 
many ages ; even to this day his leading doctrines are extensively rec- 
ognized. His practice has been called a rational empiricism; in other 
words, a careful observation of facts, and a reasoning process based 
upon their consequences. His first philosophical proposition regarded 
fire as the primitive source of all matter, the four elements being a 
result of the collision and combination of its ever-moving particles ; and 
hi3 leading physiological proposition was, the existence of a general 
presiding principle of vitality for the whole body, and a special vital 
power ill each organ. If we substitute the modern term, electricity, for 
his "fire," and the modern phrases, organic sensibility, and special . 
centre of organic perception, for what he calls "nature" and "power," 
we shall very nearly harmonize his ideas with those entertained by 
some of the ablest living physiologists. His doctrine that the fluids 
were the primary seat of disease was never disputed, save, by some 
small factions of medical men, until about the commencement of the 
eighteenth century; and even now it has at least as many advocates as 


opponents. In his system the combinations of the four elements of fire, 
air, earth, and water, with their four qualities of hot, cold, moist, and dry, 
gave rise to the four humors of the body, blood, phlegm, bile, and black- 
bile, which originally tended to produce the four temperaments, and 
which in their turn contributed to the excess or defect of each of the 
humors. These speculations, crude and fanciful as they may be, at least 
indicate a powerful tendency in the mind to analyze and systematize. 

The doctrine of crises originated with Hippocrates. He noticed 
that fevers evinced a tendency to terminate on particular days, which 
he called critical ; and he observed that there is a tendency in all dis- 
eases to a cure by some eruption or evacuation. His practice was 
consistently founded on the indications presented by these phenomena. 
Modern physicians have been most unfortunate in overlooking or disre- 
garding these fundamental truths, which happily are now being re- 
established by the water-treatment. His materia medica was derived 
wholly from the vegetable kingdom, the horrid chemicals, metallic salts 
and oxides, acids, and spirituous compounds, which have since "demon- 
strated the efficiency of our arms," in killing pain and patients, being 
then unknown. Purgatives, sudorifics, diuretics, and injections were 
his principal internal lemedies, while externally he employed bleeding, 
issues, ointments, plasters, and liniments. The following extract from 
Bostock shows a remarkable congruity between the leading practical 
idea of Hippocrates, and the doctrine universallv acted upon by 
hydropathic practitioners : 

"The great principle which directed all his operations was the 
supposed operation of ' nature,' in superintending and regulating all the 
actions of the system. The chief business of the physician is to watch 
these operations, to promote or suppress them according to circum- 
stances, and perhaps, in some rare cases, to attempt to counteract them. 
The tendency of this mode of practice would be to produce extreme 
caution, or rather inertness, on the part of the practitioner, and we 
accordingly find that Hippocrates seldom attempted to cut short any 
morbid action, or to remove it by any decisive or vigorous treatment. 
Considering the state of knowledge on all subjects when he lived, it 
must be admitted that this plan of proceeding was much more salutary 
than the opposite extreme, and that it had likewise the good effect of 
enabling the practitioner to make himself better acquainted with the 
phenomena of the disease, and, by observing the unaided efforts of 
nature, to form his indications with more correctness, and to determine 
to what object he ought more particularly to direct his attention." 

It must be admitted that the bleedings, active purgatives, the sweat- 
ings and diuretics of tha Hippocratean practice were inert compared 


with the more profuse bleedings of the moderns, and their hundreds 
of mineral poisons; but the constantly accumulating number of chronic 
diseases, and the greater fatality of acute, certainly favor the idea 
that our modern JEsculapians, though much more powerful doctors, are 
much less successful ones. 

The First "Irregular" Physician. — Subsequent to the age of 
Hippocrates, medicine remained stationary for several centuries. His 
sons, Thessalus and Draco, his son-in-law Polybus, Diodes of Carystus, 
and Praxagoras of Cos, are the only names distinguished among his 
immediate successors. One of their contemporaries was a Dr. Chrysip- 
pus, who opposed bleeding and the employment of active purgatives ; 
he was, however, regarded as a sort of "irregular," who did not pay 
due deference to the authority of great names. 

Plato and Aristotle, like most of the ancient Greek philosophers, 
were conversant with the medical doctrines of their day, though not 
practicing physicians. The latter published the first works on anatomy 
and physiology, and all his writings, though full of refined vagaries, held 
a strong influence over the public mind for many centuries after his 
death. v 

The Alexandrian School. — The Ptolemies founded a medicai 
school at Alexandria about 300 b.c The most famous of its professors 
were Erasistratus and Herophilus, who dissected bodies of criminals 
obtained of government. Erasistratus, having been a pupil of Chrysip- 
pus, adopted his opinions against bleeding and violent remedies, profess- 
ing to trust nature more and art less. Herophilus paid particular 
attention to the action of the heart, and was the first to give any thing 
like an accurate description of the various kinds of pulse^ 

Soon after the institution of the Alexandrian school a division of 
medical men occurred, by which the practice of physicians proper, or 
dietetics, and druggists, and surgeons, became distinct vocations ; and 
not long after this event the great schism occurred which divided 
medical men into two sects, the Dogmatists and Empirics, already 
mentioned. All the medical men of the day, and for several succeed- 
ing ages, were attached to one or the other of these rival parties. 

The Regulars Banished from Rome. — After the decline of 
Grecian literature, medicine, as a distinct pursuit, made no progress 
for a long time. During the warlike days of Rome, she was, for six 
hundred years, without a physician who made the healing art a pro- 
fession. The superstitions and •eromonios of the Greeks were trans- 


oorted to Rome, and plagues and other epidemics were attempted to 
be stayed by such rites as would propitiate the offended deities. PJiny 
states that about two hundred years before the Christian era, the first 
regular physician, by the name of Arcagathus, established himself as a 
practitioner at Rome. He was received at first by the people with 
respect and even reverence, but so severe was his practice, and so un- 
successful its results, that disgust succeeded admiration, and caused the 
citizens to prohibit the practice by law, and banish its professors from 
the land. 

About a century after, Asclepiades, of Bithynia, a pupil of Epicurus, 
went to Rome as a teacher of rhetoric. Being unsuccessful, he turned 
his attention to medicine, by which he acquired great popularity. His 
practice was very mild and cautious, and as he denounced with vehe- 
mence the harsh measures of some of his predecessors, he was then 
regarded by his contemporaries, and is now by medical historians, as a 
sort of irregular, or quack. He was the first to arrange diseases into 
the classes of acute and chronic. His pupil, Themison, of Laodicea, 
founded a third medical sect, called the Methodic, who adopted a kind 
of eclectic system, combining parts of the systems of the Dogmatists 
and Empirics. Like his master, his philosophical notions were mainly 
derived from Epicurus. Diseases he referred to states of contraction 
and relaxation, and remedies were divided into two classes, astringents 
and relaxants. The Methodic theory regards the soli-ds as the primary 
seat of disease, thus opposing directly the Hippocratic doctrine, or 
humoral pathology. 

The First Heroic Practitioner. — The next individual of note 
whose discoveries or vagaries have had an important bearing on medical 
practice was Thessalus, who lived half a century later than Themison. 
By pompous pretensions, swelling self-sufficiency, and abundant cun- 
ning, he acquired great reputation and wealth ; he treated all his pre- 
decessors and contemporaries with the utmost contempt, and even took 
to himself the modest title of the Conqueror of Physicians. He intro- 
duced a new method of medical treatment, called metasynocrisis, which, 
unhappily for mankind, has been too much followed by the medical 
world. It consisted in producing an entire change in the state of the body, 
instead of merely regulating, correcting, and removing morbid actions and 
symptoms after the Hippocratic plan. It may possibly startle the non- 
medical reader to be informed that a principle so manifestly absurd, 
and promulgated by its author ar fabricator for no other purpose than 
to get gold and fame, was generally adopted by subsequent medical 
writers, and is now the principal corraer-stone of orthodox medical 


practice. Until the advent of Thessnlus, the physicians were content 
to study the indications of nature, aid and assist her efforts, and remove 
obstacles in her way. Since his time faith in the integrity of nature 
has steadily declined, and reliance on the power of art as steadily ad- 
vanced, until we behold a body of learned professors of the healing 
art sending the most deadly and destructive agents to ravage within 
the domain of vitality, heedless of, or faithless to, the great truth that 
nature, and nature alone, is the true physician. 

Soranus and C. Aurelianus are the next Roman physicians of celeb- 
rity. They were strict Methodics, and their writings did much to 
dvance the particular notions which they had imbibed ; their remedial 
measures were, how&ver, very mild, and hence generally successful. 
But it is worthy of especial remark, as evidence of the powerful influ- 
ence of a preconceived theory over the exercise of judgment, that 
modern writers, who have generally adopted the heroic notions of 
Thessalus, condemn the practice of these Methodics for its want of 
vigor and promptness. Its success was no argument in its favor so long 
as it wanted power ! Abstinence, the bath, frictions, and external ap- 
plications were their leading remedial measures. Topical bleeding was 
also employed, though general blood-letting was rarely resorted to ; 
narcotics and oleaginous applications were frequently used, and great 
attention paid to pure air ; sometimes a moist air was enjoined. 

The Pneumatics and Eclectics. — During the first two centuries 
of the Christian era the Methodic sect prevailed, yet the peculiar 
speculations of different individuals were gradually introduced, causing 
at length the formation of several subdivisions, or new sects, of medical 
practitioners, the most prominent of which were the Pneumatics and 
the Eclectics, or Episynthetics. Pneumatology and eclecticism are not 
therefore quite as modern notions as many have supposed. 

The Pneumatics evidently had a glimpse of the true idea of vitality, 
yet were incapable of expressing it rationally. They taught that the 
human body was composed of solids, fluids, and spirits. Their ideas 
of the spiritual agency in the production and cure of disease were 
strikingly analogous to the modern doctrine of the nervous influence. 
The most eminent writer of this sect was Aretaeus. His practice was 
more active and less expectant than that of the Methodics. 

The most celebrated of the Eclectics was Archigenes, of Appamea, 
who practiced at Rome in the time of Trajan. His writings are ex- 
tremely obscure and chimerical, yet he acquired great popularity and 
influence ; perhaps he is as much indebted to the unintelligible charac 
ter of his works as to any other circumstance for his famt>. 

H I S I P. y C ■ f M E D I C I N E. 17 

Celsus is the first native Roman physician of whom we have any 
account. He wrote several books on medicine, which show that sur- 
gery and pharmacy had made considerable progress. It is difficult to 
class him with either of the seers of his day ; in practice he pursued 
mainly the method of the Asclepiades. His origin, or the age in which 
he lived, are not precisely known, though it is conjectured that he lived 
in the reigns of Augustus and Tiberius. 

The First Pharmacopeia. — In the reigns of Claudius and Nero a 
class of writers became famous by then - pharmaceutical preparations. 
The most notorious among them were Scribonius Largus, who made a 
book of nostrums and indiscriminate formulae, and Andromachus, who 
compounded a medicamentum of sixty-one ingredients. It was called 
the theriaca, and its most essential constituent, from which its name 
was derived, was the dried flesh of vipers ! This preparation has 
since been recommended, by regular physicians, for almost every 
known disease, and was even retained in the pharmacopoeias of the 
schools until the beginning of the present century. In fact, the cod- 
liver oil of this day has not been a greater hobby with modern physi- 
cians, than with the ancients was the viperous compound of Androma- 
chus, who, for his marvelous learning and skill in mixing together the 
most incongruous articles in the. most nonsensical manner, was honored 
with the title of Archiator, or Principal Physician — a title bestowed by 
the Roman emperors, and continued for several centuries. 

Pliny, though not practically a medical man, was, nevertheless, fa- 
miliar with all that was taught on the subject in his time. He repre- 
sents the prevailing practice as essentially empirical, consisting of va- 
rious vegetable and animal mixtures, administered with scarcely any 
inquiry whatever into their mode of operation. 

Dioscorides was a distinguished author at the same period. An 
elaborate treatise which he wrote on materia, medica was the standard 
production for many ages subsequently. It contains descriptions of all 
articles then employed in medicine, with an account of their supposed 
virtues, much more curious, however, than useful. 

Galen. — -The name and history of Galen are more familiar to 
modern practitioners of the healing art than are any other ancient 
physicians. Thoroughly educated in all the schools of philosophy, he 
selected from them all, except the Epicurean, which he totally rejected. 
He was a native of Pergamus, b it, after traveling extensively, at the 
request of the Emperor Aurelius, settled in Rome. His works num- 
ber nearly two hundred treatises on all subjects directly or remotely 


connected with medicine. In the formation of opinions he was entirely- 
independent, paying very little respect to authority ; and so great was 
the reputation he acquired for learning, skill, and wisdom, that his 
opinions were regarded by many as oracles. In theory he was with 
the Dogmatists, and in practice he professed to venerate and act upon 
the principles of Hippocrates. 

In Galen's time the Roman empire began to decline ; and the gene- 
ral decay of science and literature in the middle ages succeeding, has 
left little to record in the shape of innovation. Sprenzel has pithily- 
characterized the medical writers of the third and fourth centuries as 
"frigid compilers, or blind empirics, or feeble imitators of the physician 
of Pergamus." Oribasius, who lived in the fourth century, Aetius in 
the fifth, and Alexander Trallianus and Paulus iEgina in the sixth, 
wrote books which professed but little more than to be compilations of, 
and commentaries on, the works of Galen 

The Arabian School. — With the death of Paulus, about the mid- 
dle of the seventh century, terminated the Greek school of medicine. 
The Arabians, who conquered a large portion of the semi-civilized 
world, destroyed the immense Alexandrian library, yet the Arabian phy- 
sicians had adopted the opinions of Galen, and followed his practice im- 
plicitly. But a new school soon arose among them, owing to the inven- 
tion of chemistry, and its beiug made subservient to medicine. One* of 
the most celebrated Arabian physicians was Rhazes, born at Irak, in 
Persia, in the ninth century. His writings, though mostly comments 
on Galen and the Greek physicians, contain an original and elaborate 
treatise on the theory and treatment of small-pox and measles. In his 
writings on surgery and pharmacy are found indications of the em- 
ployment of chemical remedies, which formed so important and so dis- 
astrous an era in medical history soon after. 

After Rhazes flourished Ali Abbas, a physician and writer, who ob- 
tained the title of magician ; and about a century later appeared on the 
stage Avicenna, who acquired a reputation among his countrymen not 
inferior to that of Galen. He was born at Bokhara, a.d. 980, and was 
carefully educated in the schools of Bagdat, His published works were 
numerous, and his " Canon Medieinne," a kind of encyclopaedia of ex- 
isting medical sciences, was the text-book in most of the Arabian, and 
even European, schools for several centuries. 

Mesue the elder, Mesue the younger, and Albucasis were among 
the last Arabians of distinction who wrote much on medical subjects. 
Avenzoar, and his pupil Averroes, natives of Spain, wrote voluminously 


in the Arabic language, and enjoyed great celebrity, but their works 
have added nothing substantial to those of their predecessors. 

With Averroes terminated the Arabic or Saracenic school of medi- 
cine, the great reputation of which is mainly owing to the circumstance 
that, from the eighth to the twelfth centuries, when all Europe was 
sunk in deep barbarism, the principal remains of a taste for literature 
and science existed among the Moors and Arabs. Medical historians 
give the Arabians credit for having added manj' vegetable products, 
and a few metallic salts and oxides, to the catalogue of remedies. The 
spirit of the age, then, among those eminent in the profession — not un- 
like the spirit of the present day — was that of emulation in writing the 
greatest number of books, and finding out new substances which could 
be taken into the stomach and applied externally, and called medicines. 
The intelligent reader will not fail to perceive that thus far, in medical 
history, the merit of successful practice, amid all the conflicting notions 
that have by turns prevailed, is fairly attributable to hygienic regula- 
tions, particularly as regards diet and bathing ; while the necromancy 
and the dragging may be regarded as having been accidentally useful 
or injurious, according to circumstances. This principle, which is the 
true key to the interpretation of medical testimony, will become more 
and more apparent as we proceed. 

TflE Monks and Alchemists. — From the twelfth to the fifteenth 
centuries the practice of medicine, in those countries best known to 
us, was principally in the hands of the monks, whose healing resources 
were mainly drawn from magical arts and astrological superstitions. 
The mystery of this system enabled the practitioners to acquire an un- 
bounded influence over the ignorant masses. Chemistry, or, rather, 
alchemy, was then prosecuted with much ardor, with the view of 
discovering a method of transmuting the baser metals into gold, and of 
preparing a universal medicine — conceits which seem to have been very 
generally entertained by the learned of that period ; and the pursuit of 
them led to many experiments and the introduction of many chemical 
preparations into the materia medica, and, indeed, laid the foundation 
of the mineral drug system of the present day. Most of the alche- 
mists and medical pretenders were knaves of the lowest character, or 
dupes of the most marvelous credulity, and a few were, according to 
Bostock, " compounds of knavery and folly." 

The only medical schools of any ncte were the Neapolitan, of 
Monte-Cassino and of Salerno. The latter, which was the first to 
grant diplomas, maintained some reputation until eclipsed by those of 
Bologna and Paris, in the thirteenth ofinlury. About this time anatomy 

20 I N T E D U C T I O A T . 

was attentively studied by dissections. The first English physician 
of note was Anglicanus, who published a work in the early part of the 
fourteenth century, entitled, "Medicime Compendium," made up of 
trifling disquisitions on insignificant topics. 

The European feudal system now began to be shaken by the cru- 
sades ; Constantinople was captured by Mahomet the Second, about 
the middle of the fifteenth century ; about thirty years after the ruin 
of the Byzantine empire the Reformation occurred ; and about the 
same period the art of printing was invented ; all of which events 
tended to give a powerful impulse to the world of mind, and re-awaken 
investigation in all the departments of science, literature, and the aits. 
Still, the great body of medical writers, for want of philosophical prem 
ises by which to direct scientific researches, and in utter destitution of 
all ascertained principles to which they could refer the facts developed 
by anatomical, pathological, and chemical knowledge, busied themselves 
in collecting, arranging, republishing, expounding, and commenting on 
the multitudinous works of Hippocrates and Galen. Their labors only 
tended to multiply books already too numerous, and mystify ideas al- 
ready too confused. 

The alchemic art was at length transferred from Arabia into the Eu- 
ropean countries, where it was pursued with as much assiduity as by 
the Arabs themselves. Medical chairs were established in various 
universities in Europe during the thirteenth century ; medical lectures 
were given in the universities of Vienna and Paris, and schools were 
established in Padua, Pavia, Milan, Rome, and Naples. Linacre, who 
was educated at Oxford, spent some time in Italy and at the court of 
Florence, and on returning to England succeeded in establishing medi- 
cal professorships at Oxford and Cambridge, and laid the foundation of 
the London College of Physicians. 

The Chemical Physicians. — The next important event in medical 
history was the formation of the chemical sect. Chemistry, after hav- 
ing been employed in various pharmaceutical processes, was applied to 
physiology, pathology, and therapeutics; hence the origin of chemical 
doctors. The chemical physicians advanced their theories, which were 
as wild and extravagant as any preceding ones, with great boldness and 
assurance, and for a long time the Galenists and Chemists were the 
rival sects of the medical world. But the Galenists had an ever-pres- 
ent champion in the veiy name of Galen, who may well be called the 
Prince of Medical Philosophers. He was a philosopher — a natural, 
philosopher; for he studied nature closely, deeply, profoundly, and de- 
duced his principal indications of cure from an accurate observation of 


her laws. But his system was destined to be overthrown by an ad- 
venturous vagrant, who, in all the mental, moral, and physical elements 
and proportions of a complete and thorough quack, never had his 
equal on earth. 

The Prince of Empirics. — And now appeared upon the stage of 
action an individual — Paracelsus by name — whom the whole medical 
world denounces as a base, impudent, and unprincipled charlatan, yet 
to whom the same medical world is more indebted for the present 
fstem of allopathic drugging than to all other physicians who have 
ever lived. It is to him that we owe the introduction of the nntimonial 
and mercurial practice which constitutes the great strength of the 
popular materia medica, and, I may add, its terribly devastating power 
on human constitutions. 

Aureolus Phillippus Paracelsus Theophrastus Bombast de Hohen- 
heim, as he delighted to style himself, was born at Enseidlen, in Switzer- 
land, in 1493. His father, who was a physician, took great pains in 
his education, and he became a proficient in physic and surgery ; but 
becoming charmed with the study of alchemy, his father committed 
him to the instructions of Trithemius, abbot of Spanheim, who was 
renowned for knowledge in the secrets of alchemic art. 

Paracelsus, by bold pretensions, and a few lucky adventures in the 
field .of medical practice, became celebrated among the learned of his 
day, and was made a medical professor in Basil, in 1527, where he re- 
ceived for a short time a large salary. In the " pride, pomp, and cir- 
cumstance" of this honored position, he burned, with great solemnity, 
the works of Galen and Avicenna, declaring to the astonished and 
probably admiring multitude that, as he had found the philosopher's 
stone, mankind had no further use for the medical works of others. 

It is recorded of Paracelsus that he performed some great cures. It 
is certain that some of his great cures were the exact prototypes of 
many great cures performed daily among us at the present time, and 
not very much to the advantage of the patients. For example, he cured 
the celebrated printer of Basil, Jerohemns, of a pain in the heel, after 
" every thing else had been tried in vain." There is, however, a 
qualification of the story. The treatment moved the pain from the 
heel to the toes, which became entirely stiffened, and although the 
patient had no more pain, he soon died of apoplexy ■ 

How far a certain accident had to do with his singularly erratic and 
profligate life, is worthy of a passing thought. In early childhood he 
was made a eunuch from an unfortunate mutilation by a sow, and as he 
grew up he became a perfect ha^er of womankind, while a love of 


mere notoriety seemed to have become the passion by which he was 

His principal doctrine, that the human body is composed of the three 
elements of salt, sulphur, and mercury, was stolen from the writings 
of Valentine, and his principal remedies in all diseases were mercury, 
antimony, and opium. If the reader fail to discover any relation be- 
tween such theory and such practice, he is in no worse predicament 
than he will find himself, in most cases, if he attempt to trace the con- 
nection between most of the medical theories and practices in this more 
enlightened day. 

The medical life of Paracelsus may be stated in few words. He 
surreptitiously appropriated another man's invention as his own, prac- 
ticed the vilest arts of charlatanry, assumed the most pompous titles, 
proclaimed that he had discovered a universal panacea, the long-sought 
elixir vita, by which life could be prolonged to an indefinite period, 
lived a dissipated vagabond, and died prematurely at the age of forty- 

The Regular and Irregular Controversy. — Although Para- 
celsus introduced a new era in medical practice, and had, like most 
other noted characters of lofty-sounding pretensions and brazen-faced 
impudence, abundance of followers, still many of the "old-school" 
physicians held out against the innovations of his disciples. Thus 
originated a contest between the Galenists and Chemists, which was 
prolonged through the sixteenth century. The Galenists were the 
regulars, and the Chemists were the empirics, of that period The 
former dealt out prodigiously multitudinous compounds, and the latter 
made a bold stand with fewer but much more potent agents, while 
each sect accused the other of killing their patients, I fear with too 
much truth. The Paracelsian doctors ultimately triumphed, and, as a 
singularly striking exemplification of the strange inconsistency between 
the fancies and facts of misnamed medical science, it may be told that 
the medical world lias long since repudiated every vestige of the arts, 
pretensions, and doctrines of Paracelsus and his apostles, yet retained, 
imitated, and greatly extended then- practice ; for, notwithstanding 
modern chemists have added several hundreds of other chemical 
preparations to the materia medica of the great Quicksilver Quack, 
there is hardly a disease in the catalogue of human ailments in which 
the employment of mercury, antimony, and opium is not recommended 
by the standard authors and living teachers of the drug system. 

The Anatomical Physici/ > -..—While the discussions between 


the contending parties just noticed were gradually extending the influ- 
ence of the empirical practitioners, and circumscribing that of their 
adversaries, the science of anatomy began to be more accurately culti- 
vated, which circumstance gave rise to a sect of physicians called the 
Anatomists. Vesalius, about the middle of the sixteenth century, 
prosecuted this department of knowledge with unwearied assiduity. 
He was followed by Eustachius and Fallopius, who acquired great 
reputation for anatomical skill. The anatomical physicians, however, 
did not introduce any thing original in relation to the theory or the 
practice of medicine. They were divided concerning the opinions of 
Galen, and may be subdivided into his defenders and his opposers ; be- 
tween these sub-sects long and acrimonious discussions occurred, not 
concerning what was true or what was false, but whether the notions 
of Galen were right or wrong. 

Revival of the Hipfocratean Doctrine. — During the seven- 
teenth century the doctrines of Hippocrates again became the prevail- 
ing medical philosophy. Anatomy made rapid progress ; Harvey dis- 
covered the circulation of the blood ; Asselli, Rudbeck, and Bartholine 
traced out the absorbent system ; and Malpighi, Hooke, and others, 
explained the structure and functions of the lungs. Boyle disengaged 
chemistry from the mystery by which it was surrounded, and explained 
its true province to be, not the manufacture of solid gold, nor liquid 
nostrums, nor gaseous theories, but " an investigation into the change 
of properties which bodies experience in their actions upon each other." 

Still the chemical physicians kept up the popularity of their practice 
by mixing with it not a little of the magical ceremonies and astrological 
pretensions so rife a few centuries before. Some of them acquired 
extraordinary popularity, and many of them, particularly in England, 
become apparently sincere fanatics to their own system. Among these 
were Fludd, who manifested implicit faith in astrology, Kenelm Digby, 
a man of rank and refined education, who published an account of the 
mystical virtues of the "sympathetic powder;" and Valentine Greatrix, 
who cured all diseases by the imposition of the hand. "These circum- 
stances," says Bostock, "are interesting, not merely as forming a part 
of the history of medicine, but as displaying a singular feature in the 
history of the human mind ; demonstrating the difficulty which exists 
in eradicating from it errors and follies, even the most gross and palpa- 
ble, when they have once become deeply rooted." 

Although the discoveries allude*d to in anatomy had turned the atten- 
tion of medical men more to vital actions, as affording a better explication 
of the phenomena of disease than chemical changes, and had generally 


restored the humoral pathology of Hippocrates, the practice of medi- 
cine did not undergo a corresponding change. The Anatomists were 
anxious of course to have their pharmacopoeia include " all the modern 
improvements," hence they pursued a mixed or compound practice, by 
adding the mercury, antimony, and opium of Paracelsus, and other 
drugs of more recent production, to the bleeding, purging, sweating, 
etc., of the earlier physicians. In fact, they incorporated nearly all 
that was known of a poisonous or destructive nature among their 
therapeutical agents, and omitted nearly all that was really worth pre- 
serving — attention to diet, regimen, bathing, cleanliness, etc. 

The Fermentationists. — Another sect of physicians now arose, 
or, rather, a branch of the Chemists, who attempted to blend the 
crude chemistry of the day, and the cruder physiology, into a com- 
pound philosophical system. The leading doctrine adopted by this 
sect was, that certain fermentations in the blood, and other fluids, were 
the causes of the different states of health and disease ; certain hu- 
mors were acid ; Gthers alkaline ; and, as one or the other predomi- 
nated, a corresponding specific disease was the result. Thus fever 
was an acidulous disease, requiring alkaline remedies, etc. This notion 
was eloquently advocated by Sylvius, who filled the medical chair at 
Leyden, and became the fashionable doctrine in France nnd Germany 
for a considerable time. Willis, of England, was also an able defender 
of the chemical doctrines ; he published a work in 1759 on fermenta- 
tion and fever, wherein he attempted to prove that every organ in the 
body had its own peculiar fermentation, a morbid state of which con- 
stituted disease. 

Sydenham, who has been called the English Hippocrates, agreed 
with Willis in the theory of chemical fermentation, but adopted the 
Hippocratic doctrine, that the primary changes in disease take place in 
the fluids instead of the solids. He also agreed with Hippocrates that 
disease was an effort of nature to get rid of noxious matters, and, like 
his great prototype, adapted his remedial agencies mainly to the regu- 
lation of the actions of the system. Though his practice has been 
called feeble and inert, it would be difficult to name an equally success- 
ful physician among the bolder practitioners who have wielded more 
potent drugs since his day. 

Notwithstanding numerous discoveries had been made, and many 
facts accumulated up to this date in chemistry, anatomy, and physi- 
ology, it is at least questionable whether any more rational views were 
entertained of the true nature of disease than were advanced by Hip 
pocrates nearly three thousand years before ; nnd it is positively certain 


hat none among the most eminent of the new schools or sects of more 
modern date, have been more successful in curing diseases than were 
Hippocrates, Galen, and Sydenham. 

The Mathematical Physicians. — Mathematical science having 
made considerable progress during the latter part of the sixteenth 
century, the medical theorizers of the day seized upon its facts to 
effect another doctrinal revolution ; hence arose a sect whose members 
composed the Mathematical school. Borelli, a profound mathematician, 
undertook to explain certain functions of the body on mechanical 
principles ; and his pupil, Bellini, maintained that all the actions of the 
:ody were under the influence of gravity and impulse, and that all the 
vital functions could be elucidated by an application of the principles of 
hydraulics and hydrostatics. The new hypothesis soon ranked among 
its converts many of the most learned men of the age, and the Mathe- 
matical physicians became formidable rivals to the Chemical. The 
phenomena of disease were accounted for by, or, rather, referred to, 
the mechanical terms of derivation, lentor, obstruction, friction, resolu- 
tion, etc. ; but, as has been the case in most instances from the creation 
of the world to a.d. 1851, the practice had little or no relation to the 
theory. Diseases were treated by the Mathematical physicians with 
the remedies of the Chemists and Galenists. Indeed, the practical 
part of medicine was regarded then, as it had been long before and 
has been long since, of secondary importance to the theory. The 
minds of medical men were -mainly devoted to theoretical speculations, 
and vastly more talent was wasted in endeavoring to establish and pro- 
mulgate favorite dogmas, of no earthly use, except to render the au- 
thors of them famous, than was expended in investigating truth or 
curing diseases. 

The Vitalists. — The next medical sect in order was the Vitalists. 
It originated with Van Helmont, and finally triumphed over both the 
Chemical and Mathematical sects. Van Helmont at first belonged to 
the Chemical school ; but to its doctrines ho added the idea of a specific 
agent residing in, or attached to, the system, which controls its own 
spontaneous actions, and also the actions of remedial agents. This 
conception was doubtless the ideal germ of the vital principle of later 
physiologists, and the vis medicatrix naturee of the present day ; nor is 
it radically different from the idea of the efforts of nature'as enter- 
tained by Hippocrates. 

Van Helmont proposed nothing new in the way of curing diseases, 
contenting himself with mere matters of opinion ; and the communi- 


cation of his doctrines did not allay the wordy warfare still waged be- 
tween the Chemists and Mathematicians, until it was revived and re- 
fined by the genius and energy of the next successful adventurer in 
the field of medical theory. 

This was Stahl, who was born at Anspach, in 1660. He undoubt- 
edly saw the sad deficiencies and gross errors in the prevailing theories, 
and, perceiving that neither chemical nor mechanical reasoning, nor 
both, could ever explain the phenomena of life, he referred vital ac- 
tions to the operation of a principle he called anitna. From a close 
observation of the influence which the mind exercises over the body, 
lie came to the conclusion that all the vital functions were produced 
and sustained by the influence of an animating and superintending 
spiritual principle. This principle prevents or repairs injuries, coun- 
teracts or removes morbific causes, and, in fact, appears to be the ag- 
gregate of what modern physiologists speak of as the organic instincts. 

But, as an exception to the general rule, the theory of Stahl did in- 
fluence his practice very considerably, for, instead of the rash and 
dangerous potencies and processes then in vogue, his views, in the lan- 
guage of an eloquent historian, "tended to repress the energy of the 
practitioner still more than the pathological doctrines of Hippocrates. 
They did, indeed, cause him to trust more to his presiding deity — the 
great physician, Nature — and less to artificial drags and destructives. 
Happy would it have been for the human race if a more inert practice 
had continued to this day, to " repress the energy of the practitioner," 
for sad experience, and the constantly accumulating catalogue of human 
ills and chronic maladies, unheard of in former days, sufficiently dem- 
onstrate that success in curing disease holds a much nearer relation 
to the inertness than to the energy of the practitioner, as far as active 
poisons are concerned. 

The doctrines of Stahl, and the extraordinary metaphysical acuteness which they were supported, had un extensive influence on medi- 
cal opinions; but about that period there were so many rival medical 
schools evolvuig new theories, each advancing their claims to notice with 
ZZ .fit! US' that * ^ impPSSiMe for «* one hypothesis to 

be generally received. 

The Solidists -Hoffman, the contemporary of Stahl, was also his 
colleague ,n the Umversity of Halle, as well as his rival, and an eou- 1 
aspnant for name and fame. He wrote voluminously, and the prinri 
pal theoret 1C al notion which he originated was a modification of Tj 
Stahlian doctrine of v.tality. I„ stea d of referring the operations of thl 
•nimal economy to an anima, he imputed them to a nervous infl^c] 


This was almost a distinction without a difference, but it served his 
purpose. The details of his practice were essentially those of the 
Chemical and Mathematical physicians, possessing no new feature 
whatever. His pathology united the notions of the Humoralists and 
Solidists, and he advanced the doctrine of tone and atony, or sjiasm 
and relaxation of the moving fibres — a doctrine which long influenced 
the writings of his successors, and which was, no doubt, derived from 
the ancient notion of constriction and relaxation. His writings are said 
to abound in inconsistencies and contradictions. 

In 1671 Glisson published a treatise, in which he advocated the doe- 
trine of muscular irritability, explaining it as a specific property attached 
to the living fibre, in opposition to the humoral pathology of Hippo- 
crates, which until this time had generally prevailed. Toward the 
close of the seventeenth ceiitury, Bagliva, an eminent medical scholar, 
systematically opposed the Hippocratic pathology, placiug all the causes 
of disease in an altered condition of the solids. These two writers 
laid the foundation for the overthrow of the humoral pathology anil 
the introduction of solidism, which has been very generally received 
by the medical profession to the present time. It is now, however, 
decidedly on the decline. 

But this revolution in theory had no perceptible effect on the prac- 
tice. Whichever hypothesis the physician adopted was the same to 
the patient. The prescriptions were alike in either event. 

The Metaphysical Physicians. — Soon after the revival of letters, 
the greatest scholars among medical men were incessantly laboring to 
apply the inductive philosophy introduced by Bacon, and found so suc- 
cessful in advancing other departments of philosophy, to the study of 
medicine as a science. How signally they failed, let the record of in 
numerable theories which have come and gone, like the changes of the 
moon, testify. This failure was not owing to a want of learning, or 
ambition, or industry, or integrity of purpose. It is attributable purely 
to the want of the true starting-point. The learned world was full of 
book-made philosophies, brain-racked theories, and closet-engendered 
metaphysics. The minds of medical authors were all more or lesa 
warped and beclouded with the speculations of their predecessors and 
teachers. There was no one of sufficient originality of intellect and 
independence of mind to ^ast off the tremendous incubus of venerated 
authority, and go directly to the truth itself for the evidence of truth — 
to ask nature to interpret her own laws. Destitute of all demonstrable 
premises upon which to predicate their investigations, and from which 
to extend their inquiries, each one seems to have conceived a hypo- 


ihesis, or detected an error, and then studied and wrote to maintain 
the one or refute the other. ,The direction of men's minds was too 
mystically metaphysical for the prosecution of true philosophical re- 
search. How few men have ever lived who had mental capacity even 
to think of a first principle ! 

Boerhaave. — No one ranks higher in the annals of modern medi- 
cal history than Boerhaave, who wm contemporaneous with Stahl and 
Hoffman. He was a professor at Leyden, and in practical judgment 
has been justly regarded as superior even to Galen. But in groping 
among the dark chimeras of his predecessors he was unable to find any 
thing more enduring than mere conjecture and gratuitous assumption 
upon which to establish a new system. He attempted, however, to 
form and fashion out of the discc -daiit materials before him a theory 
and practice which should combine the excellences of all systems, and 
be truly eclectic. But any system, embodying such conflicting opinions 
as were found in the speculations of the different schools, must neces- 
sarily contain the seeds of early dissolution ; and accordingly we find 
that the system of Boerhaave did not long survive him. His nephew, 
Kauw Boerhaave, his successor, Gaubius, and Gorter, a professor of 
Harderwyc, wrote extensively on medical subjects, but to little account, 
save to restore the vital agency in explaining the phenomena of disease, 
which Boerhaave had nearly discarded. 

Van Swieten, professor in the medical school at Vienna, was a fol- 
lower of Boerhaave, and the ablest supporter of his views. He wrote 
extensive commentaries on the multitudinous aphorisms of his prede- 
cessor, but they were of little practical value. 

Haller.— This distinguished scholar, who has been called the father 
of modern physiology, was a pupil of Boerhaave. He possessed a mind 
singularly original and comprehensive, and after long and patient re- 
search into the nature of the functional powers of the human body 
made a substantial improvement in physiological science. Disregarding 
all the authority of learned names and mere theories, he established 
the doctrine of the irritability and sensibility of the muscular and nerv- 
ous systems. His Elements of Physiology « introduced a new era int* 
medical science." His peculiar views were warmly controverted bv 
many distinguished writers, and as warmly supported by others. 

The SEMi-A™„sTS.-Whi.e Haller's doctrines were strengthened 
and confirmed by numerous experiments instituted by Z : mmermnn 
Caldani, Fonlana, Tiawt, Zinn, and Verschuir, they were powerfully 


opposed by Whytt and Porterfield, of Scotland, whose reasonings, 
however, though able and acrimonious, have been characterized as 
much more metaphysical than physiological. Whytt succeeded in 
founding a sect called the Semi-A Minists, whose principal distinctive 
tenet was a vital or sentient principle compounded of the doctrines oi 
Stahl and Haller, evidently intended c s a middle theory between the 

Sauvages, professor at Montpelier in 1734, was one of the main sup- 
porters of the Semi-Animist sect. He was the first to arrange diseases 
into classes, orders, genera, and species, constituting a methodical 
nosology. Still we have no evidence that these controversies, modifi- 
cations, revolutions, or improvements materially affected the prevailing 
method of treating diseases at the bedside. 

Cullen. — William Cullen, who was the successor of Whytt in the 
University of Edinburgh, achieved as brilliant a reputation as Haller, 
and effected as great a revolution in medical practice as Haller did iu 
physiology. In discriminating the phenomena of disease, Cullen was 
unrivaled ; and he was the first medical innovator for ages whose theory 
and practice were consistent with and strictly related to each other. 
His " First Lines of the Practice of Physic" were in fact text-books 
in our medical schools less than a quarter of a century ago. His works 
on nosology and materia medica have never been excelled in rigid 
powers of analysis and accuracy of observation, and his opinions arc 
often quoted as high authority by medical journals of the present day. 
But his carefully elaborated theories were wanting In the one thing 
needful for an enduring system — an ascertained first principle, and 
hence were destined to pass away like the baseless fabrics of a thousand 
other theoretical visions which preceded and succeeded him. No one 
now pretends to acknowledge or defend his theories, though many 
physicians, perhaps a majority, follow essentially his practice, thus 
exhibiting another of those glaring absurdities which stamp with incon- 
sistency almost every page of medical history. 

The Cullenian system of treating diseases may be resolved into a 
single indication, that of counteracting the symptoms. Thus in a fever 
he would reduce by bleeding, nitre, and other antiphlogistics, in the hot 
stage ; stimulate with bark, wine, tonics, etc., in the cold stage ; and 
obviate spasm, putrescency, etc., with narcotics, alkalies, acids, etc., in 
the intermediate or sweating stage. Nothing can be more absurd than 
such a practice in a fever which passes through all these stages once a 
day, or every other day for several weeks, for it keeps one hand con- 
tinually working against the othei It ai^ounts to nothing but treating 


temporary and ever-changing symptoms on a plan of antipathy or an- 
tagonism, without any regard to the permanent state of the constitution, 
or natural course and termination of the disease. Yet, as already inti- 
mated, it is the prevailing allopathic practice. 

It should be mentioned that Cullen recognized the self-preserving 
and self-regulating principle of vitality; but he improved on the notions 
of Stahl, Van Helmont, and Hoffman, in explaining it as an inherent 
property of organization, which he called the vis medicatrix nalurce, or 
remedial power of nature, rather than a superadded sentient principle. 

The Brunonian System. — The Cullenian school found a rival in 
the bold vagaries of what has been called the Brunonian theory, in an 
early period of its existence. A Dr. Brown, of Edinburgh, who had 
been a personal and professional friend of Cullen, became, from somo 
cause — probably spleen, jealousy, or disappointment — his bitter antago- 
nist, and a vehement opposer of his doctrines. To effect his purposes 
of ambition and opposition he advanced a new medical doctrine. He 
did not trouble himself about authorities, facts, experiences, or reasons, 
but simply assumed his principles, announced his doctrines, laid down 
his practice, supported the whole with lofty pretensions, and found 
many followers among men of learning and science, and in many med- 
ical schools whose professors adopted his doctrines. 

Brown maintained that life was a forced state, analogous to the flame 
of a candle ; that any thing which affects the living body acts as an 
excitant or stimulant upon a specific property it possesses, which he 
termed excitability. Thus defective excitement or stimulation produces 
accumulation of excitability, 01 indirect debility, while excessive stimu- 
lus produces exhausted excitability, or direct debility; and that all 
diseases are referable to one or the other of these states, requiring 
stimulating or reducing measures, as the excitability is exhausted or 
accumulated. The practice that naturally results from such a theory 
or phantasy is bleeding in one class of diseases, aad brandy in the 
olher ; and, in truth, the world is much indebted to the genius or the 
impudence of John Brown for the extensive use of alcohol and alcoholic 
mixtures in modern medical prescriptions. 

The poetical and refined Darwin deserves a passing notice here, as 
a fruitless theorist and elaborate speculator. His "Zoonomia" is cer- 
tainly a monument of genius, but destitute of any sound philosophical 
principles, and his medical notions are now universally regarded as 
purely fanciful. 

Medicine at the End of the Eighteenth Century. At the 


conclusion of the eighteenth century, L/e physicians on the continent 
of Europe generally pursued the eclectic plan of Boerhaave. Among 
the French, Lieutaud, who published in 1749 a great work called "Sy- 
nopsis Universal Praxeos Mcdicse," was the most celebrated. In Ger- 
many, De Haen published a work equal to Lieutaud's, called "Ratio 
Medendi," but he bitterly opposed all the new notions of that period, and 
warred against Haller's doctrines, and against the practice of inocula- 
tion. The most celebrated medical schools in Europe were those of 
Paris, Vienna, and Leyden. The medical schools of Italy also enjoyed 
a high reputation. Bonet and Mangel there introduced the study of 
pathological anatomy, which was followed up by Valsalva and Morgagni, 
who made extensive post-mortem examinations, and recorded the ana- 
tomical appearances of the structures. One source of error, however, 
pervaded all their observations, as it does post-mortem investigations at 
this day. It is this. Structural appearances after death denote the 
effects of disease ; and these morbid changes were and are often mis- 
taken for or confounded with the causes of disease. 

Burserius was the only theorist of any note that Italy produced at 
this time, but his works are only admired for the elegance of the lan- 
guage in which they are written. The Italians adopted the Brunonian 
system; but the fatality attending its practical application caused its utter 
abandonment, and a return to the equally irrational theory but somewhat 
less fatal practice of the Cullenian school. The Egyptian physicians 
were more disposed to prosecute anatomical and physiological re- 
searches than to form systems of any kind. 

With the progress of chemistry during the eighteenth century, many 
of the feebler articles and more complicated compounds of the pharma- 
copoeias were substituted by more simple yet more powerful metallic 
and mineral preparations and vegetable extracts — powerful in the sense 
of the strength or force of the impression, not in reference to the 
quality, or kind, or utility of that impression ; and if this was an im- 
provement in pharmacy, as medical historians usually inform us, there 
was assuredly some progress made in the dealing, if not the healing 
iu-t. It was an improvement by which apothecaries have profited to 
Lhe extent of many millions of dollars. 

Medicine in the Present Century. — The historian who care- 
fully and without prejudice surveys the present state of the medical 
profession will observe one of the strangest anomalies which the humar 
mind can contemplate. He will observe a learned profession, adorned 
with as bright a galaxy of names — scholars, philosophers, and philan- 
thropists — as any profession in any age of the world could ever boast, 


devoting themselves, with a zeal and industry worthy of all praise, to 
the study and practice of medicine, yet having no confidence at all in 
their own system, and, stranger still, wondering and complaining that 
the great masses of the people have no confidence in it ! 

Bostock has admitted that "our actual information does not increase, 
in any degree, in proportion to our experience." The solution of this 
remarkable problem will be found as> we proceed. 

Never was any department of human knowledge prosecuted wifh 
greater assiduity and energy than have been all the sciences collateral 
to the practice of physic, during the last fifty years. Anatomy, chem- 
istry, and operative surgery have, indeed, made wonderful and sub- 
stantial progress. Pathology has been greatly advanced. Physiology 
has been diligently studied, but unfortunately with little success. True, 
facts in physiology have multiplied exceedingly, and hyftotheses into 
which they have been woven have added greatly to the numerical 
strength of medical libraries ; but as far as demonstrating the laws of 
life, or increasing our means for the cure of disease, I may safely 
assert what Bostock admits, viz., "So far as the practice of "medicine 
is concerned, the benefit is rather in .anticipation than in existence." 
- In anatomy, surgery, and materia medica, Great Britain and Amer- 
ica have produced many illustrious names, among whom may be men- 
tioned Hunter, Munro, Bell, Cooper, and Pereira, of the old, and 
Wistar, Horner, Physick, Mott, Eberle, and Dunglison, of the new, 
world. In physiology, analytical chemistry, and anatomy the Ger- 
mans have taken the lead ; and pre-eminent among those who have 
acquired distinction are Camper, Blumenbach, Soemmering, Meckel, 
Tiedeman, Sprengel, Rosenmuller, Miiller, and Liebig. In pathology 
and pharmacy the French have outstripped all other nations, and the 
labors of Pinel, Andral, Breschet, Broussais, Corvisart, Cruveilhier, 
Dupuytren, and Laennec have obtained a world-wide celebrity ; while 
in physiology the French school has given us the works of Bichat, 
Cuvier, Richerand, Majendie, and others. Italy is far behind the 
other countries named, yet it has produced a few eminent medical 
scholars, among whom are -Scarpa, Mascagni, Ronaldo, and Tommasini. 

But while this tribute is due to the talents and acquirements of the 
medical philosophers of this age, it must be remembered that all their 
vast array of learning, and all their multitudinous writings, have done 
nothing toward placing the healing art on a true philosophical founda- 
tion. They have rather tended to render the confusion of ancient 
dogmas worse confounded by modern speculations. 

If a gangrenous limb is to be amputated, a rumor removed, a cancer 


excised, or a toe disjointed, Professors Mott, Parker, Dudley, Rogers, 
Detraold, etc., etc., can perform the operation with all the skill and 
judgment the case admits of. Operative surgery has well nigh reached 
perfection. If it is desirable to know in what proportion of cases in 
choleras, typhoid fevers, dysenteries, etc., there was nausea, or vomit- 
ing, or headache, or pain in the back, or chills, or rigors, or pain in the 
limbs, among the premonitory symptoms, or what precise shades of 
color and consistence the various structures manifested after death, wo 
have in the present state of pathological science nearly all the informa- 
tion we shall ever know what to do with. If we would inquire what 
particular phenomena of symptoms follow the administration of any 
given mineral preparation or vegetable drug, the materia medieas of the 
day, though extremely contradictory with each, other, give us all the 
details that can possibly be of any service. And if we would under- 
stand exactly what proportion of ultimate or proximate elements enter 
into the composition of any solid or fluid, of matter organic or inor- 
ganic, animate or inanimate, the present state of chemical science gives 
us as accurate a knowledge as can be of any advantage, so far as the 
practice of medicine is concerned. 

The reader may now naturally ask, Why has not success in treating 
diseases kept pace with the extraordinary progress of knowledge in the 
collateral medical sciences ? The answer is ready. A philosophical, 
and hence successful, practice of the healing art must be based upon 
the laws of life, the economy of vitality. The only foundation, there- 
fore, of a true medical practice is correct physiological principles; and 
here is precisely where the whole orthodox medical system of the 
present day fails — utterly and totally fails. It lias no physiological sci- 
ence upon which to practice truly the healing art. In the language of 
one of the greatest of modern physiologists, Majendie, " there is scarcely 
a sound physiological principle extant." 

When I intimate that there is no physiology in the world, I mean, 
of course, the medical world. Out of the regular profession this 
science has been more prospered. Untrammeled by the theories of 
the schools, individuals, not of the order of medical men, have, as I 
shall hereafter show, demonstrated the true science of life, and laid 
the true foundation for a. medical practice, whose most powerful rem- 
edies, so far trom being the most potent poisons known on the surface 
or dug from the bowels of the earth, are the very pgencies by which 
the whole vegetable and animal creations are developed and sustained. 

Medicine in the United States. — In no part of the world are 
Jiedical schools more numerous, medica writers more prolific, and 


medical periodicals more abundant, than in the United States. And no 
age of the world presents a medley of medical scribblers in the regular 
profession more biased and bigoted in their notions, more visionary in 
their speculations, more puerile in their theories, and more inconsist- 
ent in their practices, than is furnished by the history of the present 
state of the medical profession in this country. This is not because 
medical men in this country are not as talented as those of any other 
country, nor because medical men, as a class, are not as intelligent, 
honest, and philanthropic as men of any other class. It is simply be- 
cause there is no medical science in existence. The practice of the 
popular system is purely empirical. From establishing new systems 
and building new theories, the attention of medical men now seems 
mainly directed to the discovery of new remedies and the concentra- 
tion of old ones. The critic who will take pains to examine the stand- 
ard works of the most popular authors on theory and practice — Good, 
Watson, Wood, Thacher, Eberle, Elliotson, Dunglison, Dickson, and 
others — will find, on almost every page, the most contradictory theories 
supported by equal authority, and the most opposite practices recom- 
mended on equal testimony. Well might the celebrated Dr. Rush, of 
Philadelphia, after a life-long experience in witnessing the effects of 
drags upon the human constitution, declare to his medical brethren, 
"We have done little more than to multiply diseases and increase their 

The diligent student of medical history cannot fail to discover that 
the ancient and more ignorant practitioners were more successful in cur 
ing diseases than are the modern and wiser physicians. The reme 
dial agents of the ancients were comparatively inert and comparatively 
harmless, and, while they inspired their patients with a due degree of 
confidence and hope, by the charms and ceremonials of magic and 
mystery, they really relied on judicious hygienic regulations to " aid 
' and assist nature" in effecting the cure. Modern intelligence repudi- 
ates the arts and incantations of a less civilized age ; and in their stead 
has substituted tlie stronger potencies of modern invention, while the 
habits of living and thinking, with medical as well as with other men, 
have become so unnatural and artificial that, in managing diseases, vol- 
untary habits and hygienic agencies are almost wholly overlooked. 

The general plan pursued at the bedside of the patient, by regular 
physicians of this country, and, I believe, of all countries, is intended 
to be eclectic. While they disown all the theories that have ruled tho 
world by turns, they endeavor to preserve and incorporate in their pre- 
scriptions all the remedial means which those rejected theories have 


brought into favor. The only point of skill is to discriminate the exact 
disease, state, stage, condition, temperament, age, or other circum- 
stance, which renders this, that, or the other, or all together, the most 
advisable in the experimental prescription. The only acknowledged 
guide now is experience. But unfortunately the guide points all ways 
at the same time. There is no common agreement in the testimony 
of medical men respecting the indications of the most common diseases, 
nor the properties or operative effects of the most common articles of 
the materia medica. 

To illustrate : Bleeding has been extensively employed in typhus 
fevers for three hundred years, yet physicians are divided in opinion 
whether it is good or bad practice. Opium has been in use over two 
thousand years ; but medical men cannot agree whether it operates 
primarily as a sedative and secondarily as a stimulant, or exactly the 
contrary, primarily as a stimulant and secondarily as a sedative. Mer- 
cury has been employed more or less for about three hundred years, 
and extensively during the last fifty years ; and some authors consider 
it a tonic, others a stimulant, others a deobstruent, or alterative, others 
a sedative, and yet others an antiphlogistic. Brandy has been freely ad- 
ministered in the city of New York and elsewhere in the treatment of 
the cholera during two epidemics ; the result of the experience is, about 
half of the physicians commend it highly, and the other half condemn 
it utterly. Within the last fifty years no less than four different 
methods of treating ordinary fevers have prevailed : the bark and wines 
practice, the cold affusion practice, the bleeding and saline practice, 
and the mercurial and opium practice. In about the same period, 
some scores of specifics for some of the most formidable diseases have 
been discovered, tried, proved, and then 'aid aside, to be followed by 
others which experienced a similar rise and fall of reputation. Digitalis, 
the effluvia of cow-stables, and a preparation of nitric acid and opium, 
have been among the vaunted cures for consumption. Twenty years 
ago iodine w;is found to be a specific for scrofula; but no one now 
thinks of it save as an occasional auxiliary ; and two years ago cod- 
.iver oil was literally flooding the country under the auspices of tho 
allopathic medical journals, and the right wing of the great medical 
army, the apothecaries, as a remedy for consumption and scrofula ; but 
its brief day is already drawing to a close. 

These facts are enough to show the utter fallacy of medical experi 
ence, and the unsatisfactory nature of medical testimony, unless based 
upon some intelligible principle to which we can refer the phenomena 
they present. I cannot more appropriately conclude these remarks than 
by the following rxtraet from Bostock's history: "In modern times, 


and more remarkably in Great Britain, no one thinks of proposing a 
new mode of practice without supporting it by the results of practical 
experience. The disease exists, the remedy is prescribed, and the 
disease is removed ; we have no reason to doubt the veracity or the 
ability of the narrator ; his favorable report induces his contemporaries 
to pursue the same means of cure ; the same favorable result is obtained, 
and it appears impossible for an* fact .to be supported by more decisive 
testimony. Yet in the space of a few short years the boasted remedy 
has lost its virtue ; the disease no longer yields to its power, while its 
place is supplied by some new remedy, which, like its predecessor, 
runs through the same career of expectation, success, and disappoint- 


A complete record of the bathing customs of all nations, and of the 
remedial uses to which water has been applied by medical men, would 
furnish us with many more examples of what has been done amiss, 
than of what is worthy of imitation. Somehow or other at some time 
or other, tho idea came to possess the minds of practitioners of the 
healing art, and through them the minds of the people generally, thiit 
impure waters were more healthful for sick persons than pure. Con- 
sistently with this ridiculously absurd vagary, those springs of water which 
contain the greatest amount and variety of impurities, are the most cele- 
brated as resorts for health-seeking invalids. And this silly conceit re- 
garding the remedial influence of drugged waters has extended to their 
external as well as internal employment ; hence all manner of artificially 
medicated, mineralized, saline, alkaline, acid, oleaginous, spirituous, 
gasified, and compound baths and fumigations have found advocates in 
the ranks of the medical profession. It seems to be inconceivable to 
the book-biased minds of most regular physicians that pure water can 
dissolve and wash away the impurities of the body better than impure 
water. In their view some foreign agent, something extraneous, some- 
thing powerful must be taken or applied to destroy the morbid entity 
or counter-irritate the diseased condition, or "force a healthy action'" 
When it is considered that the solvent property of water is exactly 
proportioned to its freedom from all extraneous ingredients held in 
solution, the strange hallucination that prefers sulphur, iodine, iron, 
saline, and other unclean springs, to the pure element as it distils from' 
the clouds of heaven, for medical purposes, will have to be put down to 
the account of those things on this earth which are wholly unaccountable. 

Ancifnt BATH!v, : _Almn,t as far back as we can trace historical 


data, we fin I account? of various domestic baths. The earliest Bible 
account of bathing speaks of the daughter of Pharaoh and her attend- 
ants going down to I bo Nile. Homer speaks of the bathing habits 
of many of bis heroes'. Hercules was indebted to Minerva and Vulcan 
for the refreshing influence of warm baths. Altheaaeus informs us that 
it was the custom of antiquity for women and virgins to assist strangers 
in their ablutions. Among Oriental nations the means for bathing were 
provided as an act of hospitality for travelers. 

Both the Old and New Testaments frequently mention bathing as a 
sanatary and healing process, and as a religious rite. With all the 
ancient nations frequent ablutions or immersions were typical of moral 
purity. Moses, Jacob, Aaron, Job, as well as the more ancient patri- 
archs, enjoined and practiced bathing as a means of both bodily and 
spiritual purification. Jews, Christians, Mahometans, and Pagans have 
all agreed in one tenet, the baptism of personal cleanliness. Elisha the 
prophet directed Namaan the leper to bathe seven times in the Jordan. 
Our Saviour commanded the blind man %o wash in the pool of Silnam. 
Many of the sick were sent to the healing waters of Bethesda. The 
Greel" and Egyptian priests washed themselves in cold water several 
.imes a day. 

Bathing in thz: Middle Ages. — But in process of time, as the 
customs of societies and nations became more complicated and sensual, 
bathing degenerated almost into a means of mere luxury and sensuous 
indulgence. Though the Egyptians first reduced bathing to a systema- 
tized part of the medical practice of their day, and for ordinary purposes 
recommended cold ablutions in preference to warm baths, as the habits 
of the people became luxurious and enervating, the cold ablution for 
noalth was substituted by the warns immersion for pleasure. 

The Greeks adopted the bathing customs of the Egyptians, and at- 
tached public baths to their gymnasia; and a bathing room for guests 
was a common apartment in their private houses. Socrates, Aristotle, 
and Plato speak of baths as in common use. Hippocrates, the "father 
of medicine," recommended them for many hygienic and therapeutic 

The Spartans were in the habit of plunging their new-born infants 
'nto cold springs. The members of their adult population were cer- 
tainly fair specimens of vigorous health and powerful frames. But 
medical theorizers have explained this fact in another way. They 
assert that the practice killed all the tender children, the robust only 
being able to survive it; so that all who lived through it and grew up 
to manhood were robt st and healthy in spite of the bathing. But the 


insertion is wholly gratuitous, and, notwithstanding it is the prevailing 
opinion of the medxal faculty, there is not a particle of evidence to 
sustain it. I have seen too many children in New York city who have 
been bathed in cold water from birth, every one without exception 
becoming remarkably robust and healthy compared with non-bathed 
or warm-water-washed ones, to give the least credence to a statement 
which seems to have been made on mere theory, without any investi- 
gation at all. 

The ancient Germans were much addicted to cold bathing. The 
Gauls, the powerful progenitors of the British race, had sacred fount- 
ains, which were resorted to for the purpose of bathing and healing 
diseases; and in England many cold springs have been celebrated for 
their curative virtues. 

In the days of Roman pride and luxuriance public and private baths 
were constructed on a magnificent scale ; and the agriculturists, sol- 
diers, and laborers would frequently bathe in the Tiber. After tho 
aqueducts were built, by which an abundant supply of water was in- 
troduced to Rome, warm baths became general ; and, instead of being 
employed for cleanliness and health, they were soon regarded as a 
mere source of luxury, and thus became a means of physiological 
degeneration and effeminacy. Public buildings, called thermae, for 
warm bathing, increased rapidly, end in the days of Nero, who erected 
a most sumptuous one, they numbered eight hundred or more. With 
the baths were connected grounds for sporting and athletic exercises, 
and extensive libraries. The baths of Caracalla had sixteen hundred 
marble seats, sapable of seating three thousand persons, and were or- 
namented with two hundred pillars. But surpassing all others in size 
and splendor were those of Diocletian. It is related that in their con- 
struction he employed forty thousand Christian soldiers, whom he 
caused to be massacred as soon as the work was completed. Such are 
the consequences of perverting the practice of bathing for the sake of 
that " cleanliness which is next to godliness," and that health of body 
which contributes so powerfully to a sound mind, to a mere lustful en- 
joyment. The warm bath degenerated into the hot, and feasting and 
gluttony became parts of the purpose for which a Roman bathing 
establishment was frequented. 

The Greeks, too, constructed immense bathing establishments, and 
furnished them with all the appliances of health and luxury, as cold, 
warm, hot, and vapor baths ; but unfortunately, as in most cases where 
good and evil are placed before the judgment and sensuality of human 
nature, the latter proved victorious. Lounging in warm water, and 
jnointing the body with an immense profusion of oils, soaps, and per- 


fumes, became favorite amusements, followed, of course, by indolence 
and enervation. 

When Alexandria was conquered by the Moslems it contained four 
thousand baths, constructed on the Roman plan ; and when the Span- 
iards conquered Granada the bathing habits of the Moors, and also 
their language and dress, were prohibited, as a means of their con- 

In most of the largo European towns, in the " barbarous ages," 
public baths were erected, where the people bathed each Saturday 
evening. The early Christians of Gaul had baths constructed in their 
convents. Pope Adrian I. recommended the parochial clergy to visit 
the baths, in grand procession, every Thursday. The institutions of 
chivalry required the knight to be subjected to a complete ablution be- 
fore receiving his armor. The Order of the Bath, still retained in 
England, originated from the circumstance that the candidate was 
knighted while immersed to the chin in a highly decorated bath. 

Bathing Habits or Different Nations. — The people of Swit- 
zerland are said by Marcand to bathe more generally than those of any 
other country. The baths at Baden have been as celebrated for their 
abuses as for their uses, having been resorted to during the sitting of 
the Council of Constance, more for luxury and debauchery than for 
health. Such is not the case, however, at present. 

In Italy the numerous warm and mineral springs are much resorted 
to, especially in the northern part, where immersion and douche bath- 
ing are common. To most of their celebrated springs the poor are 
allowed free access ; and attached to some of them are hospitals for 
invalid soldiers. 

The Germans have long been accustomed to warm bathing. Char- 
lemagne had a bath constructed, capable of accommodating one hun- 
dred persons at a time, and it was his custom to sit in council in a largo 
warm bath of the waters of Aix. During the prevalence of leprosy, 
in the middle ages, bathing was enjoined as a religious duty; and as 
diseased persons commenced frequenting the public watering-places, 
the people generally resorted more to tlie rivers. At present bathing 
at the regular establishments is quite systematized, yet the people are 
more generally negligent in regard to the practice than formerly. 

In Russia vapor baths have long been and are still celebrated. In 
their establishments the vapor is obtained by pouring water on heatert 
stones, and the temperature is raised to 122°, and even 133°. The 
vapor bath is followed by tepid, and then cold ablutions, and sometimes 
a lake or river plunge- or p. rolling-in-the-snow bath. Rubbing the 


body and lathering it with soap are usually parts of the Russian 

The Finlanders resort often to the dry and moist sweating baths, the 
vapor for the dry being 122°, and for the moist, 140° to 167°. The 
latter process is painfully suffocative and extremely debilitating. Most 
of the peasantry have bath-houses, used by men and women promis- 
cuously. They are constantly in the habit of passing from the atmo- 
sphere of their bathing-rooms, which are heated to 167°, to the open 
air out-doors, where the thermometer is down to 24° below zero, tran- 
sitions, which, astonishing as they appear, do not seem to produce any 
immediate inconvenience. 

Throughout Sweden, Norway, and Lapland baths are very com- 

The Oriental nations have the most numerous and splendid batliing 
establishments of the present day. 

The public baths of Turkey are spacious edifices of hewn stone. 
The temperature of the rooms is about 100°, where the bather soon 
gets into a perspiration by the heated ah, and is rubbed, kneaded, 
stretched, lathered, and perfumed, and finally washed with tepid or 
cold water to his liking. Smoking and coffee succeed the operation. 
The long-continued warm and hot bathing gives to their females a pe- 
culiarly pale, peach-like softness of skin, indicative of lassitude and de- 
bility rather than health and strength. In fact, luxury, mere animal 
gratification, seems to be the only purpose thought of in most of the 
bathing establishments of the East. 

The Persians rival the Turks in magnificence, if not in convenience. 
But the manner of bathing differs materially from the Turkish. The 
toilet is the leading idea of a Persian bath. Instead of rubbing, sham- 
pooing, etc., the attendant, or operator, is mainly occupied in staining 
the beard and hair black, the feet and hands yellow, and the nails of the 
fingers and toes of a deep red. 

In Egypt and India bathing is practiced in a manner very similar to 
that of the Turks. In Cairo there are about seventy public baths. In 
addition to the manipulations of a Turkish bath, the attendant of the 
Egyptian bather rubs the soles of the feet with a kind of rasp, made 
of baked clay. It is customary for betrothed females to go in grand 
procession to the bath a day or two before marriage, accompanied by 
intimate friends and relatives. The three stages of the bathing process 
consist of sweating, rubbing, and washing. Aromatic unctions are o- en - 
erally employed, and the Persian fashion of dyeing the nails with n 
preparation of henna is very much in vogue. 

The East India baths are conducted similarly to thoje of the Eo- V p- 


tian. The women of quality spend much time in them, and seem to 
realize in their use only a source of sensuous pleasure. 

The Mahometans are required to bathe three times a day. Among 
them a depilatory pomatum, to remove the hair, is often applied ; it is 
( omposed of sulphuret of arsenic and quick-lime mixed with fat. 

The Bramins are under the same religious injunction to bathe as the 

The Hindoos of all classes perform their devotional pilgrimages to 
ih< (ranges and the Jumna, to bathe in their sin-absolving waters. 

Among the North American Indians bathing, especially in rivers, has 
;Kvays been a general practice. Some tribes in the vicinity of the 
Rocky Mountains use the sudatory or hot sweating bath, followed by 
the cold plunge. Some of the extreme northern tribes make a square 
iflud box on the edge of the river, in which they sit and enjoy a vapor 
bath, with steam raised by means of hot stones and jugs of water. 
This is rather a fashionable recreation among them, and is often prac- 
ticed in parties for social amusement. On the frontiers a bath is con- 
structed of wicker-work, the tip of which is covered with skins. 
William Penn saw an Indian chief, in the "colony of Pennsylvania," 
entirely cured of an attack of fever, by a thorough steaming, followed 
by several plunges in the river, for which purpose a hole was cut 
through the ice. 

The Peruvians have numerous public baths, both from hot springs 
and from their hundreds of miles of aqueducts. 

The Abysinians are represented by the traveler, Bruce, as in the 
liabit of treating the violent fevers of that country with cold water ex- 
lernally and internally. 

The Mexicans originally bathed in a sort of oven, into which the 
I ather crept when sufficiently heated, and, by pouring water on the 
hut stones, raised a vapor and produced copious sweating. Kentish 
iiffirms thai litis bath is resorted to as a remedy for stings of insects and 
oites ot poisonous reptiles; it is employed also by women after child- 

The French were long ago generally accustomed to bathing. Vapor 
mid other baths were numerous in Paris at an early period of its his- 
lory. Lately the vapor baths, which are frequent along the banks of 
the Seine, are employed as preparations for the warm-water bath. 
That they are visited, however, more for entertainment than from any 
sense of hygienic virtue is evident from the fact, that they have been 
occasionally closed for h time by the public authorities, and were onco 
prohibited during the prevalence of a contagious disease. In Paris 
there are nt present many warm, cold, and vapor bathing establish 


ments, some of which are very properly connected with the hospitals, 
ould baths and swimming schools, for each sex separately, abound on 
the banks of the Seine. 

In England bathing institutions arose and declined with those of 
Rome. Soon after the conquest of England by the Normans the lep- 
rosy made its appearance, when bathing habits revived again, and in 
treating the disease the fold bath was generally resorted to. About 
the middle of the sixteenth century the bathing practices of the peo- 
ple again degenerated to mere luxury ; and, up to the present time, its 
warm, hot, mineral, and sulphurous springs have been quite a fashion- 
able resort for that class of fashionable invalids whose complaints are 
closely connected with fashionable indolence. Now, however, cold 
bathing is increasing in favor, and promises to become general. Dr. 
Bell thinks it has already been carried to an extreme for medical pur- 
poses ! 

The people of the United States lmve never yet been overmuch 
given to bathing in any manner. The more wealthy in our cities re- 
sort to the bathing-houses occasionally, and in the warm season many 
of the city and country people amuse themselves by swimming in our 
rivers, lakes, ponds, and at various places on the sea shore. Some 
persons content themselves with washing the whole body once a week ; 
others once a year ; and a few are satisfied without washing at all. 
Every well-wisher of the human race will hope they will remain as 
they are in this respect, rather than imitate the sensualizing bathing 
customs of the old world. But attention to the general subject of 
bathing is fast awakening among us, and there is every reason to believo 
the great masses will ere long become sufficiently intelligent to adopt 
daily bathing as a physiological, hygienic, mora], social, and eminently 
Christian duty and privilege. Our largest cities, New York, Phila- 
delphia, and Boston, have within a few years supplied themselves with 
an abundant supply of good soft water ; many other cities and villages 
are about following the example, and the people in our country places 
are fast turning their attention to the benefits of having pure water for 
both bathing and drinking purposes. Bath-rooms, in the cities above 
named, are beginning to be regarded as indispensable apartments of 
public buildings and private dwellings. The numerous hydropathic 
establishments springing up in all parts of the country are perhaps the 
most efficient instrumentalities in indoctrinating individuals and families 
into the theory of personal cleanliness ; and with all the agencies 
named we may regard the prospect for this nation to become « re- 
deemed, regenerated, disenthralled," from obstructed pores and foul 
secretions, as very promis'ng. 


Mioicated Baths. — A brief notice in this place of the various 
methods of impure bathing, invented by superstitious ignoramuses and 
learned iEsculapians, may serve a better purpose than mere amuse- 
ment for the reader. 

A medicated bath, in the popular medical sense, is water or hot air 
charged with some drug or extraneous ingredient. In ancient times 
medicinal baths of oil, oi] and water, milk, milk and wine, and even of 
blood, were employed. More recently, baths made of the steepings 
of the husks and other refiise matters of grapes, and of olives, after the 
expression of their juice and oil, have been employed ; and still later 
gelatine, dissolved in water, has been recommended by physicians, prob- 
ably as a nutritious bath ! 

Mud baths or earth baths have been employed in Germany, France, 
Italy, and other places. The process of a mud bath is technically called 
Mutation. A kind of artificial illutament — presuming mud to be the 
natural one — for anointing the body, was made of oil and the perspira- 
ble matter scraped oft' the skins of the Greek atliletse. Doubtless it 
possessed as much virtue as any of the "all-healing ointments" of the 
present day. 

Warm dung baths are not unknown among medical prescriptions on 
the continent of Europe. 

Bees-eggs baths, made of wax, honey, and the excrement ki Dees, 
have been among the acknowledged outward medicaments, and proba- 
bly have worked their due proportion of wonderful cures. 

The Sand bath, called arcnation, is known to many Eastern civilized 
and semi-civilized nations. The body is covered up with the warm 
sand and exuvial matters on the sea shore, so as to produce active 
sweating. Other substances, as earth and sulphur, salt and grain, have 
been used for arenation. 

Insolation baths have enjoyed a high reputation. The body is 
wrapped up in the hide of an animal, or in leather, and then exposed 
to the heat of the sun until sweating takes place. Occasionally the 
body is turned so as to expose all sides to the sun about equally, not 
very unlike the operation of roasting a goose on a spit before the fire. 
The process is followed by washing in alum or sulphur water. Some- 
times the patient is laid on a bed of wormwood, chamomile, sage, 
pennyroyal, or other herbs. 

Epithems, poultices, and fomentations, which are really local baths, 
have been employed extensively both in ancient and modern times. 
Bags of heated sand, ashes, salt, oats, barley, etc., have each been 
supposed to possess peculiar virtues ; while carrots, hard soap, basswood 
roots, flaxseed, Indian meal, bread and milk, yolk of eg^s, scraped 


potatoes, with a great variety of barks, roots, and herbs have in thou- 
sands of instances filled the spectator with amazement by producing 
effects very like those of a common rag dipped in common water. 

Sulphur fumigations wero among the ancient baths ; and several 
modern authors have written learned treatises on their employment 
for the itch. It is not many years since the administration of the Civil 
Hospitals of Paris appointed a commission of learned men to examine 
into the merits of the sulphur fumigating treatment in this disease. It 
may excite the risibles of those who have seen the itch effectually 
cured by a single soap-suds bath, to be told that among the many sat- 
isfactory conclusions to which the jury of investigation arrived was the 
fact that, "on an average, thirteen fumigations and a period of seven 
days were sufficient to cure the disease." 

Vinegar fumigations have been employed since the days of Hippo- 
crates. Resinous, aromatic, and emollient herbs have been employed in 
fomentations for "3000 years, and are in repute still. 

General fumigations to the whole body, with a variety of mineral 
preparations, are now recognized processes of the allopathic materia 
medica. The articles in most common use are the mercurials — calo- 
mel, corrosive sublimate, and cinnibar — the protoxide of zinc, and deut- 
oxide of arsenic. 

Sulphuretted hydrogen gas, or Irydro-sxdphuric acid, is also employed 
in the same way. 

Nitro-muriatic acid, for foot and other local baths, is a common pre- 

Pulmonary insufflation, called by some atrimatrics, has been lauded 
as a curative process in consumption and other diseases of the lungs. 
It consists mainly in inhaling some kind of foul air, made filthy by ani- 
mal excrementitious matters, or by burning or smoking certain sub- 
stances, so as to fill the room and the patient's lungs with their fumes, 
as turpentine, tar, gum, resin, styrax, vinegar, sugar, old leather, old 
rags, etc. 

The terminal point of the ridiculous in this line of practice was 
reached when Dr. Beddoes published his book, recommending patients 
to sleep in cow stables, and inhale the fresh stench of that delectable 
locality, or, to speak learnedly, the ''factitious gases," which are the 
common air mixed with exhalations from the skin, lungs, kidneys, and 
intestines of the animals. But Dr. Beddoes stands not alone in the 
glory of finding out cures for consumption. Almost all conceivable 
kinds of impure and disease-producing airs, as well as impure and dis- 
ease-producing waters, have had the sanction of the- medical profession 
as remedies! 


Professor Rcid gives us a list of thirty-four "factitious atmospheres," 
to be employed for medicinal purposes. The catalogue is worth record- 
ing, if for no other purpose, to aid some future virtuoso in making up a 
museum of obsolete medical curiosities: 1. Dry air; 2. Dry and hot 
air; 3. Dry and cold air ; 4. Rapid and hot air ; 5. Rapid and cold ah - ; 
6. Moist air; 7. Moist and warm; 8. Moist and cold; 9. Rapid, moist, 
and warm; 10. Rapid, moist, and cold ; 11. Steamed air; 12. Highly 
oxygenated, by an admixture of oxygen; 13. Less oxygenating, by 
diluting air with nitrogen ; 14. Deoxidating, by adding agents to abstract 
a part of the oxygen; 15. Nitrous oxide — intoxicating gas; 16. Nitrous 
acid ; 17. Nitric acid ; 18. Chlorinated ; 19. Sulphurous ; 20. Car- 
bonic; 21. Ammoniacal ; 22. Prussic; 23. Acetic; 24. Arsenical; 25. 
Mercurial; 2G. Alcoholic; 27. Ethereal; 28. Benzoic; 29. Camphor- 
ic ; 30. Lavender; 31. Orange; 32. Cinnamon; 33. Creosotic ; 34. 
Hydro-sulphate of ammonia. 

Iodine has lately found a place in medical books as a fumigator, or 
atrimatric agent. 

Iodine with alcohol was introduced by Sir Charles Scudamore, who 
also employed the tinctures of opium, conium, ipecac, deadly nightshade, 
digitalis, Prussic acid, and chlorine. 

The hydriodate ofpotassa, which is so frequently the efficiently evil 
agent in the sarsaparillas of the shops and the newspapers, is consider- 
ably employed atrimatriciilly. 

Chlorine inhalation has had its day of fame in curing consumptions, 
the only drawback to which is the fact that the patients died. 

Tobacco has had its merits confessed by the faculty. The smoke 
of tobacco cigars and camphor cigarettes has been recently recom- 
mended for affections of the throat, chest, and lungs, by the professors 
of our New York medical schools. 

Peruvian bark, oak bark, myrrh, preparations of iron, subnilrate of 
bismuth, hepar sulphuris, white vitriol, blue vitriol, alum, sugar of lead, 
and lunar caustic, all reduced to impalpable powder, and applied by 
inhalation, are among the methods at the present time commended to 
us by living medical teachers, for the treatment of diseases of the air 

Gas baths are rather a modern notion. Chlorine gas baths have 
been exhibited for diseases of the liver, and carbonic acid gas baths are 
recommended for " every thing in general." 

Soap baths are mentioned in medical books. They are certainly 
useful to those who do not wash frequently, and among medicated 
baths ought to rank as number one. 

Medicinal water baths, made of the wators of our fashionable adul- 


terated springs, are employed more or less, and many imitations ot 
them are manufactured at home. They are merely water impregnated 
with various mineral, earthy, alkaline, and saline ingredients. Any 
person, by throwing a handful of dirt, a shovelful of coal or wood ashes, 
a spoonful of salt, and a piece of chalk into a barrel of pure Croton 
water, can make as good a medicated bath, or as healthful a medicated 
drink, as can be found at Saratoga, Avon, or Cheltenham. 

The anesthetic agents, ether and chloroform, which are properly 
atrimatrics, are now well known, and, except for surgical purposes, are 
destined to have a short-lived popularity. 

Finally, we have the grease bath. This is the very latest external 
application which has emanated from the allopathic school. It consists 
in rubbing the whole surface of the body frequently with various 
unguents, as fat bacon, hog's lard, suet, tallow, etc., etc. It originated 
with Dr. Schneeman, physician to the King of Hanover, and in treating 
eruptive fevers, and many other diseases, is highly recommended by 
Dr. Taylor, of England, and a Dr. Lindsly, of Washington City. As a 
species of factitious unction it deserves to rank with the factitious 
atmosphere practice of Dr. Beddoes. 

Medical Testimony in Favor or the Remedial Use of Wa- 
ter. — From the days of Hippocrates to Priessnitz, the most eminent 
physicians of all countries have spoken almost as extravagantly in praise 
of the medicinal employment of water as do the hydropaths — the hy- 
dro-maniacs, as they are sometimes called, of the present time. Yet 
directly in the face of this testimony its employment as a remedial 
agent had steadily declined, until recently revived by the wonders told 
of Graefenberg. 

Hippocrates wrote much in favor of the good effects to be derived 
from water both in health and disease. He declared that the bath, in 
cases of pneumonia, soothes the pain in the side, chest, and back, con- 
cocts the sputa, promotes expectoration, improves the respiratiou, and 
allays lassitude. He advised pouring cold water on inflamed and 
swelled joints, in gout and rheumatism, and in spasms, luxations, and 

Galen placed water in the highest rank of his materia medica. He 
regarded the bath, followed by exercise and friction, as one of the chief 
parts of a system of perfect cure. He has left the following record: 
" Cold water quickens the actions of the bowels, provided there be no 
constrictions from spasms, when warm water is to be used. Cold 
drink stops hemorrhages, and sometimes brings back heat. Cold 
drinks are good in continued and ardent fevers. They discharge the 


peccant and redundant humors by stool, or by vomiting, or by sweat." 
In biliousness, spasms, headache, fever of the stomach, hiccup, cholera 
morbus, obstinate ophthalmia, plethora, he recommended tepid and 
warm water-drinking, with the transition bathing — hot followed by 
tepid or cold. 

Celsus, in treating affections of the head, directs a warm sweating 
bath, followed by the tepid and cold bath, with an additional quantity of 
cold water to the head. He recommends water in fullness of the 
stomach, headache, weak vision, deafness, tremors, sinking, pains in the 
joints, diarrhea, piles, and in hysterical and hypochondriacal alfectiou ; 
and praises the bath in low fevers, digestive disorders, and diseased 
kidneys. He also advises cold immersion in skin diseases and in hy- 

Asclepiades, of Bithynia, though regarded as an empiric by the 
orthodox doctors of his day, advocated cold water internally and ex- 
ternally in hiccup, sour eructations, and nocturnal emissions. 

Oribasius testified to the value of water-treatment in a maimer sim- 
ilar to that of Galen. 

JEtius directed baths in protracted fevers, convulsions, retention of 
urine, lassitude, and nervous pains, although he added to the water one 
fifth part of heated oil. 

Rhazes advocated bathing in nearly all diseases. His water-treat- 
ment of small-pox was far more successful than any drug practice has 
proven since. 

Avicenna was also a strenuous advocate for the watery regimen in n 
multitude of diseases, especially asthma, colics, and dropsy, He rec- 
ommended infants to be bathed daily in tepid water. It is a sad pity 
that Avicenna, the Arabian Galen, has not more imitators iu this respect 
among modern physicians. 

Hoffman pronounced water a universal remedy. His language is • 
" We assert that water is a remedy suited to all persons, at all times ; 
that there is no better preservative from distempers ; that it is assur- 
edly serviceable both in acute and chronic diseases ; and, lastly, that its 
use answers to all indications, both of preservation and cure." 

Boerhaave has written : No remedy can more effectually secure 
health and prevent disease than pure water. 

Holler, as a testimonial of its value, drank nothing 'out water ; and 
the same is recorded of Demosthenes, Milton, and Locke. 

Floycr certifies : Water resists putrefaction and cools burning heat 
find thirst, and helps digestion. He recommended cold bathing in a 
variety of diseases. 


Baynard supposed good water to possess healing and balsamic prop- 
erties. He was a strong advocate for bathing as a remedy. 
Gregory regarded water as a tonic to the digestive organs. 
The celebrated Clieyne exclaimed : Without all peradventure, water 
was the primitive original beverage, and is the only simple fluid fitted 
lor diluting, moistening, and cooling. 

Macquart in an especial maimer recommended men of science and 
Setters to make water their favorite drink, assuring them that their 
ideas would be more precise, thoir judgment sounder, and their senses 
more delicate. 

Londe, and Levy, French authors on hygiene, speak emphatically in 
favor of the utility of water in preserving health. 

Sir John Ross, Miller, and other Northern navigators, have testified 
that exclusive water-drinkers endure the rigors and withstand the dis- 
eases of the frigid zone better than any other persons. 

Dr. Jackson, and Mr. Marshall, of the British army, and Drs. 
Mosely, and James Johnson, of London, assure us that the dangers of 
living in tropical climates are the least for the pure water-drinkers, and 
that these are far less liable to the diseases of acclimation. 

Holy Abbas, and Mesues, Arabian writers, prescribed bathing in 
most diseases, and their directions for conducting the processes were 
generally singularly judicious. 

Alsaharavius, Arabian, recommends bathing to moisten the body, 
open the pores, dispel flatulence, remove repletion, procure sleep, re- 
lieve pain, fluxes of the bowels, and lassitude, restore lean bodies to 
plumpness, soften contracted limbs, etc. 

Lanzani, Italian, commended large doses of cold water internally 
as the best remedy for fever, and wrote two elaborate books to explain 
the grounds of his practice. 

Fra Bernardo, Sicilian, acquired, in the early part of the last cen- 
tury, the title of " cold-water doctor," and won a high reputation for 
curing affections of the chest, palpitations, convulsions, obstinate dyspep- 
sia, diarrhea, dropsy, hemorrhages, gout, and rheumatism, by water- 
treatment. He used iced-water freely internally, and applied ice to 
hot and inflamed parts. All food was withheld during the first four 
days— a point in practice which our beef-tea, mutton-broth, and chick- 
en-soup slopping and stuffing doctors would do well, for their patients, 
to imitate. 

Cirillo, Neapolitan, in 1729, treated a malignant fever, which prevailed 
at Naples, with what he called "the watery diet." He administered 
a pint or two of water, cooled by snow, every two hours for several 
days, permitting no kind of aliment whatever. When fre 

ree persprra- 


tion took place the drink was omitted, and very light food allowed. Ho 
directed cold applications of snow to painful and inflamed parts, but did 
not prescribe general bathing. 

Rovida, of Arragon, is said to have practiced the water-treatment 
extensively on the plan of Cirillo and Fra Bernardo. 

Samoilowitz, Russian, in 1771, experienced signal success in treating 
the plague at Moscow, by means of cold acidulated drinks, and fric- 
tions to the whole body, with pounded ice. 

Rev. John Hancock, an English clergyman, in 1722, published a tract 
in advocacy of water as the best remedy for fevers and the plague. 
He cured agues, scarlet fever, small-pox, measles, jaundice, and coughs, 
by copious water-drinking. 

John Smith, CM., English, wrote a book about a century ago, which 
is full of testimonials to the curative powers of water in nearly all the 
prevalent diseases of the day. Its title was, "The Curiosities of Com- 
mon Water," and a larg-e proportion of its pages is a compendium of 
the opinions of many celebrated physicians in favor of the employment 
of water as a general remedy. Among his authorities are Manwar- 
ing, Keill, Prat, Duncan, Elliot, Allen, Harris, Van Heyden, and 
Pitt, all eminent in the medical profession. 

Geoffrey, French, more than a century ago, advocated the free use 
of water as a preventive of the plague. 

Hecquel, French, about the same time, advocated the use of water 
as an almost universal specific. 

Pomme, French, at a later period, wrote in favor of cold water- 
drinking and warm bathing for various remedial and hygienic purposes, 
and particularly for the treatment of hysterical and hypochondriacal 

Rondeletius, French, published cases of gout cured by cold water as 
a beverage, as also did his countryman, Martinus. 

Riverius, French, treated female complaints, particularly mismen- 
strualion, successfully by the use of water alone. 

De Hahn, German, directed free bathing and cold water-drinking 
during an epidemic fever at Breslau, in 1737, and his practice was far 
more successful than that of his competitors, who persisted in the em- 
ployment of active drugs. 

Theden, German, employed cold water and ice successfully in stran- 
gulated hernia, inflammations, malignant fevers, and small-pox. 

Sturm, a Polish surgeon, testifies to the successful treatment of epi- 
demic cholera, by means of as much warm water as the patients were 
able to drink, a glassful being administered every ten or fifteen min- 



Those celebrated medical philosophers and physicians, Harvey, 
Louret, Cocchi, Sanclorius, Marziano, and Barthez, advocated and 
practiced cold applications to gouty swellings, and inflammations. 

Ambrose Pare declared that the true vulnerary, or dressing for 
wounds, was water alone. 

Michael Angelo Blondi, Italian, wrote an essay, in 1542, on water 
as a remedy for gun-shot wounds. 

Gabriel Fallopius, of Venice, Felix Palatius, of Trebia, and Jou- 
bart, Martel, and Lamorier, of France, strongly advocated water-dress- 
ings in surgical cases, instead of the more mystified and often mis- 
chievous plasters, balsams, liniments, lotions, or poultices. 

Larrey, the most celebrated operative surges France ever produced, 
used water-dressings generally. 

Kern, of Austria, praised the uses of water in the treatment of 
wounds, and even laid claim to the discovery of its superior merit. 

M. Jose, of Amiens, recommended cold water in the treatment of 
wounds, burns, phlegmons, erysipelas, and gangrene. 

Macartney, of Dublin, advises the free and methodical employment 
of water-dressings in wounds With him irrigation was a favorite 
mode of application. 

Lancassani, in 1753, Caldani, in 1767, Leanter, in 1780, and Percy, 
in 1785, published conclusive evidences of the superiority of water alone 
to all the medicated fluids and compounds known, for surgical diseases. 

Dr. Wright, of England, in 1777, employed cold ablutions extensively 
and successfully in the treatment of fevers. 

Dr. Currie. of Liverpool, commenced the treatment of fevers by cold 
affusions in 1787. For several years he treated scarlet and typhus 
fevers, small-pox, and other diseases, principally by bathing, and with a 
success universally admitted to have been far greater than that of the 
ordinary drug-treatment. His work on the subject was published in 

Dr. Robert Jackson, of the British army, had equal success in the 
same practice, the facts of which he published in 1791, at which time 
he had been in the habit of treating fevers by cold affusions for nearly 
twenty years. 

Giannini, of Milan, strongly recommends cold immersion in typhus 
and petechial fevers. 

Dr. Thaer, of Prussia, in 1825, treated measles by cold bathing, and 
with remarkable success, as compared with his drugging contemporaries. 

Dr. N. Smith, of New Haven, Conn., was in the habit of dashing 
cold water on the bodies of patients in cases of typhoid fever, so as to 
drench both the body liucn and bedding. 


Dr. Forbes, present editor of the ablest medical journal of Europe, 
and one of the physicians to her Majesty Queen Victoria, confesses 
that in a large proportion of tho cases of gout and rheumatism the 
Water-Cure seems to be extremely efficacious. He says further : 
"In that very large class of cases of complex disease, usually known 
under the name of chronic dyspepsia, in which other modes [Why 
wait to try " other modes ?"] of treatment have failed, or been 
only partially successful, the practice of Priessnitz is well deserving of 
trial. In many chronic nervous affections and general debility we 
should anticipate great benefit from this system. In chronic diarrhea, 
dysentery, and hemorrhoids the sitz bath appears to be frequently an 
effectual remedy." 

Dr. John Bell, author of the ablest historical work on bathing extant, 
has treated scarlatina in the Pennsylvania Hospital for many years by 
cold bathing, with the most satisfactory success. Although he does not 
entirely reject all other remedies, he admits that there is no other 
remedy than water which unites, to any thing like the same extent, 
efficacy with safety and immediately pleasurable results. He says : 
" How often have I seen the little sufferer, with burning heat and 
delirium, and unable to obtain sleep or repose of any kind, tranquillized 
immediately by the cold affusion, and fall into a sweet and refreshing 
sleep immediately afterward." 

Such is a part of the testimony volunteered by the regular profession 
in favor of the system we advocate. The reader will bear in mind that 
nearly all the authorities thus far quoted are eminent authors, professors 
and practitioners of the allopathic school. After examining such a flood 
of evidence in favor of nearly all that is claimed by the hydropathists, 
the question naturally arises, Why is it, if regular physicians, in all 
ages, and of all countries, have found water-treatment so superior in 
the great mass of human maladies, that the medical faculty of the 
present day, as a body, employ it so little, in fact aln-ost wholly neglect 
it, nay, bitterly and vehemently oppose it? This is indeed a strange 
problem, but it can be solved. 

The minds — professional minds — of medical men cf this day are as 
mystified and twistified, as superstitious and fantastical, as irrational and 
absurd, so far as medical logic is concerned, as were the minds of med- 
ical men in that by-gone age when charms, magic, incantations, and 
necromancy were among the remedial resources. And so their minds 
will remain until they have some fixed basis, some settled princi- 
ples to reason from. A man may be in possession of any amount of 
book knowledge, he may know all the facts of all the sciences in exist- 
ence, yet if ho does not recognize the principles to wbi:h those facts 


relate, his writing and his talking may be unintelligible jargon, and his 
practice a promiscuous medley of truth and error. A man may under- 
stand all the letters of the alphabet, and all the words of the dictionary, 
and yet make bad words and sentences unless he is also acquainted 
with the principles of the construction of language. 

The ancient priests and monks placed their patients in airy, salubri- 
ous situations, enjoined strict abstemiousness or the simplest food, gave 
water for drink, and prescribed sufficient washing or bathing for thor- 
ough cleanliness, and then performed their magical ceremonies. Their 
patients recovered ; nature worked the cure, and the doctor got the 

Our more learned modern physicians, more abundantly supplied with 
disease-killing missiles, permit or recommend the grossest food, give 
poisoned or drugged waters instead of pure, pay scarcely any attention 
to hygienic regulations, bathe insignificantly, empirically, or not at all, 
and pour down the powerful remedies. Their patients die ; nature 
gets the blame, and the doctor is excused, for surely no one could have 
done more ! 

The rock on which the water-treatment has ever been wrecked is 
eclecticism. Few minds, such is the bias of education, seem able to 
comprehend how it can be possible for a disease to be removed without 
a little medicine of some sort. It may be very little, infinitesimal, the 
thirtieth dilution, or a ten-millionth part of a drop of the tincture of a 
shadow, or the weakest decoction of catnip or canary seed ; still it must 
be something wnnatural, or nature cannot be assisted ! And if medicine 
of any kind or any strength is employed as an auxiliary, notwithstand- 
ing the use of water is regarded as the leading medication, the little, 
charming, mysterious influence of the drug will gradually gain upon 
the imagination, and in the end expel the water part of the practice as 
surely as weeds will run out flowers in an uncultivated field. It is like 
mixing brandy and water to make a beverage. Every one will admit 
that in such an admixture the water is the only strictly necessary and 
useful part of the drink ; yet by employing them in combination no 
man ever had his taste for water increase, and that for brandy decrease. 
The contrary has always been the fact. The safety and the ultimate 
triumph of the Water-Cure system depeL^ on rcepin^ it clear of all 
"entangling alliances," and on that alono. 



Definition!. — Anatomy is the science of the structures of an or- 
ganized body. An organized body consists of an assemblage of parts, 
each of which is called an organ, and all mutually related to, and depend- 
ent on, each other. All organized bodies are either animal or vegetable 
Comparative anatomy teaches the structures of animals. Human anat 
omy contemplates a knowledge of the structures of all the organs and 
parts of the human body, and their relations to each other. 

Those structures which exist in all parts of the body are called gen- 
eral ; those which are found only in particular parts are termed special. 
The entire organism consists of solids, in different degrees of density, 
and fluids, which circulate through them. The solids are bones, teeth, 
cartilages, ligaments, muscles, nerves, vessels, viscera, membranes, skin, 
hair, and nails. The fluids are blood, chyle, lymph, saliva, gastric 
juice, pancreatic juice, synovia, mucus, and serum. Bile, sweat, urine, 
etc., are excretions. 

Organic Elements. — Reduced to their ultimate constituents by 
chemical analysis, almost the entire bulk of the body, except the bony 
tissue, is found to consist of oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon 
The bones and teeth contain a large proportion of phosphate and car- 
bonate of lime. A very small proportion of other substances, considered 
to be elementary, are regarded by chemists as essential constituents. 
These are phosphorous, sulphur, silicon, chlorine, iodine, bromine, fluo- 
rine, potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, and 
aluminum. To this list some late chemists have added arsenic and 
copper ; and even lead and gold have quite recently been found in 
organized bodies, and have quite absurdly been put down as con- 

Some of these elements, however, are only occasionally found in the 
human body, particularly arsenic, c sprier, lead, and gold ; hence a more 


rational inference is, that they are accidental ingredients, instead of ele- 
mentary constituents. 

"When it is considered how extensively metallic substances and min- 
eral preparations are employed as medicines, and how generally metallic 
vessels, liable to oxidation, are used in cooking, to say nothing of the 
casual admixtures of drugs kept about dwellings, for various domestic 
purposes, wi+h the articles of food and drink, it need not be surprising 
that chemists should now and then detect ingredients in the solids and 
fluids of the »iuman body which have no natural relation to the organ- 
ism, save as incidental poisons. 

Proximate Principles.— The combination of the ultimate elements 
in various proportions forms the different organic substances called proxi- 
mate elements, or principles. The most important are albumen, fibrin, 
and gelatin, which form the basis of the nervous, muscular, and cel- 
lular tissues. The refinements of chemical analysis have added or 
produced several other substances, which are put down as proximate. 
Most prominent among them are osmazome, procured by steeping mus- 
cular flesh in water or alcohol; pepsin, found in the gastric glands, 
globulin, in the blood corpuscles ; spermatin, in the semen ; keratin, 
in the hair and skin ; hematin, in the bile, etc. 

Most of these are probably mere products of the process of analysis; 
and there is no end to the "elements," proximate or ultimate, that 
could be produced by subjecting animal matters to chemical actions and 
re-agents. Thus chemists, in experimenting upon the bile, have al- 
ready "found," as distinct principles, bilin ; fellinic acid; cholinie 
acid; taurin ; dyslysin; cholepyrrhin ; biliphain ; biliverdin ; bili- 
fulvin ; cholesterin ; oleate, mangarate, and stearate of soda ; chloride 
of sodium ; sulphate, lactate, and phosphate of soda ; phosphate of lime. 
I can see no reason why a hundred or a thousand others may not be 
developed by similar experiments, which certainly tend much more to 
the complication of scientific words and phrases than to the demon- 
stration of true science. 

Tissues.— Each distinct solid structure is called a tissue. All tissues, 
however diversified in form, are produced from cells originating in a 
mass of soft, liquid matter, and they present the same general charac- 
teristics in all parts of the body. Every portion of the animal organism 
is formed of nucleated cells, which are constantly maturing, and as the 
body is undergoing continual decay and reproduction, they are always 
found in various stages of development. 

The divisions of tissues, and their vital properties, will be treated of 
in the physiological part of t Sis work. ■ 





The osseous structure constitutes the framework of the body. It 
gives form, firmness, and individuality to the physiological character, 
and affords surfaces and points for the connection of ligaments which 
hold the bones in position, and Fig L 

the attachment of muscles which 
move them. The proportion of 
the bony structure to the gene- 
ral bulk may be seen at a glance 
in Fig. 1. 

The proximate constituents 
of bone are — 

Cartilage . . (parts) 32.17 
Blood-vessels .... 1.13 
Phosphate of lime . . 51.04 
Carbonate of lime . . 11.30 
Filiate of lime .... 2.00 
Phosphate of magnesia . 1.16' 
Soda, chloride of sodium 1.20 


Structure or Bone. — The jj 
bony structure is a dense, com- ^ 
pact, subfibrous basis, filled with 
minute cells, and traversed in 
all directions by branching and 
inosculating canals, called Ha- 
versian, which give passage to 
vessels and nerves. These cells 
are irregular in form and size, 
and give oft' numerous branch- 
ing tubes, which, by communi- 
cating with each other in various 
directions, constitute a very del- 
icate network. 




Fig. 2. A microscopic view of the minute 

structure of bone is shown in Fig. 
2. 1. One of the Haversian canals, 
surrounded by concentric lamellaa. 
2. The same, with the cells and tu- 
buli. 3. Area of one of the canals. 
4 4. Direction of the medullary, or 
central canal. The upper part ot 
the cut represents several long cor- 
puscles, or cells, with their tubuli , 
the lower part exhibits the outlines 
of several other canals. 

Investing Membrane. — 
All the bones are invested 
with a dense fibrous mem- 
brane, called periosteum, ex- 
cept at their articulating sur- 
faces, which are lined by a 
thin layer of cartilage. That 
portion of the periosteum 
which covers the skull bones is called pericranium ; and when it is 
prolonged over external cartilages, it is termed perichondrium. 

The internal cavities of long bones, and the canals and cells of oth- 
ers, are lined by a membrane called medullary, and filled with an oily 
substance, called medulla, or marrow. 


Development of Bone. — The osseous, like all organized struc- 
tures, is found to exist primordially in a state of extremely minute 
vesicles, or cells. Each cell is composed of a thin membrane, enclosing 
a fluid matter, in which is a small, denser mass, constituting the nucleus 
around which the cell itself was originally developed. Within each 
nucleus may usually be found one or more smaller granules, or cells, 
called nucleolus, or nucleoli. And whether there are within these 
nucleoli yet smaller vesicles, and within them more minute nucleoli 
still, and so on, must be left to imagination. The human mind must 
grasp infinity before it can comprehend the primal atom, or starting- 
point, of vital organization. 

Stages of Ossification. — The first recognizable change of ordinary 
vesicles toward bony structure is an assemblage of minute cells, of a 
gelatinous or jelly-like consistence. In the piocess of growth these 
cells are separated by intercellular substance, which is transparent and 
fluid at first, but gradually becomes condensed and opake. Then the 
cartilaginouf s'age of ossification exists In the cartilaginous substance 



vascular canals are formed by a union of ceils in rows, and the lique- 
faction of the adhering surfaces. The next distinct change is into 
osseous substance. This is effected by the concentration of all the 
vascular canals to central points, each one of which is called punctum 
ossijicationis. As the earthy particles are deposited around the central 
point, the surrounding cartilaginous cells become elongated, and within 
each cell two or three nucleoli are developed. Each of these second- 
ary cells, soon attains the size of the parent cell, the membrane of 
which disappears, and the newly-formed cells are separated by freshly 
effused intercellular substance. Still progressing, each newly-formed 
cell produces four, five, or six young cells, which destroy the parent 
membrane, and attain a larger size than the parent cell, being — 
of an inch in diameter, all the cells being separated as before by in- 
tercellular substance. This process of reproduction is repeated yet 
again, each cell producing as many as its parent before, which form in 
clusters of from thirty to fifty. The clusters are oval in figure, and are 
disposed longitudinally to the axis of the bone, while the cells them- 
selves are arranged transversely. Very fine and delicate fibres, within 
the intercellular substance, commencing at the ossifying point, and ex- 
tending through every part of the bone, longitudinally in long, and 
radiatingly in flat bones, are, lastly, formed, and complete the process 
of ossification. These fibres embrace each cluster of cells, and send 
branches between the individual cells of each group, by which the net- 
work of bone is formed, while the areola and Hervasian canals are 
formed by the conjunction of the cells. A highly magnifying power 
shows the ossific fibres to be composed of minute cells, of an elliptical 
form, and having central nucleoli. 


The skeleton of an adult person consists of two hundred and forty- 
six distinct pieces : 

Bones of the head .... 8 

Ear — ossicula auditus ... 6 

Face 14 

Teeth 32 

Back — vertebral column . . 24 

Ribs — twelve pairs .... 24 

Tongue — os hyoides ... 1 
Upper extremities —arm, wrist, 

and fingers 64 

Breast — sternum 

Pelvis — hip, sacrum, and coc- 
cyx . . 

Lower extremities — leg, in- 
step, and toes 

Sesamoid — kneepan, and bones 
in tendons . .... 





Anatomists distinguish 
three kinds of bones : the 
long, flat, and irregular. 
The long appertain to the 
limbs, the arms, legs, fin- 
gers, and toes ; the flat 
enclose cavities, as the 
brain and pelvis ; the ir- 
regular are mostly found 
about the base of t>e 
skull, face, trunk, wrist, 
and instep. 


The bones of the back, 
constituting the vertebral 
)$ column, are divided into 
thirty-three pieces in the 
young person, but in ad- 
vanced life the nine lower 
pieces unite into two. 
Each piece is called a 
vertebra. The whole are 
divided into true and false. 
The true are the twen- 
ty-four upper ones, and 
the false are the nine 
lower ones. The true 
are subdivided into seven 
cervical, belonging to the 
neck, twelve dorsal, form- 
ing the central portion of the back proper, and jive lumbar, pertaining 
to the loins. The false are divided into the sacrum, which consists 
originally of five pieces, and the coccyx, originally consisting of four 

The vertebral column is the central axis of the body, and the part 
of the skeleton first developed in all vertebrated aumials. 

Each vertebra, except the upper cervical, which has no body, con- 
sists of a body, by which it is articulated with the adjoining vertebrae • 
two lamina, or plates, which amh backward and enclose the passage 
for the spmd cord; « spinous p.-ocess, which projects backward for 




Fig. 4. 

the attachment of muscles; two transverse processes 
projecting laterally from each side of the lamina? foi 
the attachment of muscles ; and four articular pro- 
cesses, which project upward and downward from 
the laminae, for articulation with atfjoining vertebra? 

Fig. 4 represents the vertebral column entire, seen from tne 
left Bide. 1. Two seml-facettes, which articulate with the head 
of the rib. 2. Spinous process. 3, 4. Two foramina, each re- 
sulting from the union of two vertebra?. 5. Cervical region 
and its corresponding curve. 6. Dorsal region and its corre- 
sponding curve. 7. Lumbar region and its corresponding curve. 
8. Sacrum. 

Fig. 5 



The distinctive parts of a 
vertebra are seen in Fig. 5. 
1. The body, concave in the 
centre, and rising into a 
sharp ridge on each side. 

7 2. The lamina. 3. The part 

, called pedicle, rendered con- 
cave by the superior inter- 
vertebral notch. 4. Spinous 
process, its extremity bifur- 
cated. 5. Transverse pro- 
cess. 6. Vertebral foramen. 
7. Superior articular pro- 
cess. 8. Inferior articular 

The first cervical vertebra supports the head, 
from which circumstance it is called the atlas. 
It is a simple ring of bone, and moves laterally, as 
well as forward and backward to some extent on 
the second cervical, which is called the adds. 

The cms has a large body, and a strong, tooth- 
7 like process, called odontoid, which rises perpen- 
dicularly, and is articulated with the anterior arch 
of the atlas, while its posterior surface is firmly 
bound by a strong transverse ligament. 

The atlas (turning on the axis) moves the head, 
as though it were turning on a pivot. 

The seventh cervical is called prominens, because 
its spinous process projects backward beyond tho 
others, forming the prominent part of the back of 
the neck. This prominence is terminated by a 
tuber :le, to which the strong ligament of the neck 
ligtith mtum nucha, is attached. 

60 ANA10MY. 

The dorsal vertebrae are marked on each side by articulating sur- 
faces, facets, for receiving the head of the ribs. In size the dorsal are 
midway between the cervical and lumbar. 

The lumbar vertebra are the largest ; their bodies are thicker before 
than behind; their spinal cavity, is large and oval, and their spinous 
processes are thick and broad. 

The sacrum is of a triangular figure, concave in front and convex 
posteriorly. It is marked by four transverse ridges, which indicate 
the consolidation of five separate pieces. 

The coccyx, which terminates the vertebral column below, is com- 
posed of four small pieces, which gradually unite in one ; and this 
one becomes consolidated to the sacrum soon after the middle period 
of life. 

" .he whole vertebral column represents two pyramids, with bases 
applied to each other ; the sacrum and coccyx constituting the lower, 
and all the vertebrae, except the atlas, forming the upper. The bodies 
are broad in the cervical region, narrower in the middle of the dorsal, 
and again broad in the lumbar region. The spinous processes are hori- 
zontal in the cervical, gradually becoming oblique in the upper part of 
the dorsal, nearly vertical and inbricated in the middle of the back, and 
again horizontal toward the lower part. The transverse processes grad- 
ually increase in length from the axis to the first dorsal vertebra ; in 
the dorsal region they project obliquely backward, and diminish sud- 
denly in length in the eleventh or twelfth, where they are very smalJ. 
The intervertebral foramina are openings formed by the juxtaposition 
of the vertebral notches ; they are smallest in the cervical region, 
gradually enlarging to the lumbar. The vertebral groove extends the 
whole length of the column on either side of the spinous processes, for 
lodging the principal muscles of the back. 


Phey are divided into those of the cranium, and those of the face. 
The cranial, like all flat bones, are formed with two plates, or tables, 
and an intervening cellular network, called diploe, which contains an 
oily, medullary substance. This structure is admirably calculated to 
protect the brain from shocks, blows, etc. The cranial bones are eight 
in number, and the facial fourteen : 

Cranial Bones, 
Occipital, Frontal, Sphenoid, 

Two parietal, Two tempora. Ethmoid. 



Facial Bones. 

Two nasal, Two palate, 

Two superior maxillary, Two inferior turbinated. 

Two lachrymal, Vomer, 

Two malar, Inferior maxillary. 


In Fig. 6, A represents the frontal bone. B B. Parietal. C C. Temporal. D D. Sphe- 
noid. E E. Malar. F F. Superior maxillary. G G. Inferior maxillary. II. Occipital. 
I. Nasal, a a. Mastoid process of the temporal bone. 

The Occipital bone forms the base and back part of the cranium. Its 
external surface is marked by two transverse ridges ; in the middle of 
the upper one is a projection, at which point the bone is very thick and 
strong. Tyros in phrenology have sometimes mistaken this projection 
for the bump of parcntiveness. About an inch below this projection is 
the foramen magnum, a large opening for the connection of the spinal 
cord with the brain. On each side of this orifice are processes, called 
condyles, for articulating with the atlas. The internal surface of the 
occipital bone is divided by a crucial ridge into four fossce. In the up- 
per fossa? are lodged the posterior lobes of the cerebrum, and in the 
two inferior the lateral lobes of the cerebellum. In front of the fora- 
men magnum is a projection called the basilar process, on which rests 
the medulla oblongata. 

The Parietal bones are quadrilateral in form, situated at the side and 
vertex of the skull, and connected with each other by a straight suture, 
called sagittal. On the external surface of each bone is an arched 


line, called the tempo? d ridge. The internal surface is marked by 
numerous furrows, which lodge the ramifications of the middle me- 
ningeal artery, and by digital fossa, corresponding with the convolu- 
tions of the brain. 

The Frontal bone is situated at the anterior part of the cranium, 
forming the forehead, and a part of the roof of the nostrils and orbits 
of the eyes. Each lateral half of the bone projects forward, forming 
the frontal eminences. Below these points are the superciliary ridges, 
which support the eyebrows. Between these ridges is a rough pro- 
jection, called nasal tuberosity, behind which is a canal, called the 
longitudinal sinus. On the side of the bone is the temporal ridge, 
and below this is a depression, called the temporal fosses. The sharp, 
prominent arches, which form the upper part of the orbits are called 
the internal and external angular pirocesses. Between these processes 
is a rough excavation, which receives the nasal bones, and a projection, 
called the nasal spine. The internal surface is divided by a grooved 
ridge ; in the groove the longitudinal sinus is lodged, and to the edges 
of the ridge the falx cerebri is attached. On the orbital portions are 
fosses corresponding to the convolutions of the anterior lobes of the 

The Temporal bones are situated at the side and base of the skull, 
and are divided into squamous, mastoid, and petrous portions. 

The squamous portion forms the anterior part of each bone, and 
the thin, translucent part of the temple. A long, arched process pro- 
jects from its external surface, called the zygoma. Its internal sur- 
face is irregularly depressed by the convolutions of the cerebrum. 

The mastoid portion forms the back part of the bone. Beginners in 
phrenological science, on feeling behind the ears, have often mistaken 
its projection for an enormous " combativeness." It is thick, rough, 
and pierced with numerous holes for the passage of veiy small arteries 
and veins. Interiorly, a part of it is excavated into numerous cells, 
which belong to the organ of hearing. In front of it is the meatus 
auditorius extcrnus, or external ear passage. 

The petrous portion is extremely hard and dense. In shape it is a 
three-sided pyramid. Near the middle of its posterior surface is the 
entrance of the meatus auditorius intemus, about one third of an inch 
in depth. At the bottom of the meatus is a fossa, called reniform ; it 
is divided by a sharp ridge into an upper and lower compartment- this 
ridge is prolonged for some distance upon the anterior wall of the 
meatus, and marks the situation of the facial and auditory nerves, which 
constitute the seventh pair, and enter the meatus. 

The basilar surface is rough av.i irregular, and assists to form the 


under surface of the base of the skull. To a smooth fossa, called 
glenoid, the condyle of the lower jaw is articulated. At the inner 
angle of this fossa is the foramen of the Eustachian tube. 

The Sphenoid bone is situated at the base of the skull, and enters 
into the formation both of the cranium and face. Its shape has been 
compared to a bat with its wings extendtH. It is divided into a central 
portion, or body; lesser wings, consisting of two small triangular plates 
projected from the anterior and upper part of the body ; greater wings, 
expanding laterally from each side of the body ; spinous processes, ex- 
tending backward from the base of the greater wings ; and pterygoid 
processes, extending downward from the greater wings. On the su- 
perior surface of its body are seen the optic foramina, which transmit 
the optic nerve and ophthalmic arteries. The posterior surface is flat, 
rough, and articulated with the basilar process of the occipital bone. 
The lesser ivings form the posterior parts of the roof of the orbits, 
and are traversed by the optic foramina. The greater wings form 
part of the middle fossae of the base of the skull, and assist in fovming 
the outer walls of the orbits. The external border of the spinous 
process is articulated with the squamous portion of the temporal bone ; 
its internal border is grooved for the reception of the Eustachian tube. 
The pterygoid processes form the lateral boundaries of the posterior 

The Ethmoid bone (sieve-like) is a square, cellular bone, between 
the orbits at the root of the nose. It is named from a number of small 
openings which perforate the surface. It consists of a thin central 
plate, which assists in forming the septum of the nose, and two lateral 
masses. From the upper part of the septum a strong process projects 
into the cavity of the skull, called crista galli, to which the fnlx cerebri 
is attached. On each side of the crista galli is a grooved plate perfo- 
rated by numerous openings, the cribriform lamella, which supports 
the bulb of the olfactory nerve, and gives passage to its filaments, and 
also to the nasal branch of the ophthalmic nerve. 

The lateral masses are composed of cells. The internal surface 
forms the external boundary of the upper part of the nasal fossa?. The 
external surface enters into the formation of the inner wall of the 
orbit. What is called the superior turbinated bone is a thin, curled 
plate of the internal surface, constituting the upper margin of a nar- 
row fissure — the superior meatus of the nose. Below the meatus 
another thin plate curls outward ; it is called the middle turbinated 

The Nasal bones are small, quadrangular pieces, forming the bridge 
and base of the nose They are convex superiorly, and slightly con- 


cave on their under surface, which is grooved for the nasal branch of 
the ophthalmic nerve. 

The Superior Maxillary hones form the whole of the upper jaw, and 
assist in forming the orbit, nose, cheek, and palate. The body of each 
is triangular ; its interior is hollow, forming the antrum ; and its lower 
part presents the alveolar processes, for containing the upper teeth. 
The posterior surface forms part of the zygomatic fossa, over which a 
projection extends to the malar bone, called the malar process. A 
process called nasal articulates with the frontal and nasal bone. Be- 
tween the opening of the antrum, which is an irregular hole on its 
nasal surface, and the nasal process, is a deep vertical groove, called 
sulcus lachrymalis, which is formed into a canal by the lachrymal and 
inferior turbinated bones, constituting the nasal duct. The margin. 
of the nasal process is marked .by a small tubercle, which serves to 
guide the knife of the surgeon in operating for fistula lachrymalis. 
The palate process projects horizontally inward — its upper surface 
forming the floor of the nares, and its under surface a part of the roof 
of the mouth. 

Each Lachrymal bone is a thin, oval plate, situated at the anterior 
and inner angle of the orbit of the eye. A portion of its external sur- 
face assists in forming the orbit ; another portion is concave, and lodges 
the lachrymal sac. The internal surface assists in forming the nasal 
foss;e and nasal duct. 

The Malar bones are the quadrangular pieces which form the 
prominences of the cheeks. The external surface of each has many 
small openings for the passage of filaments of nerves and minute arte- 
ries. A process, called frontal, ascends to articulate with the external 
angular process of the frontal bone, and form the outer border of the 
orbit. It is united to the zygoma of the temporal bone by a pro- 
cess called zygomatic, and to the superior maxillary by the maxillary 

The Palate bones are situated at the back part of the nares, and 
enter into the formation of the palate, side of the nose, and the poste- 
rior part of the floor of the orbit. Each bone resembles the letter L, 
the perpendicular and horizontal portions presenting each two quadri- 
lateral surfaces. 

The Inferior Turbinated bones are light, spongy, irregularly curved 
bones, projecting inward toward the septum narium, or partition of the 
nose. Each one is attached to the maxillary bone in front, and tlio 
palate bone behind. 

The Vomer is a thin quadrilateral piece, forming- tho back and lower 
part of the septum of the nose 



The Infcrio: Ma rilkiry bone, or lower jaw, is an arch of bone contain- 
ing the under low of teeth. Its 
distinctive parts are shown in fig. 7. 

1. The body. 2. The ramus. 3. The 
symphisis, or point of union. 4. Fossa 
for the depressing muscle of the lower 
jaw. 5. Mental foramen. 6. External 
oblique ridge. 7. Groove for the facial 
artery. 8. The angle. 9. Extremity of 
the inilo-hyoidean ridge. 10. Coronoid 
process. 11. The condyles, which articu- 
late with the glenoid cavity of the tem- 
poral bone. 12. Sigmoid notch. 13. In- 
ferior dental foramen. 14. Milo-hyoidean 
groove. 15. Alveolar process, i. Tho 
middle and lateral incisor tooth of one 
side. I. The canine tooth, b. The two 
bicuspids, m. The three molars. 



The bones of the skull are connected with each other by sutures 
\sutura, a seam), of which anatomists distinguish several varieties ; the 
most important arc serrated, saw-teeth-like ; squamous, or scaly ; har- 
monia, or apposite ; and schindylesis, fissure-like. 

The most prominent cranial articulations are the coronal, sagittal, 
and lambdoidal sutures, all of which are serrated. The coronal ex- 
tends transversely across the crown of the skull, uniting the frontal 
bone with the two parietal. The sagittal forms the longitudinal seam 
along the vertex, and unites with two parietal bones. The lambdoidal 
diverges at an acute angle from the posterior extremity of the sagittal, 
uniting the occipital and parietal bones. The squamous unites the 
squamous portion of the temporal with the parietal and sphenoid bones. 
Other sutures are named according to the bones, or parts of bones, 
which they connect. 

Regions. — The skull is divisible into four regions — superior, lateral, 
inferior, and anterior ; or, vertex, side, base, and front. The superioi 
region is bounded by the frontal eminences in front, temporal ridges and 
parietal eminences on each side, and by the upper curved line and pro- 
tuberance of the occipital behind. The lateral is subdivided into tem- 
2>oral, inastoid, and zygonatic portions. The inferior region is sub- 
divided into a cerebral, or internal, and a basilar, or external, surface. 
The cerebral surface is again subdivided into anterior, middle, and 
posterior fossa. The fitce constitutes the anterior region. 



Fig. 6 exhibits several mi^^t** peculiarities 
of structure not described in the text. *. The 
frontal portion of the frontal bone. 2. Nasal 
tuberosity. 3. Supra-orbital ridge. 4. Optic 
foramen. 5. A fissure, called sphenoidal. 6. 
Another fissure, called spheno-maxillary. 7. 
The lachrymal fossa. 8. Opening of the an- 
terior nares, the vomer in the centre, on 
which the figure is placed. 9. Infra-orbital 
foramen. 10. Malar bone. II. Symphisis, 
or point of union of the lower jaw. 12. 
Mental foramen. 13. Ramus of the lower 
jaw. 14. Parietal bone. 15. Coronal suture. 
16. Temporal bone. 17. Squamous suture. 
18. Upper part, or greater wings, of sphenoid 
bone. 19. Commencement of temporal ridge. 
20. Zygoma of temporal bone, forming, with 
the malar, the zygomatic arch, under which 
is the zygomatic fossa. 81. The mastoid 


Fig. 9 represents the cerebral surface of 
the base of the skull. 1. One side of the 
anterior- fossa. 2. Lesser wing of the 
sphenoid. 3. Crista galli. 4. Foramen 
caicum. 5. Cribriform lamella of the eth- 
moid. 6. The process called olivary. 7. 
Foramen opticum. 8. Anterior clinoid 
process. 9. The carotid groove on the 
side of the sella turcica, for the internal 
carotid artery and cavernous sinus. 10, 
11, 12. Middle fossa of the base of the 
skull : 10 marks the great ala of the sphe- 
noid ; 11, the squamous portion of the 
temporal bone; 12, the petrous portion. 
13. The sella turcica. 14. Basilar portion 
of sphenoid ami occipital bones. The 
uneven ridge between 13 and 14 is called 
dorsum ephippii, and the prominent angles 
of the ridge constitute the posterior clinoid 
processes. 15. Foramen rotundum. 16. 
Foramen ovale. 17. Foramen spinosura ; 
n small opening between 17 and 12 is called 
hiatus FaUopii. 18. Posterior fossa of the 
base of the skull. 19, 19 The m „™ f nr 

*;r ra irzj° en r ridge u r the occipitai ,,one - to ^ tL >™— /:; 

.1. 1 oramen magnum. 22. Meatus auditorius internus. 2 3 . Jugular forataen 



These are hollow cones for the lodgment of th 

o eyeballs, with their 



muscles, vessels, and nerves, and the lachrymal glands. The superior 
boundary is formed by the orbital plate of the frontal bone, and by part 
of the lesser wing of the sphenoid ; the inferior by part of the malar 
bone, and by the orb.tal process of the superior maxillary and palate 
bones ; the internal by the lachrymal bone, the external surface of the 
ethmoid, called os planum, and part of the body of the sphenoid ; and 
the external by the orbital process of the malar bone, and the great 
ala, or wing of the sphenoid. Communicating with the orbit are nine 
openings for the transmission of arteries, veins, and nerves. 

The Nasal Fossce are irregular cavities in the middle of the face, 
bounded above by the nasal bones, ethmoid and sphenoid ; below by the 
palate processes of the palate and superior maxillary bones ; outwardly 
by the superior maxillary, lachrymal, inferior turbinated, superior and 
middle turbinated bones of the ethmoid, palate, and internal pterygoid 
plate of the sphenoid. The partition between them is formed by tho 
vomer and the perpendicular lamella of the ethmoid. 

Each nasal cavity is divided into three irregular longitudinal passages, 
called meatuses, by three projecting processes of bone from the outer 
wall — the superior, middle, and inferior turbinated bones. The inferior 
or lower meatus is much the largest. 


The human animal is provided with two sets of teeth : 

the first are 

Fig. 10. 

those of childhood, 
called deciduous, or 
milk teeth. The sec- 
ond are permanent. 
The teeth of childhood 
are twenty: eight in- 
cisor, or cutting, four 
canine, and eight mo- 
lars, or grinding teeth. 

Fig. 10. — o. Central in- 
cisor, b. Lateral incisor. 
c. Canine, d. First molar. 
e. Second molar. 



The permanent teeth are thirty-two, sixteen in each jaw. The eight 
central are called incisors, or cutting; next are the four canine, or eye 
teeth ; then the eight bicuspids, or small double ; and lastly, tivelve 
molars, or grinding. Each lateral half of each jaw, reckoning from the 
centre, contains two incisors, one canine, two bicuspids, and three molars. 



d e f 


In Fig. 11, a is the central incisor, b. Latera. incieor. c. Cuspid, or canine, d. First 
bicuspid, c. Second bicuspid. /. molar, g. Second molar, h. Third molar. 

A tooth is composed of a firm external crust, called enamel ; the 
tooth bone proper, called the ivory ; and a cortical substance, called 
cementum. The enamel covers the exposed surface of the crown, mid 

Fig. 12. 


S T E O L G i' 

the ceinentum forms a thin coating over the root of the tooth. Its 
structure is similar to bone, and exhibits numerous calcigerous cells 
and tubuli. The cementum becomes thicker in old age, and gives rise 
to appearances in old persons called exostosed ; the same appearances 
are also produced by mercury and other drugs. 

In Fig. 12 are seen the number, arrangement, and nervous coanec- 
tion of a complete set of infant teeth, with the rudiments of the second 
set, or permanent teeth. The cut represents the jaws of a child at the 
age of about four years. 

Periods of Dentition. — The temporary teeth usually appear in 
the following order, the lower teeth generally preceding the upper : In 
the seventh month the two middle incisors ; in the ninth the two lateral 
incisors ; in the twelfth the first molares ; in the eighteenth the canine ; 
and in the twenty-fourth the two last molares. This order, however, is 
subject to considerable irregularity. 

The permanent teeth generally appear : 

First molares, at 6£ years. Second bicuspids, 10th year. 

Two middle incisors, 7th year. Canine, 11th to 12th year. 

Two lateral incisors, 8th year. Second molares, 12th to 13th year. 

First bicuspids, 9th year. Last molares, 18th to 21st year. 

The last grinding tooth, from its late development, is called dens 
sapienta, or wisdom tooth. Occasionally it does not appear till twenty- 
five or thirty years of age, or even later. 

The Hyoid, or tongue bone, called os hyoides, is situated at the base 
of the tongue, supporting it and the upper part of the larynx. It consists 
of a central body, two processes, which project backward, called the 
greater cornua, and two lesser cornua, ascending from its angles. 

Fig. 13 is a front view of it. 1. The convex or antcro- 
superior side of the body. 2. Greater cornua of the left 
side. 3. Lesser cornua. 

In early life the cornua and body are con- 
nected by cartilages and ligaments which be- 
come ossified in old age. 


The sternum, or breast bone, in front, and the twelve pairs of ribs 
on the sides, constitute the thorax- 

The Sternum is situated in the central line of the front part of 
the chest; its upper end lies within a few inches of the vertebral 
column, while its inferior extremity projects considerably forward. Its 



upper end is called manxbriun, to each side of which the clavicle m 
attached. The middle portiou is called the body, and the inferior ex- 
tremity terminates in the xiphoid, or ensiform cartilage. 

Fig. 11. 

An anterior view of the thorax is 
represented in Fig. 11. 1. The ma- 
nubrium. 2. Body. 3. Ensilorm 
cartilage. 4. First dorsal vertebra. 
5. Last dorsal vertebra. G. First rib. 
7. Head of first rib. 8. Its neck. 
9. Its tubercle. 10. Seventh rib. 
11. Costal cartilages of the ribs. 12. 
Last two false ribs. 13. The groove 
along the lower border ci each rib. 

The Ribs.— The first or 
upper seven pairs are called 
sternal, or true ribs, because 
they are articulated with the 
sternum. The five lower 
pairs are called false, or as- 
ternal, and are connected 
with each other in front by 

The ribs increase in length 
from the first to the eighth, 
and then diminish to the 
twelfth. In breadth they diminish from the first to the last, 
excepting the two lower ones. The first is horizontal, and all tho 
rest oblique, the anterior end falling considerably below the vertebral 
end. Each rib is curved to correspond with the arch of the thorax, 
and twisted upon itself. Near the vertebral extremity the rib is bent 
upon itself, forming an angle for the attachment of the tendon of the 
sacro-lumbalis muscle. Behind this angle is the rough elevation called 
the tubercle. The vertebral end of the rib is expanded into a head for 
articulation with two contiguous vertebras. The two lower false ribs 
are much shorter than the others, and are called floating ribs. 

The sternal ends of the ribs are cartilaginous, thus contributing 
mainly to the elasticity of the thorax ; in old age these costal cartilages 
are more or less ossified. The first seven cartilages articutoe with the 
sternum ; the three next with the lower border of that ; *^ediately 
preceding ; and the last two lie free between the abdominal* muscles. 
Each rib articulates with two vertebras posteriorly, and one costal carti- 
lage in front, except the first, tenth, elevea'h, and twelfth, which are 
only articulated with a single verte ra eacl 





Each upper extremity comprises the clavicle, or collar bone ; the 
scapula, or shoulder blade ; the humerus, or arm bone ; the ulna and 
radius, bones of the fore-arm ; the bones of the carpus, or wrist ; and 
the metacarpus and phalanges of the fingers. 

The Clavicle, or collar bone, extends across the upper part of the 
side of the chest, from the upper end of the sternum to the point of the 
shoulder, where it is articulated with the scapula. Its position is some- 
what oblique, and in shape it resembles the italic letter f. 

The Scapula, or shoulder blade, is a flat, triangular bone, occupying 
the space from the second to the seventh rib, upon the posterior aspect 
and side of the thorax. The anterior surface is concave, and marked 
by several oblique ridges. The posterior surface, called dorsum, is con- 
vex, and divided into two unequal portions by a ridge, called the spine. 
The superior border is the shortest ; one of its terminating extremities 
is called the superior angle, and the other the coracoid 2>rocess. The 
anterior angle is the thickest portion of the bone, and forms its head. 
On this head is a shallow articulating surface called the glenoid cavity, 
which receives the head of the humerus. Above and overhanging the 
glenoid cavity rises a projection called the acromion, Fig. 15. 

on the anterior border of which is an oval articular 
surface for the outer end of the clavicle. A strong, 
curved prominence rises from the upper part of the 
neck, called coracoid process, which gives attachment 
to several ligaments and muscles. The position and 
form of the scapula and clavicle may be seen in Fig. 1. 

The Humerus, or arm bone, is long, cylindrical, 
and divisible into a shaft and two extremities. The 
upper extremity is divided into a head, which is artic- 
ulated with the scapula, neck, and greater and lesser 
tuberosity. The lower extremity is divided into two 
articular surfaces, the external of which is a rounded 
prominence, called eminentia capitata, which articu- 
lates with the head of the radius ; the internal is con- 
cave, and articulates with the ulna. 

Fig. 1 5 is a front view of the right humeral bone. 1 . The Bhaft. 
2. Head. 3. Ifcck. 4. Greater tuberosity. 5. Lesser tuberosity. 
6. A groova JBed bicipital. 7, 8. Bicipital ridges. 9. A rough 
surface to wSich the deltoid muscle is attached. 10. A foramen 
for nutrient vess»ls. 11. Eminentia capitata. 12. The trochlea. 
13. External condyle. 14. Internal jondyle. 15,16. Condyloid 
ridges. 17. Fossa for receiving tho coronoid process of the 



Fig. 16. 

The Ulna and Radius are the boues of the fore-arm. The ulna is 
a long bone, slender in the middle, and larger at its upper than its ■ 
lower extremity. The upper end forms principally the articulation of 
the elbow; the lower end is excluded from the wrist joint by an inter- 
vening cartilage. On its upper extremity is a large semilunar con- 
cavity, called the greater sigmoid notch, for articulation with the 
humerus ; and on its outer side is a smaller sigmoid notch, which 
articulates with the head of the radius. On the 
posterior side of the greater notch is the olecranon 
process. The lower extremity terminates in a small 
rounded head, from one side of which projects a pro- 
cess, called styloid ; on the opposite side of the head 
is a smooth surface for articulation with the side of 
the radius. 

The Radius is the rotatory bone of the fore-arm. 
Its upper end is small, and its lower large, forming 
almost the whole of the wrist joint. Its upper ex- 
tremity presents a rounded head, the side of which 
articulates with the ulna. The lower end is broad 
and triangular, having two articular surfaces — one at 
the side, for the head of the ulna, and the other at 
its extremity, for connecting with the scaphoid and 
semilunar bones of the wrist. 

Fig. 16 exhibits the ulna and radius in front. 1. Shaft of tho 
ulna. 2. Greater sigmoid notch. 3. Lesser sigmoid notch, i. 
Olecranon process. 5. Coronoid process. 6. Nutritive foramen. 

7. Sharp ridges to which the interosseous membrane is attached. 

8. Capitulum ulna?. 9. Styloid process. 10. Shaft of the radius. 
CXNA and radius. " L Its hoad - 12 - Its neck - 13. Its tuberosity. 14. The oblique 

line. 15. Lower extremity. 1(5. Its styloid process. 

The anterior surface of the iddius is somewhat concave superiorly, 
where the long flexor muscle of the finger is lodged, and flat below 
where it supports the pronator quadratus muscle. The nutritive fora- 
men ,s seen near the upper third of this surface, directed upward, 
ihe posterior surface is round above, where it supports the short 
supinator muscle, and marked by several shallow, obliqua grooves be- 
low where the extensor muscles of the thumb are attached. Most 
ol the tendons of the extensor muscles of the fingers arise from 
grooves and ridges around the projecting point of its lower extremity 
which point is called its styloid process. extremity, 




These are eight in number, arranged 
in two rows, which constitute the car- 
pus. The first row, counting from the 
side of the radius, comprises the sca- 
phoid, semilunar, cuneiform, and pisi- 
form ; the second row, the trapezium, 
trapezoides, magnum, and unciform. 
Their shape and position are seen in 
Fig. 17, which represents the outside 
of the right hand. 

1. Lower end of the radius. 2. Lower end of 
the ulna. 3. Interarticular cartilages, attached to 
the styloid process of the ulna, and to the margin 
of the articular surface of the radius. S. The 
scaphoid. L. Semilunar. C. Cuneiform. P. Pi- 
siform. T. Trapezium. T. Trapezoides. M. Os 
magnum. U. Unciform. 

Fig. 17. 



These are divisible into the meta- 
carpus and phalanges. The metacarpus 
is composed of the five long bones be- 
tween the fingers and wrist; that per- 
taining to the thumb is one third shorter 
than the others. The phalanges are 
the finger bones ; they are fourteen in 
number, three belonging to each finger, 
and two to the thumb. 

Fig. 18 shows the aspect of the hand anteriorly. 
1. The scaphoid bone. 2. Semilunar. 3. Cunei- 
form. 4. Pisiform. 5. Trapezium. 6. A groove 
in the trapezium, which lodges the tendon of the 
f.exor carpi radialis. 7. Trapezoides. 8. Os 
magnum. 9. Unciform. 10, 10. The five meta- 
carpal bones. 11, 11. First row of phalanges. 
12, 12. Second row. 13, 13. Third row. 14. First 
phalanx of the thumb. 15. Second do. 

Fig. 18. 



The pelvis is composed of the two ossa innominata, which form its 
•ides and front, and the sacrum and coccyx behind. Anatomists divide 



it into a true and false pelvis. The true is the poition beneath a line, 
called linea ilio pectinea, which forms the margin, or brim, of its 
proper cavity ; the false pelvis is the part above, and is in reality the 
lower part of the abdominal cavity. 

Fig. 19. 


Fig. 19 is a front 
view of a female pel- 
vis, which is broader 
its cavity more shal- 
low, and the bones 
lighter than in the 
male. 1. The last 
lumbar vertebra. 2, 
2. The intervertebral 
substance connecting 
the last lumbar ver- 
tebra with the fourth 
and sacrum. 3. Pro- 
montory of the sa- 
crum. 4. Anterior 
surface of the sa- 
crum, on which the 
transverse lines and 
foramina are seen. 
5. Lower point or tip 
of the coccyx. 6, 6. 
The iliac fossae, form- 
ing the lateral bound- 
aries of the false pel. 
vis. 7. Anterior su- 
perior spinous process of the ilium — left side. 8. Anterior inferior spinous process. 9. 
The acetabulum, a. The notch of the acetabulum, b. Body of the ischium, c. Its 
tuberosity, d. The spine of the ischium seen through the obturator foramen, c. Os 
pubis. /. Symphisis pubis, g>. Arch of the pubes. A. Angle of the os pubis, i. Spine 
of the pubes ; the prominent ridge between h and i is the cre6t of the pubes. k, k. Pecti- 
neal line of the pubes. I, I. The ilio-pectineal line ; in, m, its prolongation to the promontory 
jf the sacrum. The brim of the true pelvis is represented by the line h, i, kk, 11, mm, 
n. The ilio-pectineal eminence, o. The smooth surface which supports the femoral ves- 
sels, p, p. The great sacroischiatic notch. 

The pelvis is situated obliquely in relation to the trunk of the body, 
the inner surface of the ossa pubis being directed upward to support 
♦.he superincumbent viscera of the abdomen. Its cavity measures in 
depth four inches and a half posteriorly, three and a half in the mid- 
dle, and one and a half at the symphisis pubis. Its inlet has three 
diameters, anteroposterior, transverse, and oblique. Its outlet has two, 
the antcro-posterior and transverse. 

Each os innominatum is divided into three portions, which, in the 
young subject, constitute separate bones; they are called os ilium, 03 
ischium, and os pubis. The ilium is the upper expanded portion form- 
ing the prominence of the hip, and articulating with the sacrum. The 



ischium is the inferior strong part of it on which the body rests in 
sitting. The pubis forms the front of the pelvis, and supports the ex- 
ternal genital organs. 

The acetabulum is a deep cavity at the junction of the three portions 
of the innominatum, for receiving the head of the femur, or thigh bone. 
Between the ischium and pubis is a large oval opening, called obturator 
foramen ; it is covered by a ligamentous membrane ; a groove in its 
upper part lodges the obturator vessels and nerves. 


These are the femur, patella, tibia and fibula, tarsus, metatarsus, and 
The Femur, or thigh bone, is the longest in the body ; it stands ob 

liquely between the hip and knee, this obliquity 
being greatest in the female, on account of the 
greater breadth of the pelvis. Its upper extremity 
is divided into a rounded head, a neck, a large pro- 
cess, called trochanter major, situated on the outside, 
and a smaller projection on the inside, called tro- 
chanter minor. The lower extremity is broad, and 
divided into two condyles, which articulate with 
the tibia and fibula. 

Fig. 20 is the right femur, seen anteriorly. 1. The shaft. 2. 
Head. 3. Neck. 4. Great trochanter. 5. Anterior intertro" 
chanteric line. 6. Lesser trochanter. 7. External condyle. 
8. Internal condyle. 9. The tuberosity to which the external 
lateral ligament is attached. 10. The fossa for the tendon of the 
origin of the popliteal muscle. 11. The taberosity fbr the inter- 
nal lateral ligament. 

The Patella, or knee-pan, is one of the sesamoid 
bones ; it is developed in the tendon of the muscle 
called quadriceps extensor ; its figure is heart- 
shaped, and it is articulated with the condyles of 
the femur. 

The Tibia and Fibula are the bones of the leg. 
The Tibia is the inner and largest. Its upper end 
is expanded into two tuberosities, the upper surfaces 
of which are smooth, for articulation with the femur. 
On the outer side of the external tuberosity is an 
articular surface which receives the head of the 
fibula. A spinous process rises between the artic- 

Fig. 20. 



ular surfaces, on. each side of which are depressions for the attachment 
of the crucial ligament. 

The lower extremity is nearly quadrilateral in shape, and prolonged 
on its inner side into a process, called internal malleolus. On its outer 
side is an articular surface, which unites it with the fibula. Below is a 
smooth triangular surface, which articulates with the astragalus. 

Fig. 21. A front view of the tibia and fibula, as articulated with each 

other, is seen in Fig. 21. 1. The shaft of the tibia. 2. Inner 
tuberosity. 3. Outer tuberosity. 4. Spinous process. 5. The 
tubercle. 6. Internal or subcutaneous surface of the shaft. 7. 
Lower extremity of tibia. 8. Internal malleolus. 9. Shaft of the 
fibula. 10. Its upper extremity. 11. Its lower extremity, called 
external malleolus. The sharp border between 1 and 6 is called 
the crest of the tibia. 

The Fibula is the outer and smaller bone. Its 
upper end, or head, is large and thick, having a con- 
cave surface, which articulates with the external 
tuberosity of the tibia. The lower end is prolonged 
beyond the articular surface of the tibia, thus forming 
the external malleolus, the internal surface of which 
is articulated with the astragalus. 

The Tarsus. — The tarsal bones are seven in 
number : astragalus, calcaneus, scaphoid, internal, 
middle, and external cuneiform, and cuboid. 

The Astragalus has a convex surface above for 
articulating with the tibia and fibula, and a concave 
surface oelow, which articulates with the calcaneus 
and scaphoid. 

The Calcaneus, oc heel bone, is of an oblong figure, 
articulated with the astragalus and cuboid. Into its 

BONES OF THE LEG. ]ower pfat thf} ^^ AchiUis> m gtrong cor( J of the 

heel, is inserted, which is sometimes ruptured in dancing, jumping, 

and other violent exercises. 

The Scaphoid is boat-shaped, convex before, where it articulates 

with the three cuneiform bones, and concave behind, to articulate with 
the rounded head of the astragalus. 

The Cuneiform bones are wedge-shaped, whence their name. The 
internal is the largest, and its convex internal surface assists in forming 
the inner border of the foot. It articulates with the scaphoid, middle 
cuneiform, and the first two metatarsal bones. Thef middle cuneiform 
is the smallest; it is connected with the scaphoid, internal and external 
cuneiform, and second metatarsal. The external ouneiform is articu- 



Fig. 22. 

lated with the scaphoid, middle cuneiform, cu- 
boid, and second, third, and fourth metatarsal. 

The Cuboid is irregularly cuboid in figure, 
articulating with the calcaneus, external cunei- 
form, and fourth and fifth metatarsal. 

The dorsal surface of the left foot is shown in Fig. 22. 1. 
The astragalus ; its superior quadrilateral articular surface. 
2. The anterior extremity of the astragalus, which articulates 
with the scaphoid. 3. Os calcis. 4. Scaphoid. 5. Internal 
cuneiform. 6. Middle cuneiform. 7. External cuneiform. 
8. Cuboid. 9. Metatarsal bones of first and second toes. 10. 
First phalanx of the great toe. 11. Second do. 12. First 
phalanx of second toe. 13. Second do. 14. Thiid do. 

The Metatarsus. — The metatarsal bones 
are five in number, situated between the toes 
and the tarsus. The first, pertaining to the great 
toe, is the thickest and shortest ; the second is 
the largest ; the third is smaller ; the fourth still 
smaller ; and the fifth has a large tuberosity on 
its outer side, in place of an articular surface. 
They are articulated with the tarsal bones pos- 
teriorly, and the first row of phalanges anteriorly, bones of the foot. 

The Phalanges. — The phalanges of the toes correspond with those 
of the fingers, there being two for the great toe, and three for each ot 
the other toes. The first row is convex above, concave beneath, and 
compressed on the sides. The second is short, yet rather broader 
than the first. The bones of the third are called unequal phalanges, 
and, including the second phalanx of the great toe, are flattened and 
spread laterally at the extremities, to articulate with the second row. 
and support the toe nails. 

sesamoid bones. 

These are small osseous masses, formed in tendons, which exert a 
degree of force upon the surface over which they glide. They serve 
to protect neighboring parts from injurious pressure and friction, by 
furnishing a sort of pulley for the tendons to play upon. The patella 
is a sesamoid bone. Besides this, there are four pairs found in differ- 
ent parts of the skeleton, as pr perly belonging to it — two upon the 
metacarpo-phalangeal articulation of each trrimb, and two upon the 
corresponding joint of the great toe. Sesamoid bones are frequently 
found upon the corresponding joints of the little finger and little toe. 


also in the tendon of the peroneus longus muscle, where it passes 
through the groove in the cuboid bone. Sometimes they are found in 
the tendons around the malleolar processes ; in the psoas and iliacus 
muscles, where they pass over the body of the os pubis, and in the 
external head of the gastrocnemius. The hones of the tympanum., be- 
onging to the auditory apparatus are sesamoid. 



The connection between any two bones constitutes a joint, or articu- 
lation. In movable joints the opposing surfaces are coated by an elastic 
substance, called cartilage ; this is lubricated by a fluid, called synovia, 
secreted by an enclosing membrane, called synovial ; while the bones 
are firmly held together by bands of glistening fibres, called ligaments. 

The forms of articulation are divided into three classes. 1. Synar- 
throsis, or fixed joint, as in the skull, upper jaw, vomer, and teeth. 
2. Diarthrosis, or movable, the shoulder, hip, elbow, wrist, knee, ankle, 
carpus, and tarsus. 3. Amphi-arthrosus, or intermediate, as in the 
bodies of the vertebra?. 

The motions of joints are of four kinds. 1. Gliding, the sliding 
motion of one articular surface upon another. It exists to some extent 
in all joints, and is the only motion in the carpus and tarsus. 2. Angu 
lar, which may be forward, called flexion ; backward, called extension ; 
inward, called adduction; or outward, called abduction. Flexion and 
extension are illustrated in the knee and elbow, and, more or less, in 
most other joints ; adduction and abduction are seen complete in the 
shoulder, hip, and thumb. 3. Circumduction, which consists in a slight 
motion of the head of a bone, while the extremity is made to describe 
a large circle, as in the hip and shoulder. 4. Rotation, the movement 
of a bone on its own axis, as with the radius, the atlas upon the axis, 
and in the hip and shoulder. 

The structures in the formation of a joint, in addition to the bone, 
are cartilage, fibrous tissue, adipose tissue, and synovia] membrane. 

The cartilage of joints serves not only to connect different bones, 
but also as a separating medium. It forms a thin coating to the articu- 
lar surface, and has been classed into true, reticular, and fibrous. 

Fihro-is tissue about the joints exists in the form of ligament, some- 



times constituting bands of various breadth and thickness, and some- 
times layers, which extend around the joints ; these are called capsular 

Adipose tissue is found in greater or less quantities about joints, 
where it serves to fill up vacant spaces, and probably increase their 

Synovial membrane is the smooth, polished lining of a joint which 
secretes the synovia, and enables opposing surfaces to move upon each 
other with the most perfect ease and freedom. 


In Fig. 23 is seen a portion of fibrous cartilage, largely magnified. Its dcve'.iprnent 
uas already been described ; the different kinds of cartilaginous structure arc owing t9 
subsequent changes in the cells and intercellular substance. 


The connecting media of joints are generally named from nome 
prominent circumstance in relation to form, position, points of connec- 
tion, etc., as capsular, surrounding ; transverse, running across ; occi- 
fito-axoid, attached to and holding together the occipital and axis 
bones; lateral, connecting the sides of articulating bones, etc.; hence, 
except with the most important ligaments, the name will bo a sufficient 

The Vertebral Joints. — The vertebra? are held together by the 
following ligaments : 1. Intervertebral substance, a disc of fibrous car? 
tilage interposed between the bodies of all the vertebra?. This varies 
in thickness in different parts of the column, which circumstance con- 
tributes much to the formation of the vertebral curves. 2. Anterior 
common ligament, a broad, thin band of fibres attached to the bodies of 
the vertebra? in front, and extending along the whole column from the 
neck to the sacrum. 3. Posterior common ligament, attached to the 



Fig. 24. 

bodies behind in a similar manner. 4. Ligamenta subflava, two thin 
plates of yellow fibrous tissue, situated between the arches. 5. Cap- 
sular ligaments, loose synovial membranes surrounding the articular 
processes. 6. Inter-spinous ligaments, thin membranous bands ex- 
tended between the spinous processes in the dorsal and lumbar regions. 
7. Supraspinous ligament, a strong, inelastic fibrous cord, extending 
from the apex of the spinous process of the last cervical vertebra to 
the sacrum, being attached in its course to each spinous process. 

8. Inter-transverse ligaments, 
connecting only the transverse 
processes of the lower dorsal 

The connection of the anterior liga- 
ments and those of the ribs is seen in 
Fig. 24. 1. Anterior common ligament. 
2. Anterior costo-vertebral ligament. 3. 
Anterior costo-transverse ligament. 4. 
Interarticular ligament connecting tho 
head of the rib to the intervertebral sub- 
stance, and separating the two synovial 
membranes of this articulation. 


The Neck Joint. — There are seven ligaments connecting the atlas 
with the os occipitis : Two anterior ligaments, one of which is a 
rounded cord, attached above to the base of the occipital, and below to 
the anterior tubercle of the atlas ; the other is a broad membranous 
layer, lying deeper, attached to the margin of the occipital foramen 
above, and to the whole length of the anterior arch of the atlas below ; 
a posterior ligament, thin and membranous, attached above to the mar- 
gin of the occipital foramen, and below to the posterior arch of the 
atlas ; two lateral ligaments, strong fascicula of fibres, attached below 
to the base of the transverse process of the atlas, at each side and 
above to the transverse process of the occipital bone ; two capsular 
ligaments, thin ligamentous capsules surrounding the synovial mem- 
branes of the articulation, between the condyles of the occipital bone 
and the superior articular processes of the atlas. The motions between 
the cranium and atlas are flexion and extension. 

The axis is articulated with the occipital bone by three ligaments— 
the occipito-axoid, a broad band covering the odontoid process and its 
ligaments, and two odontoid, short, thick fibrous fasciculi, which pass 
outward from the apex of the odontoid process to the sides of the 
occipital foramen and condyles. These ligaments are called check liga 
ments, because they limit the rotatory movements of the head 



The atlas is articulated with the axis by five ligaments. The ante- 
rior consists of ligamentous fibres, passing from the anterior tubercle 
and arch of the atlas to the base of the odontoid process and body of 
the axis. The posterior is a thin membranous layer, which passes be- 
tween the posterior arch of the atlas and the laminae of the axis. The 
two capsular loosely surround the articular processes of the atlas and 
axis, and permit great freedom of movement. The transverse is a 
strong band, arching across the area of the ring of the atlas, from one 
articular process to the other. It retains the odontoid process of the 
axis in connection with the anterior arch of the atlas. Where it 
crosses the odontoid process, some fibres pass downward to be attached 
to the body of the axis, and others are sent upward to the basilar pro- 
cess of the occipital bone. This disposition enables the atlas, and 
with it the whole head, to rotate upon the axis, its extent of rotation 
being limited by the odontoid ligaments. 

Fig. 25 is a posterior view of the ligaments 
connecting the atlas, axis, and occipital 
bone. The back part of the occipitis and 
the arches of the atlas and axis have been 
removed. 1. The superior part of the 
oecipito-axoid ligament, which has been 
cut away to show the ligaments beneath. 
2. Transverse ligament of the atlas. 3, 4. 
Ascending and descending slips of the 
transverse ligament, which have given to it 
the title of cruciform. 5. One of the odon- 
toid ligaments; the other is seen on the 
opposite side. 6. One of the occipito-atloid 
capsular ligaments. 7. One of tho atlo- 
axoid capsular ligaments. NECK JOINT POSTERIORLY 

Joints of the Lower Jaw. — These are formed by the external 
lateral ligaments, short, thick bands of fibres extending obliquely back- 
ward from tho zygomas to the external surface of the necks of the 
lower jaw ; the capsular ligament, consisting of a few irregular fibres 
passing from the edges of the glenoid cavities- to the necks; the inter- 
articular fibrous cartilages, thin, oval plates, thicker at the edges than 
in the centre, placed horizontally between the heads of the condyles 
and the glenoid cavities, thus dividing each joint into an upper and a 
lower cavity ; find the synovial membranes, one situated above and one 
below the cartilages. 

The movements of the lower jaw are depression and elevation, 
by which the mouth is opened and shut ; also a forward, backward, 
and lateral movement from siJe to side, constituting the grinding 



Fig. 26. 

Fig. 27. 


Fig. 26 is an external view of this articulation. 1. The zygomatic arch. 2 Tubercto 
of the zygoma. 3. Ramus of the lower jaw. 4. Mastoid portion of the temporal bone. 
5. External lateral ligament. 6. Stylo-maxillary ligament. 

Fig. 27 is an internal view. 1. A section through the petrous portion of the temporal 
bone, and spinous process of the sphenoid. 2. An internal view of the ramus and part 
of the body of the lower jaw. 3. Internal portion of the capsular ligament. 4. Internal 
lateral ligament. 5. A small opening at its insertion, where the milo-hyoidean nerve 
6. Stylo-maxillary ligament. 

Fig. 28. 

Tsie Costo-VertebraI/ Joints. — The ribs have a double articular 
connection with the vertebra. 1. By ligaments connecting the head 
of the rib with the bodies of the vertebra. 2. Those connecting the 
neck and tubercle of the rib with the transverse processes of the vertebra;. 
This arrangement renders dislocation impossible, as the neck of the rib 
would break before dislocation could occur. In addition, most of these 
costo-vertebral articulations have a capsular, inter articular, and three 
transverse ligaments, named, from their 
positions, anterior, middle, and posterior 
costo-transverse ligaments. 

Fig. 28 is a posterior view of a part of the tho- 
racic portion of the vertebral column, showing 
the ligaments connecting the vertebrae with each 
other, and the ribs with the vertebrae. 1, 1. Tho 
supraspinous ligament. 2, 2. Ligamenta subflava, 
connecting the lamina?. 3. Anterior costo-trans- 
verse ligament 4. Posterior costo-transverse lig- 

The movements of these articulations 
are upward and downward, and slightly 
backward and forward, all the move- 
ments increasing from the head to the 
costo-vertebrai. jojnts. anterior extremity of the rib. 

SYNI' J5SM0L0GY. 83 

Costo-Sternal Joints. — In front the ribs are articulated with the 
sternum, and some of them with each other. The ligamentous con- 
nections are the anterior, posterior, superior, and inferior costo-sternal, 
and the synovial membranes. The sixth, seventh, eighth, and some- 
times the fifth and ninth costal cartilages have a perfect synovial mem- 
brane, and articulate with each other. 

The motions of these articulations are limited to a slight sliding 

Joints of the Sternum. — The pieces of this bone are connected 
vy a thin plate of interosseous ligament, and anterior and posterior 
sternal ligaments, which conti-ibute very much to its strength, and to 
the elasticity of the front of the chest. 

Vertebro-Pelvic Joint. — The last lumbar vertebra and the sa- 
crum are connected by the same general ligaments as are the vertebrae 
with each other ; in addition to which there are two proper ligaments, 
called lumbosacral and lumbo-iliac. 

Joints of the Pelvis. — There are four articulations of the pelvic 
bones. 1. Sacro-iliac, the connection of which is formed by an ante- 
rior and posterior sacro-iliac ligament. The latter is also called inter- 
osseous ; it is composed of strong fibres passing horizontally between 
the rough surfaces of the sacro-iliac articulations. 2. Sacro-ischiatic, 
the union of the sacrum and ischium, formed by the anterior and poste- 
rior sacro-ischiatic ligaments. The upper border of the anterior forms 
part of the boundary of the great sacro-ischiatic foramen ; and its lower 
border a part of the lesser sacro-ischiatic foramen. The superior border 
of the posterior forms also a part of the lesser sacro-ischiatic foramen, 
and its lower border a part of the boundary of the perineum. The 
two ligaments conveit the sacro-ischiatic notches into foramina. 

Sacro-Coccygean Joint. — Between the sacrum and coccyx is a 
soft fibrous cartilage. The bones are held together also by the ante- 
rior and posterior sacro-coccygean ligaments. This articulation admits 
of a backward motion during parturition. 

Pubic Joint. — The ossa pubis are connected together by an inter- 
osseous cartilage, the anterior, posterior, superior, and sub-pubic liga- 
ments, which variously cross the symphisis, or place of union. The 
articulation becomes movable during parturition, and admits of a slight 
separation of the bones. 



The numerous vacuities in the walls of the pelvis, and their closure 
by ligamentous structures, diminish materially the pressure on the soft 
parts during the passage of the head of the foetus. 

Note. — The obturator ligament or membrane is a tendo-fibrous ex- 
pansion stretched across the obturator foramen. It is not concerned in 
articulation, but gives attachment to the obturator muscles, and leave* 
a space in the upper part of the foramen for the passage of the obturator 
vessels and nerves. 

Sterno-Clavicular Joint. — The breast and collar bones are con- 
nected by the anterior, posterior, sterno-clavicular, inter-clavicular, and 
costo-clavicular ligaments, an inter articular cartilage, and two synovial 
membranes. The motions of this articulation are gliding and circum- 
duction. This joint is the centre of the movements of the shoulder. 
In dislocations of the sternal end of the clavicle, the costo-clavicular 
ligament, called also rhomboid, is ruptured, occasioning a peculiar de- 

Fig. 29. 

Fig. 29 shows the ligaments of th» 
sterno-clavicular and costo-sternal articu- 
lations. 1. Anterior sterno-clavicular liga- 
ment. 2. Inter-clavicular ligament. 3. 
Costo-clavicular. 4. Interarticular carti- 
lage. 5. Anterior costo-sternal ligaments 
of the first and second ribs. 

Soapulo-Clavictjlar Joint 
— The shoulder blade and breast 
bone are connected by two sy- 
novial membranes, an interarticu 
lar cartilage, a superior acromio- 
clavicular, an inferior acromio- 
clavicular, and a coraco-clavicular 
ligament. This articulation admits of a gliding and rotatory move- 


Note. — The shoulder blade has two ligaments, coraco-acromial and 
transverse, which are proper to itself. The first is a thick triangular 
band, forming a protecting arch over the shoulder joint. The second 
crosses the notch in its upper border, thus converting it into a 

The Shoulder Joint — The scapula and humerus form a ball-and- 
socket articulation ; its ligaments are the capsular, coraco-humeral and 
glenoid. ' 



The ligaments of the scapula and shoulder 
joint are seen in Fig. 30. 1. Superior acromio- 
clavicular. 2. Coraco-clavicular. 3, Coraco- 
acromial. 4. Transverse. 5. Capsular. 6. Co- 
raco-humeral. 7. The long tendon of the 
biceps muscle issuing from the capsular liga- 
ment, and entering the bicipital groove. 

The capsular ligament encircles the 
heads of the scapula and humerus. 
The coraco-humeral is a broad band 
between the coracoid process of the 
scapula and the greater tuberosity of 
the humerus. The glenoid is a car- 
tilaginous band around the margin of 
the glenoid cavity, which it deepens. 

The synovial membrane of this 
joint is very extensive, and the articu- 
lation admits of every kind of motion. 

Fig. 30. 


The Elbow Joint. — At this aiticu- 
lation the humerus, ulna, and radius are connected by 
four ligaments in addition to its synovial membrane. 
They are the anterior, composed of fibres, which pass 
vertically, transversely, and obliquely, forming a broad 
membranous layer, between the anterior surface of 
the humerus and the coronoid process of the ulna and 
orbicular ligament ; the posterior, a broad loose layer 
between the posterior surface of the humerus and the 
olecranon; the internal lateral, a thick triangular 
layer passing between the inner condyle of the hu- 
merus to the margin of the greater sigmoid cavity of 
the ulna ; and the external lateral, a strong narrow 
band descending from the external condyle of the 
humerus to the orbicular ligament and ridge of the 

The motions of this articulation are flexion and ex- 
tension, the former being limited by the coronoid 
process, and the latter by the olecranon. 

An internal view of the ligaments is seen in Fig. 31. 1. Ante- 
rior. 2. Internal lateral. 3. Orbicular. 4. Oblique. 5. Inter- 
osseous. 6. Internal con Jyle of the humerus, which conceals the ELBOW J0INT Iir . 

posterior ligament. tehnaily. 



Fig. 32 is an external view of the elbow articulation. 1. Hu 

Fig. 32. merus. 2. Ulna. 3. Radius. 4. External lateral ligament in- 

serted below into the orbicular (5). 6. The posterior extremity 

of the orbicular, spreading out at its insertion into the ulna. 7. 

Anterior ligament. 8. Posterior ligament. 

Radio-Ulisar Joint. — The radius ana uma are 
held together by an inter articular cartilage, the 
lower surface of which enters into the articulation 
of the wrist; the orbicular ligament, which sur 
rounds the head of the radius, and is attached at 
each end to the extremities of the lesser sigmoid 
cavity ; the oblique ligament, a narrow slip between 
the coronoid process and the inner side of the ra- 
dius ; the interosseous ligament, a broad aponeurosis 
between the ridges of the radius and ulna ; and the 
anterior inferior, and posterior inferior ligaments. 
The orbicular ligament is necessarily ruptured in 
dislocations of the head of the radius. 

The lower part of the interosseous ligament is 
perforated for the passage of the anterior interosseous 
artery. The posterior interosseous artery passes 
backward between the oblique ligament and the 
upper border of the interosseous ligament. This 
ligament affords an extensive surface for the attach- 
ment of muscles. 
The movements of this joint are, the rotation of the radius upon the 
ulna ; the forward rotation is called pronation, and the backward supina- 
tion. The head of the radius also turns upon its own axis within the 
orbicular ligament and the lesser sigmoid notch of the ulna ; and inferiorly 
a concavity in the radius moves on the rounded head of the ulna. 

The anterior and posterior inferior ligaments are chiefly concerned 
in limiting the movements of the radius, and hence, in great muscular 
efforts are frequently raptured. 

The Wrist Joint.— This angulation is formed by the anterior, 
posterior, internal lateral, and external lateral ligaments, with the sy- 
novial membrane. Its motions are flexion, extension, adduction, ab- 
duction, and circumduction, in all of which movements the articular 
surfaces glide upon each other. The wrist joint is an example of the 
articulation called ginglymoid. The radial artery rests on the ex- 
ternal lateral ligament as it passes backward to the first metacarpal 




Fig. 33. 

The ligaments of the wrist and hand are seen an- 
teriorly in Fig. 33. 1. Interosseous mernbrane. 2. 
Anterior inferior radio-ulnar ligament. 3. Anterior 
ligament of the wrist. 4. Its external lateral. 5. Its 
internal lateral. 6. Palmar ligaments of the carpus. 
7. Pisiform bone, with its ligaments. 8. Ligaments 
connecting second range of carpal bones with the me- 
tacarpal, and these with each other. 9. Capsular liga- 
ment of the carpo-metacarpal articulation of the thumb. 
10. Anterior ligament of the metacarpophalangeal ar- 
ticulation of the thumb. 11. One of the lateral liga- 
ments of that articulation. 12. Anterior ligament of 
the metacarpophalangeal articulation of the index 
finger. 13. Lateral ligaments of the same joint ; the 
corresponding ligaments are seen in the other articu- 
lations. 14. Transverse ligament connecting the heads 
of the metacarpal bones of the index and middle fin- 
gers ; the same ligament is seen between the other 
fingers. 15. Anterior and one lateral ligament of the 
phalangeal articulation of the thumb. 16. Anterior 
and lateral ligaments of the phalangeal articulations 
of the index finger ; the anterior ligaments are re- 
moved in the other fingers. 

The Carpal Joints. — The carpal bones 
are connected by ligamentous bands, which 
pass transversely and longitudinally from 
bone to bone on the back, called dorsal 
ligaments ; by palmar ligaments, which 
have a similar disposition in front ; by interosseous cartilages between 
the bones ; and by a strong ligamentous band connecting the bones of 
the two sides, called anterior annular ligament. Five distinct synovial 
membranes enter into the carpal articulations. 

Between the bones of each range there is a slight movement of 
flexion and extension. 


The Carpo-Metacarpal Joints. — The second row of carpal bones 
articulates with the metacarpal finger bones by dorsal and palmar liga- 
ments ; and the metacarpal of the thumb is joined to the trapezium 
by a true capsular ligament. The metacarpal bones of the four fin- 
ger are connected at their bases by dorsal, palmar, and interosseous 
ligaments. The thumb, shoulder, and hip joints are the only ones in 
the body having true capsular ligaments. 

The movements of the carpo-metacarpal articulations are limited to 
a slight degree of sliding motion, except in the case of the metacarpal 
bone of the thumb with the trapezium, which has flexion, extension, 
adduction, abduction, and circumduction. 



Metacarpophalangeal Joints.— The metacarpal and finger 
bones are united by anterior nbro-cartilaginous ligaments, strong, nar- 
row lateral ligaments, and strong ligamentous bands, called transverse 

These articulations have the motions of flexion, extension, a limited 
adduction and abduction, and a slight degree of circumduction. 

Phalangeal Joints.— The finger bones are connected by an an- 
terior and two lateral ligaments. The extensor tendon performs the 
office of a posterior ligament, as with the preceding articulations. 

The movements are flexion and extension. 

The Hip Joint. — The head of the femur is received into the cup- 
shaped cavity of the acetabulum, forming a ball-and-socket joint. Its 
ligaments are the capsular, which embraces the acetabulum superiorly, 
and the neck of the femur inferiorly ; the ilio-femoral, an accessory 
Attachment to the anterior portion of the capsular; the ligamentum 
teres, which holds the centre of the head of the femur to the acetabu- 
lum ; the cotyloid, a cartilaginous cord around the margin of the ace- 
tabulum, which cavity it serves 
Fig- 34. . J 

to deepen ; the transverse, ex- 
tending across the notch of the 
acetabulur* ; and the synovial 
membrane, which invests the hea< 
of the femur, and spreads around 
the ligamentum teres. 

The hip joint has an extensive 
range of movements — flexion, ex- 
tension, adduction, abduction, cir- 
cumduction, and rotation. 

The ligaments of the pelvis and hip 
joint are partly shown in Fig. 34. 
Lower part of the anterior common li 
iment of the vertebra, extending down 
Ward over the front of the sacrum. 
Lumbosacral. 3. Lunibo iliac. 4. Ante- 
rior 8acro-iliac. 5. Obturator membrane 
6. Pouparfs ligament. 7. Gimbernat's 
8. Capsular. 9. Iliofemoral, or acces- 

The fossa at the bottom of the acetabulum is filled by an adipose 
mass, covered by synovial membrane, which serves as an elastic cushion 
to the head of the bone during its movements. 





A side view of the ligainent9 
of the pelvis and hip joint is 
seen in Fig. 35. 1. Oblique sa- 
cro-iliac. 2. Posterior sacro-is- 
chiatic. 3. Anterior sacro-ischi- 
atie. 4. Great sacro-ischiatic for- 
amen. 5. Lesser sacro-ischiatic 
foramen. 6. Cotyloid ligament 
of the acetabulum. 7. Ligamen- 
tum teres. 8. Edge of the cap- 
sular. 9. Obturator membrane 
partly exhibited. 

The Knee Joint. — 
The femur, tibia and fibu- 
la, and the patella, are con- 
nected at the knee joint 
by thirteen ligaments ; the 
first-named five are exter- 
nal, and the next five are 
internal to the articulation, 
and the remaining three 
are mere folds of synovial 

The anterior, or ligamentum patella, is a prolongation of the tendon 
of the extensor muscles of the thigh downward to the tubercle of tho 
tibia, enclosing the patella ; the posterior is a broad expansion covering 
the whole back part of the joint ; the internal lateral is a broad layer 
extending between the internal condyle of the femur and the inner 
tuberosity of the tibia ; the two external lateral connect the external 
condyle of the femur to the outer part of the head of the tibia, and the 
external semilunar cartilage of the articular surfaces with the fibula. 
Within the joint are the anterior and posterior crucial, which connect 
the head of the tibia with the condyles of the femur; the trans- 
verse, a slip of fibres extending between the semilunar and internal 
cartilages; the coronary, short fibres connecting the borders of the 
semilunar cartilages to the head of the tibia and surrounding liga- 

The semilunar cartilages are two falciform fibrous plates around the 
margin of the head of the tibia, serving to deepen the articular surface 
for the condyles of the femur. 

The synovial membrane of this joint is the most extensive in tho 
skeleton, investing the cartilaginous surfaces of the condyles of the 
femur, of the head of the tibia, and of the inner surface of the patella. 
Between it and the ligamentum patelce is a mass of fatty substance 





presses the membrane toward the interior of the joint, and occu- 
Fig. 36. pies the fossae between the condyles. 

A slender, conical process of synovial membrane, 
called llgamentum mucosum, proceeds from the 
transverse ligament. Its apex is connected with 
the anterior part of the condyloid notch, and its 
base is lost in the mass of fat which projects into 
the joint beneath the patella. The alar ligaments 
are two fringed folds of synovial membrane, ex- 
tending from the ligamentum mucosum along the 
edges of the mass of fat to the sides of the 

Fig. 36 exhibits a front view of the ligaments. 1. The ten. 
don of the quadriceps extensor muscle of the leg. 2. Patella. 
3. Anterior ligament. 4, 4. Synovial membrane. 5. Internal 
KNEE JOINT ANTE- lateral ligament. 6. The long division of the external lateral. 
RIORLY. 7. Anterior superior tibio-fibular ligament 

fig. 37. Fig. 37 gives a posterior view of the ligaments. 1. The 

fasciculus of the posterior ligament. 2. The tendon of the 
semi-membranous muscle, from which the posterior ligament 
is derived. 3. The process of the tendon which spreads out 
in the fascia of the popliteus muscle. 4. The process which 
is sent inward beneath the internal lateral ligament. 5. Pos- 
terior part of the internal lateral ligament. 6. The long 
division of the external lateral. 7. Its short division. 8. 
Tendon of the popliteus cut short. 9. Posterior superior 
tibio-fibular ligament. 

The movements of this joint are flexion and 
extension, with a slight degree of rotation when 
the knee is semi-flexed. 

Tibio-Fibular Joints.— The bones of the 
leg are firmly connected together at each ex- 
tremity by five ligaments : the interosseous, 
transverse, anterior, and posterior, to which is 
to be added the synovial membrane. 
The movements between these bones is a very slight degree of yield- 
ing or sliding motion. 

The Ankle Joint.— This is formed by the tibia and fibula with 
their malleolar processes above, and the astragalus below, connected 
by three ligaments : the anterior, a thin membranous layer • the in- 
ternal lateral, or deltoid, a triangular layer of fibres attached' above to 




the internal malleolus, and below to the astragalus, ca.cis, and scaphoid ; 
and the external lateral, which consists of three separate bundles of 
fibres, proceeding from the external mal- Fj „ 3g 

leolus. the anterior of which is attached to 
the astragalus, the posterior to the back 
part of the same bone, and the middle to 
the outer side of the os calcis. The 
motions of this joint are flexion and ex- 

Fig. 38 is an external view of the ankle articulation. 
1. Tibia. 2. External malleolus of the fibula. 3, 3. 
Astragalus. 4. Os calcis. 5. Cuboid. Anterior 
fasciculus of the external lateral ligament attached 
to the astragalus. 7. Its middle fasciculus attached 
to the calcis. 8. Its posterior fasciculus attached 
to the astragalus. 9. Anterior ligament. 


Fig. 39 is a posterior view of the ankle joint. 1. Lower part of 
the interosseous membrane. 2. Posterior inferior ligament con- 
necting the tibia and fibula. 3. Transverse ligament 4. Internal 
lateral. 5. Posterior fasciculus of the internal lateral. 6. Middle 
fasciculus of the external lateral. 7. Synovial membrane. 8. Os 

The Tarsal Joints. — The bones of the tarsus 
are connected by dorsal ligaments, which pass from 
each bone to all others contiguous : the plantar, 
which connect their under surfaces similarly, and 
the interosseous, of which there are five, situated 
between adjoining bones. These articulations admit 
of a slight degree of motion— -forward, backward,, 
and laterally ; and between the first and second range 
of bones adduction and abduction, with slight flexion 
and extension take place. 

Fig. 39. 


Tarso-Metatarsal Joints. — The ligaments connecting the tarsal 
and metatarsal bones are also dorsal, plantar, and interosseous. Tho 
synovial membranes are three. The only motion is a slight yielding to 

Metatarso-Phalangeal Joints. — The bones of the metatarsus 
are connected with those of the toes by ligaments, called plantar, 
lateral, and transverse, so arranged as to admit of flexion, extension, 
adduction, and abduction. The expansion of the extensor tendon sup- 
plies the place of a dorsal ligament. 




The Toe Joints.— The phalanges of the toes 
have the same ligamentous connection as those of 
the fingers, and the same variety and extent of 

The ligaments of the sole of the foot are seen in Fig. 40. 1. 
Os calcis. 2. Astragalus. 3. Tuberosity of the scaphoid. 4. 
Long calcaneocuboid ligament. 5. Part of the short calcaneo- 
cuboid. 6. Calcaneo-scaphoid. 7. Plantar tarsal. 8, 8. Ten- 
don of the peroneus longus muscle. 9, 9. Plantar tarso-meta- 
tarsal ligaments. 1(1. Plantar ligament of the metatarso- 
phalangeal joint of the great toe ; the same ligamont is seen 
upon the other toes. 11. Lateral ligaments of the metatarso- 
phalangeal joint. 12. Transverse ligament. 13. Lateral liga- 
ments of the phalanges of the great toe ; the same ligaments 
are seen upon the other toes. 

Note. — In amputations at the tarso-metatarsal 
joint, it must be understood that the metatarsal 
bone of the second toe is strongly wedged between 
the internal and external cuneiform bones, being 
the most firmly articulated of all the metatarsal 



j. he muscies are the moving organs of the body, They are com- 
posed of parallel fibres, of a deep red color, constituting lean Jlesh. 
These fibres are held together by a delicate web of areolar tissue, 
which becomes condensed and so modified toward the extremities of 
the muscles as to form glistening fibres and cords, called tendons, by 
which they are attached to the surface of the bones. 

The greater portion of the bulk of the body is composed of muscu- 
lar tissue. In the limbs the muscles invest and protect the bones and 
some of the joints. In the trunk they are spread out to enclose cavi- 
ties, and form a defensive wall, capable of yielding to external press- 
ure and again returning to its original position. The tendons of broad 
muscles are often spread out, forming expansions called aponeuroses. 


The names of muscles are generally de- 
rived from some prominent character in 
shape, structure, or use, or points of attach- 
ment. The more fixed or central point of 
attachment is called the origin of a muscle, 
and its movable extremity its insertion. Some 
muscles, however, pull equally at both ex- 

Structure or Muscle. — Muscular tis- 
sue is composed of bundles of fibres, of 
variable size, called fasciculi, enclosed in a 
cellular sheath. Each fasciculus is composed 
of smaller bundles, and each bundle of single 
fibres. These ultimate fibres, by microscopic 
examination, appear to be composed of still 
smaller fasciculi, called ultimate fibrils, en- 
closed in a delicate sheath, called myolemma. 
Anatomists distinguish two kinds of ultimate 
muscular fibre : that of voluntary, or animal 
life, and that of involuntary, or organic life. 

The ultimate fibre of animal life is distin- 
guished by uniformity of calibre, by its longi- 
tudinal striae, and by transverse markings, 
which occur at short regular distances. 
The ultimate fibrils are regarded as beaded 
filaments, consisting of a regular succession 
of segments and constrictions. An ultimate 
fibre is composed of a bundle of these fibrils, 
so disposed that all the segments and all the 
constrictions correspond, in this manner giving rise to alternate light 
and dark lines of the transverse striae. 


Fig. 42 represents an ultimate fibre of animal life, 
in which the transverse splitting into discs, in the 
direction of the constrictions of the ultimate fibrils, 
is seen. 

The ultimate fibre of organic life is a 
simple homogeneous filament, flat, without 
transverse markings, and much smaller 
than that of animal life. The fibres are 
collected into fasciculi of various sizes, and 
held together by dark nuclear fibres Gen- 

Fig. 42. 




erally a dark line, or several dark points, may be seen in the interior 
of the organic fibres ; and sometimes the fibre is enlarged at irregular 
distances ; these appearances are owing to the presence of vmobliter- 
ated nuclei of the cells from which the fibre was originally developed. 

In Fig. 43, 1 exhibits a muscular fibre of organic life from the 
bladder, magnified 600 times. Four of the nuclei are Been. 2 rep- 
resents a fibre of organic life from the stomach, equally magnified. 

Development of Muscular Fibre. — This is 
effected by the formation of nucleated cells out of an 
original blastema, or fluid substance capable of becom- 
ing organized, ana the conversion of the cells into the 
tubuli of ultimate fibres, by the process already de- 
scribed in relation to the development of bone, Avhile 
their contents are transformed into ultimate fibrils ; in 
this way the cell membranes constitute the myolem- 
ma, and their contents a blastema, out of which new 
cells are formed. 

rig. it. i n pjg 44^ i ; g a muscular fibre of animal life, enclosed in 

its myolemma. The transverse and longitudinal stria) are 
seen. 2, 2. Muscular fibres of animal life, more highly mag 
nified than the former. The myolemma is so thin and trans- 
parent that the ultimate fibrils can be seen through it. They 
show the nature of the longitudinal striae, as well as tbe 
formation of the transverse striae. 

The voluntary system, or that of animal life, 
is developed from the external or serous layer 
of the germinal membrane, and comprehends 
all of the muscles of the limbs and trunk. The 
involuntary, or organic system, is formed from 
the internal or mucous layer, and constitutes the thin muscular struc- 
ture of the alimentary canal, bladder, and interna] organs of genera- 
tion. At the commencement and termination of the alimentary canal, 
both classes of fibres are blended in the formation of the muscular coat. 
The heart is developed from the middie or vascular layer of germinal 
membrane, and is composed of ultimate fibres having the transverse 
striae of the muscles of animal life, although its action is involuntary. 



These have been divided into eight groups — cranial, orbital, ocular, 
nasal, superior labal, inferior labal, maxillary, and auricular. 

Cranial Group.— This has but one muscle, the occipito-frontalU 



It is a broad expansion, covering the whole side of tit e vertex of the 
skull from the occiput to the eyebrow. It arises by tendinous fibres 
from the outer two thirds of the upper curved line of the occipital, 
and from the mastoid process of the temporal bone. It is inserted 
above the orbit by means of a blending of its fibres with those of the 
orbicularis palpebrarum, corrugator supercilii, levator labii superioris 
aleeque nasi, and pyramidalis nasi- Its use is to raise the eyebrows, in 
doing which the integuments of the forehead are wrinkled. In some 
persons the whole scalp moves by the contraction of this muscle. 

Fig. 45. 

Fig. 45 shows the muscles of the head and 
face. 1. Frontal portion of the occipito-fron- 
talis. 2. Its occipital portion, 3. Its aponeu- 
rosis, or expansion. 4. Orbicularis palpebra- 
rum, which conceals the corrugator supercilii 
and tensor tarsi. 5. Pyramidalis nasi. 6. 
Compressor nasi. 7. Orbicularis oris. 8. 
Levator labii superioris alaeque naBi. 9. Le- 
vator labii superioris proprius ; the lower part 
of the levator anguli oris is seen between 10 
and 11. 10. Zygomaticus minor. 11. Zygo- 
matics major. 152. Depressor labii inferioris. 
13. Depressor anguli oris. 14. Levator labii 
inferioris. 15. Superficial portion of the mas- 
seter. 16. Its deep portion. 17. Attrahens 
aurem. 18. The buccinator. 19. Attollens 
aurem. 20. Temporal fascia covering in the 
temporal muscle. 21. Iletrahens aurem. 22. 
Anterior belly of the digastricus ; its tendon 
is seen passing through its aponeurotic pul- 
ley. 23. Stylo-hyoid, pierced by the posterior 
belly of the digastricus. 24. Mylo-hyoideus. 
25. Upper part of the stenio-mastoid. 26. 
Upper part of the trapezius. The splenius is muscles OF THE HEAD AND FACE, 
seen between 25 and 26. 

The Orbital Group.— Three muscles : 1. Orbicularis palpebrarum, 
a sphincter or closing muscle, which surounds the orbit and eyelids. 
2. Corrugator supercilii, a narrow, pointed muscle, arising from the 
inner extremity of the superciliary ridge ; inserted into the orbicularis 
palpebrarum. 3. Tensor tarsi, a very small muscle, arising froin tho 
orbital surface of the lachrymal bone ; inserted by two slips into the 
lachrymal canals. The use of this group is to close the lids, draw the 
eyebrows downward and inward, and extend the lachrymal canals. 

The Ocular Group. — This group consists of seven : ]. Levator 
palpebral, long, thin, and triangular, situated in the upper part of the 
orbit : arises from the upper margin of the optic foramen and sheath 


of the optic nerve ; inserted into the upper border of the upper tarsal 
cartilage. 2. Rectus superior, arising with the preceding; inserted 
into the globe of the eye about three lines from the margin of the 
cornea. 3. Rectus inferior ; arises from the inferior margin of the 
optic foramen and sheath of the optic nerve ; inserted into the inferior 
surface of the globe near the margin of the cornea. 4. Rectus internus, 
a short, thick muscle ; arises from the common tendon and the sheath 
of the optic nerve ; inserted into the inner surface of the globe near 
the margin of the cornea. 5. Rectus externus ; arises from the common 
tendon, and from the margin of the optic foramen ; inserted into the 
outer surface of the globe near the cornea. 6. Obliquus superior ; 
arises from the margin of the optic foramen and sheath of the optic 
nerve ; inserted into the sclerotic coat near the entrance of the optic 
nerve. 7. Obliquus inferior ; arises from the inner margin of the 
superior maxillary bone ; inserted into the outer and posterior part of 
the eyeball near the entrance of the optic nerve. 

Uses. — The levator raises the upper eyelids ; the four recti, when 
acting singly, pull the eyeball upward, downward, inward, and out- 
ward ; the superior oblique rolls the globe inward and forward ; the 
inferior oblique rolls the globe outward and backward. 

Fig. 4G. Fig. 46 is a view of the oculnr 

group, taken from the outer side of 
the right orbit. 1. A small fragment 
of the sphenoid bone around the en- 
trance of the optic nerve into the 
orbit. 2. Optic nerve. 3. Globe of 
the eye. 4. Levator palpebral mus- 
cle. 5. Superior oblique. 6. Its 
cartilnginous pulley. 7. Its reflected 
tendon. 8. Inferior oblique. 9. Su- 
perior rectus. 10. Internal rectus, 
almost concealed by the optic nerve. 
11. Parts of the external rectus, 
showing its two heads of origin. 12. Extremity of the external rectus at its insertion. 13. 
Inferior rectus. 14. The tunica albuginea, which is formed by the expansion of the ten- 
dons of the four recti muscles. 

The Nasal Group. — Three muscles : 1. Pyramidalis nasi, a slip 
of fibres extending from the occipito-frontalis downward upon the 
bridge of the nose ; inserted into the tendinous expansion of .he com- 
pressores nasi. 2. Compressor nasi, a thin triangular muscle ; arises 
from the canine fossa of the superior maxillary bone, and, spreading out 
on the side of the nose into a tendinous expansion, is continuous across 
its ridge with its fellow of the opposite side. 3. Dililator nans, a thin 
muscular slip expanded upon the ala of the nostril. 



Uses. — The first draws down the inner angle of the eyebrow, and 
assists the occipito-frontalis ; the second expands rather than com- 
presses the nostril: the last dilates the cavity of the nostril. 

The Superior Labial Group. — Seven muscles constitute this 
group : 1. Orbicularis oris, a sphincter completely surrounding the 
mouth, the use of which is to close the lips. 2. Levator labii superioris 
alaque nasi ; thin, triangular, arising from the nasal process ; inserted, 
by two distinct portions, into the ala of the nose and upper lip ; its use 
is to raise the upper lip, and expand the opening of the nose. 3. Leva- 
tor labii superioris proprius ; thin, quadrilateral, arising from the lower 
border of the orbit; inserted into the integument of the upper lip; its 
use is to elevate the upper lip. 4. Levator anguli oris, arising from 
the canine fossa of the upper jaw, and, passing outwardly, is inserted 
into the angle of the mouth, which it draws inward and upward. 5. 
Zygomaticus major, and zygomaticus minor ; two slender fasciculi of 
fibres, arising from the malar bone ; inserted into the angle of the 
mouth ; they pull the angle upward and outward, as in laughing. 7. 
Depressor labii superioris alceque nasi, an oval slip arising from the 
incisive fossa ; inserted into the upper lip, and into the ala and columna 
if the nose ; it lifts the upper lip, with the ala of the nose, and expands 
khe opening of the nares. 

The Inferior Labial Group. — Comprising three muscles: J. 
Depressor labii inferioris ; arises from the side of the symphisis of 
the lower jaw ; inserted into the orbicularis muscle and integuments 
of the lower lip ; it draws the under lip directly downward and a little 
outward. 2. Depressor anguli oris, a triangular plane, arising from 
the external oblique side of the lower jaw ; inserted into the angle of 
the mouth ; it pulls the angle of the mouth either downward and in- 
ward, or downward and outward, by the radiation of its fibres, as in the 
expression of grief. 3. Levator labii inferioris, a conical slip, arising 
from the incisive fossa of the lower jaw ; inserted into the integuments 
of the chin, which it raises and protrudes. 

The Maxillary Group. — Five muscles: 1. Masseter, short and 
thick, composed of- two planes of fibres, superficial and deep ; the 
superficial arises from the tuberosity of the upper jaw, the lower edge 
of the malar bone and zygoma, and is inserted into the ramus and angle 
of the lower jaw ; the deep layer arises from the back part of the 
zygoma, and is inserted into the upper half of the ramus. 2. Tempo- 
alis, a broad radiating muscle, occupying a considerable extent of the 


side of the head, and fitting the temporal fossa ; arises from the tem- 
poral ridge, temporal fascia, and temporal fossa, and converging into a 
strong, narrow tendon, is inserted into the coronoid process. 3. Bucci- 
nator ; arises from the alveolar processes of the upper jaw, and from 
the external oblique line of the lower jaw ; inserted into the angle of 
the mouth, where its converging fibres cross each other. 4. External 
pterygoid, a short, thick muscle, arising two-headed from the. sphenoid 
bone ; inserted into the neck of the lower jaw. 5. Internal pterygoid, 
thick, quadrangular, arising from the pterygoid fossa; inserted into the 
ramus and angle of the lower jaw. 

Uses. — This group comprises the active agents in mastication. The 
ouccinator circumscribes the cavity of the mouth, and shortens the 
cavity of the pharynx in deglutition. The masseter, temporal, and 
internal pterygoid close the jaws, and perform the bruising motions. 

Fig. 47. 


The two last mentioned, with the 
external pterygoid, carry the lower 
jaw forward upon the upper, thus 
producing the grinding motion. All 
of these muscles, acting successively, 
produce a lateral and rotatory move- 
ment of the lower jaw. 

The two pterygoid muscles are seen in Fig. 
47. The zygomatic arch and most of the ramus 
have been removed to bring them into view. 
I. The sphenoid origin of the external ptery- 
goid. 2. Its pterygoid origin. 3. Internal pte- 
rygoid muscles. 

The Auricular Group. — Three muscles: 1. Attollens aurem; 2. 
Attrahens aurem ; 3. Retrahens aurem. These small muscles of the 
ear possess ordinarily but little contractility ; they raise, extend, and re- 
tract the ear in the lower animals. 


The muscles of the neck are divided into eight groups, viz. : 
The Superficial Group — Twc muscles: 1. Platysma myoides ; 
arises from the integument over the pectoralis major and deltoid mus- 
cles ; inserted into the side of the chin, oblique line of the lower jaw, 
angle of the mouth, and cellular tissue of the face. It draws the angle 
of the mouth, depresses the lower j«w, also produces traction on the 
integuments of the neck. 2. Sterno-cleido-mastoid is the large oblique 
muscle of the neck; arises from the sternum and clavirle ; inserted 


into the mastoid process and occipital bone. Uses. — When both act 
together the head is bowed forward ; either one acting singly draws 
the head toward the shoulder, and carries the face toward the opposite 
side. When the clavicular portions act more forcibly than the sternal, 
they give steadiness to the head, enabling it to support great weights. 

Tin: Laryngeal Group. — This group is subdivided into depressors 
and elevators of the os hyoides and larynx. The depressors are four : 
1. Sterno-hyoideus, a ribbon-like band arising from the back of the 
upper bone of the sternum and inner extremity of the clavicle ; in- 
serted into the back of the os hyoides. 2. Sterno-thy roideus, a broader 
band, arising from the sternum with the preceding, and from the carti- 
lage of the first rib ; inserted into the oblique line of the great ala of 
the thyroid cartilage. 3. Thyro-hyoideus, arises from the oblique line 
of the thyroid cartilage ; inserted into the lower part of the body and 
great cornua of the hyoid bone. 4. Omo-hyoideus, arises from the 
upper border of the scapula and transverse ligament of the supra- 
scapular notch; inserted into the lower border of the body of the 
hyoid bone. 

Uses. — All these muscles pull down the os hyoides and larynx. The 
first three draw them downward in the middle line ; the latter inclines 
them to one or the other side, according to the position of the head. 

The elevators are four muscles: 1. Digastricus, a two-bellied mus- 
cle, arising from the inner side of the mastoid process of the temporal 
bone ; inserted into the lower jaw near its centre. 2. Stylo-hyoideus, 
a slender muscle, arising from the middle of the styloid process ; in- 
serted into the central part of the body of the os hyoides. 3. Mylo- 
hyoideus, a triangular plane, forming, with its fellow, the floor of the 
mouth; arising from the molar ridge of the lower jaw; inserted into 
the body of the os hyoides, and into the raphe of the two muscles. 
4. Genio-hyoideus, arising on the inner side of the centre of the lower 
jaw ; inserted into the upper part of the body of the os hyoides. 

Uses. — All these muscles raise the os hyoides when the lower jaw is 
closed, and act upon the lower jaw when the os hyoides is drawn down 
and fixed by its depressors. 

Thk Linguinal Group. — Five muscles : 1. Genio-hyo-glossus ; this 
is the proper muscle of the tongue ; arises, narrow and pointed, from 
a tubercle on the inner side of the centre of the lower jaw ; inserted 
by a fan-shaped attachment into the whole length of the tongue and 
body of the os hyoides. 2. Hyo-glossus, a square plane, arising from 
the great cornua and body of the os hyoides ; ir^serted into the side of 


the tongue. 3. Lingualis, consisting of a small bundle, running from 
the base to the apex of the tongue. 4. Stylo- glossus, arising from 
the styloid process and stylo-maxillary ligament; inserted into the sub- 
stance and side of the tongue. 5. Palato-glossus, constituting, with 
its fellow, the constrictor of the isthmus of the fauces ; is extended 
between the soft palate and base of the tongue. 

Uses. — The various directions of the fibres of the linguinal muscles 
give the tongue every conceivable variety of motion. The palato- 
glossi, assisted by the uvula, close the fauces completely in the act of 

The Pharyngeal Group. — Five muscles : 1. Constrictor inferior, 
arises from the upper rings of the trachea, cricoid and thyroid carti- 
lages ; inserted into the middle of the pharynx. 2. Constrictor medius, 
arises from the great cornu of the os hyoides and stylo-hyoidean liga- 
ment, and its fibres, radiating from the origin, are inserted into the 
pharynx and basilar process of the occipitis. 3. Constrictor superior, 
arises from the molar ridge of the lower jaw,, the internal pterygoid 
plate, and the pterygo-maxillary ligament ; inserted with the preceding. 
4. Stylo-pharyn geus, arising from the inner side of the base of the 
styloid process ; its fibres spread out beneath the mucous membrane of 
the pharynx, and are inserted into the posterior border of the thyroid 
cartilage. 5. Palato-plmryngeus, arises from the soft palate ; inserted 
into the inner surface of the pharynx and posterior border of the thy- 
roid cartilage. 

Uses. — The constrictors contract upon the food as soon as it passes 
into the pharynx, and convey it downward to the oesophagus. Tho 
stylo-pharyngei draw the pharynx upward and widen it laterally ; and 
the palato-pharyngei draw it upward and assist in closing the opening 
of the fauces. 

Palatal Group. — The muscles of the soft palate are three ; their 
situation is indicated by their names. They are : 1. Levator palati, 
which raises the soft palate. 2. Tensor palati, which extends the 
palate laterally, so as to form a septum between the pharynx and pos- 
terior nares. 3. Azygos uvula, which shortens the uvula. 

Prevertebral Group. — Five muscles: 1. Rectus anticus major, 
arises from the anterior tubercles of the transverse processes jf the 
third, fourth, fifth, and sixth cervical vertebrae ; inserted into the basilar 
process of the occipitis. 2. Rectus anticus minor, arises from the side 
of the atlas ; inserted with the preceding. 3. Scalenus anticus, a tri- 



angular muscle, arising with the rectus amicus major ; inserted into 
the inner border of the first rib. 4. Scalenus posticus ; arises from the 
posterior tubercles of all the cervical vertebras, except the first ; inserted 

Fig. 43. 

into the first and second ribs by 
fleshy fibres. 5. Longus colli, a 
long flat muscle, consisting of two 
portions, the upper arising from the 
anterior tubercle of the atlas, and 
inserted into the transverse processes 
of the third, fourth, and fifth cervi- 
cal vertebra? ; and the lower arising 
from the bodies of the second and 
third, and transverse processes of 
the fourth and fifth, and passing down 
the neck, to be inserted into the bo- 
dies of the three lower cervical and 
three upper dorsal vertebras. 

Uses. — The rectus major and mi- 
nor preserve the equilibrium of the 
head upon the atlas ; and when act- 
ing with the longus colli, flex and 
rotate the head and vertebra; of the 
neck. The scaleni flex the vertebral 
column, and assist in elevating the 
ribs in inspiration. 

The Laryngeal Group will be 
described with the anatomy of the 

In Fig. 48 the most prominent muscles of 
the head and neck are seen. A. Occipito 
frontalis. B. Attollens nurem. C. The con- 
cha. D. Orbicularis palpebrarum. K. Com- 
pressor naris. F. Zygomatieus major. G. 
Levator labii superioris alajque nasi. H. 
Zygomatieus minor. I. Levator anguli oris. 
K. Masseter. L. Depressor anguli oris. M. 
Sterno-cleido mastoideus. O. Depressor la- 
bii inferioris. P. Orbicularis oris. Q. Tern- 
porali.s. R. Splenius. S. Trapezius. T. 
Stertio-hyoideus. a. Helix, b. Anti-helix. 


The muscles of the back are divided into six layers. 

First Layep -Owo muscles: 1. Trapezius ; arises from the upper 



nurved line of the occipitis, ligament of the neck, and spines of the 
dorsal vertebrae ; inserted into the spine and acromion of the scapula, 
and scapular third of the clavicle. 2. Latissimus dorsi, covering; the 

Fiji 49. 


In Fig. 49 the first, second, and part of the third layer are seen ; the first on the right, 
and the second on the left side. 1. Trapezius. 2. The tendinous portion which forms, 
with the corresponding part of the opposite muscle, the tendinous ellipse on the back of 
the neck. 3. Acromion process and spine of the scapula. 4. Latissimus dorsi. 5. Del- 
toid. 6. Infra spinotus, teres minor, and teres major, all muscles of the dorsum of the 
scapula. 7. External oblique. 8. Gluteus medius. 9. Glutei maximi. 10. Levator 
anguli scapulas. 11. Rhomboideu/J minor. 12. Ithomboideus major. 13. Splenius capi- 
tis; the complexu8 is immediately above, and overlaid by it. 14. Splenius colli ; partially 
aeen. 15. Vertebral aponeurosis. 16. Serratus posticus interior. 17. Supra-spinatus. 
18. Infraspinatus. 19. Teres minor. 20. Teres major. 21. Long head of the triceps, 
passing between tne teres minor and major to the upper arm. 22. Serratus magnua, 
proceeding 'orward from its origin at the baso uf the srapu.'.. 23. Internal oblique. 


whole lower pnrt of the back and loins ; arises from the spines of the 
seven lower dorsal and all the lumbar "Vertebrae, sacral spines, back 
part of the crest of the ilium, and three lower ribs ; the fibres converge 
as they ascend, cross the lower angle of the scapula, curve around the 
lower border of the teres major, and are inserted into the bicipital 
groove of the humerus. 

Uses. — The upper fibres of the trapezius draw the shoulder upward 
and backward, the middle directly backward, and the lower downward 
and backward. The latissimus dorsi draws the arm backward and 
downward, and rotates it inward ; if the arm be fixed it will draw the 
spine to that side, and raise the lower rib, thus aiding inspiration ; if 
both arms be fixed, both muscles will draw the whole trunk forward, as 
in climbing, walking on crutches, etc. 

J otk.- — The ligamentum nucha is a thin cellulo-fibrous layer between 
the jccipital bone and spine of the seventh cervical vertebrae. 

Second Laykr. — Three muscles: 1. Levator anguli scapula; 
arises from the transverse processes of the four cervical vertebrae ; 
inserted into the upper angle and posterior border of the scapula. 2. 
Rhomboideus minor ; arises from the spines of the two last cervical 
vertebrae and ligamentum nuchae ; inserted into the posterior border of 
the scapula. 3. Rhomboideus minor ; arises from the spines of the last 
cervical and four upper dorsal vertebrae ; inserted, with the preceding. 

Uses. — The levator lifts the upper angle of the scapula, and with 
the rhomboidei carry the shoulder upward and backward. 

Third Layer. — These muscles all arise from the spines of the ver- 
tebral column, and pass outwardly. There are three of them : 1. 
Serratus posticus superior; arises from the spines of the lower cervical 
and upper dorsal vertebrae ; inserted into the upper borders of the 
upper ribs. 2. Serratus posticus inferior ; arises from the spines of 
the two last dorsal and three upper lumbar vertebrae ; inserted into the 
lower borders of the four lower ribs. 3. The splenius muscle, arising 
from the lower part of the ligamentum nuchae, and spines of the four 
lower cervical and six upper dorsal vertebrae ; inserted by two divisions, 
the first, called splenius capitis, into the occipital bone, and the second, 
called splenius colli, into the transverse processes of the upper cervical 

Uses. — The serrati are muscles of respiration ; their actions antago- 
nize, the posterior drawing the ribs upward to expand the chest, and 
the inferior drawing down the lower ribs, and diminishing the cavity of 
'.he chest thus rendering the first an inspiratory, and the second an 


expiratory muscle. The splenii of one side draw the vertebral col- 
umn backward and to one side, and rotate the head toward the cor- 
responding shoulder. The splenii of both sides acting together draw 
the head forward ; they antagonize the sterno-mastoid muscles. 

Fourth Layer. — Seven muscles : 1. Sarro-lumbalis ; arises from 
the back part of the crest of the ilium, posterior surface of the sacrum 
and lumbar vertebrae ; inserted by separate tendons into the angles of 
the six lower ribs. 2. Longissimus dorsi ; arises with the preceding; 
inserted into all the ribs between their tubercles and angles. 3. Spinalis 
dorsi ; arises from the spines of the two upper lumbar and throe lower 
dorsal vertebrae ; inserted into the spines of all the upper dorsal verte- 
bras. 4. Cervicalis ascendens ; arises from the angles of the four upper 
ribs ; inserted into the transverse processes of the four lower cervical 
vertebra. 5. Transversalis colli ; arises from the transverse processes 
of the four upper dorsal vertebrae ; inserted into the like processes of 
the five middle cervical. 6. Trachleo-masloid ; arises from the trans- 
verse processes of the four upper dorsal and five lower cervical verte- 
brae; inserted into the mastoid process. 7. Complexus, a large muscle, 
forming, with the splenius, the great bulk of the back of the neck ; 
arises from the transverse processes of the four upper dorsal, and 
transverse and articular processes of the five lower cervical vertebrae ; 
inserted into the occipital bone, near its spine. 

Uses. — These muscles hold the vertebral column erect, and assist in 
steadying the head ; the complexus contracts the muscles on the ante- 
rior side of the neck ; when the muscles of one side act alone, they 
produce a rotation of the head. 

Fifth Layer. — Seven muscles : 1. Semi-spinalis dorsi; arises from 
the transverse processes of the six lower dorsal, and is inserted into the 
spines of the four upper dorsal vertebrae. 2. Semi-spinalis colli ; arises 
from the transverse processes of the four upper dorsal, and is inserted into 
the spines of the five upper cervical vertebrae. 3. Rectus posticus major; 
arises from the spines of the axis; inserted into the lower curved line 
of the occipitis. 4. Rectus posticus minor; arises from the spinous 
tubercle of the atlas; inserted into the occipitis, below the former. 5 
Rectus lateralis ; arises _ from the transverse process of the atlas; in- 
serted into the occipitis, external to the condyle. 6. Obtiquus inferior: 
arises from the spine of the axis ; inserted into the extremity of the 
transverse process of the atlas. 7. Obliquus superior ; arises where 
the preceding is inserted ; inserted in?o the occipitis, between the 
curved lines. 



Uses. — The semi-spinales contribute to the support of the back in 
the erect position ; the recti produce the antero-posterior, and the 
obliqui the rotatory movement of the atlas on the axis. 

Sixth Layer. — Five muscles: 1. Multifidus spina, consisting of 
bundles of fibres, arising from the transverse processes of all the ver- 
tebra? from the sacrum to the axis ; inserted into the spines of the first 

or second vertebras above their origin, 
sisting of twelve distinct fasciculi on 
each side, which arise from the trans- 
verse processes of the dorsal vertebra?, 
and are inserted into the ribs below, 
between the tubercles and angles. 3. 
Sirpra-spinalis, composed of fasciculi 
arising from the lower cervical and upper 
dorsal vertebra? ; inserted into the spine 
of the axis. 4. Interspinals, small slips 
arranged in pairs, situated between the 
spines of all the vertebra. 5. Intcr- 
transversalcs, small quadrilateral slips 
between the transverse processes of all 
the vertebra?. 

Uses. — The levators raise the poste- 
rior parts of the ribs in inspiration; the 
others are auxiliaries to the larger mus- 
cles in supporting the body, and holding 
the bones in position. 

in Fig. 30 are seen the fourth and fifth, and part 
of the sixth layer. 1. Origin of the sacro-lumbaiis 
and longissimus dorsi. 2. Sacrolumbal. 3. 
Longissimus dorsi. 4. Spinalis dorsi. 5. Cervi- 
ealis ascendens. 6. Transvcrsalis colli. 7. 
Trachleo-mastoideus. 8. Complexus. 9. Trans- 
vcrsalis colli. 10. Semi-spinalis dorsi. 11. Semi- 
spinalis colli. 12. Rectus posticus minor. 13. 
Kcctus posticus major. 14. Obliquus superior. 
15. Obliquus inferior. ]G. Multifidus spinse. 17. 
Levatores costarum. 18. Intertransversales. 19. 
Quadratus lumborum. 

2. Levatores costarum, con- 
Fig. 50. 



The principal muscles of the thorax belong «,ls! to the upper ex- 
tremity. Those proper to the fhovnx are three : 


1. External intercostals 2. Internal interccstals. 3 Triangularis 

The intercostals are eleren internal and eleven external planes of 
muscular and tendinous fibres, situated obliquely between the adjacent 
ribs, and filling the intercostal spaces. The fibres of the external are 
directed obliquely downward and inward, and those of the internal ob- 
liquely downward and backward, so that they cross each other. 

The triangularis sterni is situated within the chest, connecting the 
side of the sternum and sternal extremities of the costal cartilages 
with the cartilages of the second, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth ribs. 
The lower fibres of this muscle are continuous with the diaphragm. 

Uses. — The intercostals raise or depress the ribs, as they act from 
above or below, being thus both inspiratory and expiratory. The tri- 
angularis is a muscle of expiration, by drawing down the costal carti- 


The muscles of the abominal region are nine in number : 
1. Obliquus externus ; this is the external, flat, descending muscle; 
its fibres arise by fleshy digitations from the eight lower ribs, and 
spread out to a broad aponeurosis, which is inserted into the outer part 
of the crest of the ilium for one half its length, into the anterior supe- 
rior spine of the ilium, spine of the pubis, pectineal line, front of the 
pubis, and linea alba. 

Note. — The lower border of the aponeurosis, between the spines 
of the ilium and pubis, is rounded from being folded inward, and forms 
PouparVs ligament. Gimbcrnat's ligament is that part of the aponeu- 
rosis inserted into the pectineal line. The linea alba is a white tendi- 
nous slip extending along the middle of the abdomen from the ensiform 
cartilage to the os pubis. Externally, on each side of it, are two 
curved lines, extending from the sides of the chest to the pubis, called 
the lineee semilunares ; these lines are connected with the linea alba 
by several cross lines, usually three or four in number, called linea 
transversa. Just above the crest of the pubis is a triangular opening, 
formed by the separation of the fibres of the aponeurosis, called the 
external abdominal ring. Through t?iis ring passes the spermatic cord 
in the male, and the round ligament of the uterus in the female ; 
both are invested in their passage 1 y a thin fascia derived from the 
edges of the ring, called intcrcolumnir, or spermatic fascia. In ingui- 
nal hernia the pouch, in projecting through this opening, receives an 
additional covering from this spermalic fascia. 




ill Fig. 51 are seen the muscles of the trunk anteriorly. The superficial layer Is seen 
on the left side, and the deeper on the right. 1. Pectoralis major. 2. Deltoid. 3. Ante- 
rior border of the latissimus dorsi. 4. Serrations of the serrafus magnus. 5. Subclavina 
of the right side. 6. Pectoralis minor. 7. Coracho-brachialis. 8. Upper part of the 
biceps, showing its two heads. 9. Coracoid process of the scapula. 10. Serratus mag- 
nus of the right side. 11. External intercutal. 12. External oblique. 13. Its aponeu- 
rosis; the median line to the right of this number is the linea alba; the flexuous line to the 
left is the linea semilunaris ; the transverse lines above and below the number are the linea* 
transversa^. 14. Poupart's ligament- 15. External abdominal ring; the margin above is 
called the superior or internal pillar.; the margin below the inferior or external pillar; the 
curved interculumnar fibres are seen proceeding upward from Poupart's ligament to 
strengthen the ring. The numbers 14 and 15 are situated upon the fascia lata of the 
thigh ; the opening to the right of 15 is called saphenous. 16. Pectus of the right side. 
17. Pyramidalis. 18. Internal oblique. 19. The common tendon of the internal oblique 
and trnnsversalis descending behind Toupart's ligament tb> the pectineal tine. 20. The 
arch formed between the lower curved border of the internal oblique and Poupart's ligv 
(ndnt, beneath whi^h the spermatic cord passes, an£ hernia occurs. 

108 AN ATOM x. 

2. Internal oblique ; called the middle ascending flat muscle. It 
arises from the outer half of Poupart's ligament, from the middle two 
thirds of the crest of the ilium, and from the spines of the lumbar ver- 
tebra; ; and is inserted into the pectineal line, crest of the pubis, linea 
alba, and five lower ribs. 

3. Cremaster ; arises from the middle of Poupart's ligament ; it forms 
a series of loops upon the spermatic cord, and some of its fibres are 
inserted into the tunica vaginalis, the rest into the pectineal line of the 

4. Transversalis ; this is the internal flat muscle ; it arises from the 
outer third of Poupart's ligament, internal lip of the crest of the ilium, 
spines and transverse processes of the lumbar vertebrae, and from the 
six lower ribs, indigitating with the diaphragm ; inserted into the pecti- 
neal line, crest of the pubis, and linea alba. 

5. Rectus ; arises by a flat tendon from the crest of the pubis ; in- 
serted into the cartilages of the fifth, sixth, and seventh ribs. 

6. Pyramidalis ; arises from the crest of the pubis in front of the 
rectus ; inserted into the linea alba midway between the umbilicus and 

7. Quadratus lumborum ; arises from the last rib and transverse 
processes of the four upper lumbar vertebrae ; inserted into the crest 
of the ilium and ilio-lumbar ligament. 

8. Psoas parvus ; arises from the tendinous arches and intervertebral 
substance of the last dorsal and first lumbar vertebrae ; inserted by an 
expanded tendon into the ilio-pectineal line and eminence. 

9. Diaphragm ; this forms a muscular partition between the cavities 
of the chest and abdomen. In shape it is somewhat conical, and is 
composed of two portions, called greater and lesser muscles. The 
greater muscle arises from the ensiform cartilage, inner surfaces of the 
six inferior ribs, and ligamentum arcuatum externum and internum; 
from these points its fibres converge to the central tendon, into which 
they are inserted. The lesser muscle arises by two tendons from the 
bodies of the lumbar vertebra; ; these tendons form two large fleshy 
bellies, called crura, which ascend and are inserted into the centra 

Note. — The ligamentum arcuatum externum is t he upper border of 
the anterior lamella of the aponeurosis of the transversalis. The liga- 
mentum arcuatum, internum, or proprium, is a tendinous arch across the 
psoas magnus muscle as it emerges from the chest. Tho tendinous 
centre of the diaphragm is called the central tendon. Between the 
sides of the ensiform cartilage and the cartilages of the adjoining ribs 
is a triangular space where the muerular fibres of tho diaphragm nr« 



wanting; this space is closed by the peritoneum on the abdominal side, 
and the pleura on the side of the chest. Sometimes, from violent ex- 
ertion, a portion of the alimentary canal is forced through this space, 
producing what is called phrenic or diaphragmatic hernia. 

There are three openings in the diaphragm : one in the centre, for 
the passage of the inferior vena cava ; an elliptic opening in its muscu- 
lar portion, formed by the two crura, for the passage of the (Esophagus 
and pncumo gastric nerves ; and a third, called the aortic, formed by a 
tendinous arch which passes from the tendon of one crus to that of the 
other; beneath this the aorta, thoracic duct, and right vena azygos 
pass. There are also small openings in the lesser muscle on each side 
for the great splanchnic nerves. 

Uses. — The oblique muscles flex the thorax on the pelvis ; either, 
acting singly, would twist the body to the opposite side. Either trans 
versalis will diminish the size of the abdomen, and both constrict its 
general cavity. The recti and pyramidaiis together pull the thorax 
forward ; the latter alone are tensors Fig. 52. 

of the linea alba. The quadratus 
lumborum draws the lower rib down- 
ward, and serves to bend the verte- 
bral column to one side. The psoas 
parvus extends the iliac fascia, at.d 
assists in flexing the back. The dia- 
phragm assists the abdominal muscle 
in expiration. 

Fig. 52 is a side view of the muscles of the 
trunk. 1. Costal region of the latissimus 
dorsi. 2. Serratus magnus. 3. Upper part 
of external oblique. 4. Two external inter- 
costals. 5. Two internal intercostal. 6. 
Transversalis. 7. Its posterior aponeurosis. 
8. its anterior. 9. Lower part of the left 
i jctus. 10. Right rectus. 11. The arched 
opening where the spermatic cord passes and 
hernia takes place. 12. The gluteus maxi- 
irnia, and medius, and tensor vaginas femorls 
muscles invested by fa=cia lata. 

All the abdominal muscles are 
respiratory, and constitute the chief 
forces in the act of expiration. Con- 
sidering the lungs as a bellows, they 
constitute the handles ; they are aided 
in this office by the muscles of the utoscxm of the trunk latf.rali... 
'oins and back, ^nd to some extent bv the upper muscles of the trunk. 


They compress the cavity of the abdomen in all directions, thus aiding 
the expulsion of the contents of the stomach, bowels, gall-ducts, blad- 
der, and uterus, and also riucous and irritating substances from the 
bronchia, windpipe, and nose. 


These muscles pertain to the a.irthra, the outlet of the bowels, an 
he organs of generation. There are eight of them. In the male are: 
1. Accelerator urince ; arises from the centre of the perineum; its 
fibres, dividing, are inserted into the ramus of the pubes and ischium, 
and into the fibrous substance and spongy body of the penis. 2. Erector 
penis ; arises from the ramus and tuberosity of the ischium, and, curv- 
ing around the root of the penis, is inse: tt I into the upper surface of its 
corpus cavernosum. 3. Compressor urel.rce; arises from the ramus 
of the ischium, and inner surface of the arch of the pubes on each side 
of the symphisis ; inserted into the back part of the urethra, from the 
apex of the prostate gland to which they are attached, to its bulbous 
portion. 4. Transversus pcrinei ; arises from the tuberosity of the 
ischium ; inserted into the tendinous centre of the perineum. 5. 
Sphincter ani, a thin band surrounding 'the opening of the anus. 6. 
Sphincter ani intemus, a muscular ring formed by an aggregation of 
the circular fibres of the rectum. 7. Levator ani, a thin plane of mus- 
cular fibres on each side of the pelvis, between the os pubis and spine 
of the ischium ; inserted into the lower part of the coccyx, rectum, 
base of the bladder, and prostate gland. 8. Cocci/geus, a triangular 
layer arising from the spine of the ischium; inserted into the side of 
the coccyx and lower part of the sacrum. 

The uses of these muscles are expressed by their names. In the 
female the perineal muscles are smaller, and are modified to the dif- 
ference in organization. The muscle corresponding with the accelerator 
urinae in the male, is called constrictor vagina ; and the analogue of 
the erector penis, is called erector clitoridis. 


These may be conveniently grouped according to different regions 
<i f the limb. 

Thoracic Reciox. — This region comprises three anterior and one 
lateral muscle: 1. Pccloralis major; arises from the sternal two thirds 
of the clavicle, the whole length of the sternum, the cartilages of all the 
true ribs except the first and last, and from the aponeurosis of the ex- 
ternal oblique muscle ; inse, 'cd by a broad tendon into the anterior 
bicipital ridge ,i f tho hiiireii?. 0. Pectoralis minor ; arises by three 


dictations from the third, fourth, and fifth ribs ; inserted into the cora- 
coid process of the scapula. 3. Subclavius ; arises from the cartilage 
of the first rib ; inserted into the under surface of the clavicle. 4. 
Serratus magnus ; arises by fleshy serrations from the nine upper ribs, 
excepting the first ; inserted into the whole length of the base of the 
scapula anteriorly. 

Uses. — The pectoralis major draws the arm against the chest; its 
upper fibres assist in raising, and its lower in depressing the shoulder. 
When its fixed point is at the shoulder, it assists in elevating and expand- 
ing the chest. The minor pectoral muscle acts with the former, and 
assists in the rotatory movement of the scapula upon the chest. The 
subclavius draws the clavicle downward and forward in steadying the 
shoulder. All t\"-~e muscles are called into action in forced respiration, 
but cannot act unless the shoulders are fixed. The serratus raises the 
ribs, and thereby increases the cavity of the chest in inspiration. When 
it acts upon the scapula, the shoulder is drawn forward, as in many 
cases of diseased lungs and jdeformed chests. 

Scapular Region.- — Six muscles: 1. Subscapularis ; arises from 
nearly the whole of the under surface of the scapula ; inserted by a 
broad, thick tendon iuto the lesser tuberosity of the humerus. 2. Supra- 
spinatus ; arises from the whole of the supra-spinous fossa ; inserted 
into the upper depression of the great tuberosity of the humerus. 3. 
Infraspinatus ; arises from the whole of the infra-spinous fossa; in- 
serted into the middle depression upon the greater tuberosity of the 
humerus. 4. Teres minor ; arises from the middle third of the lower 
border of the scapula; inserted into the lower depression on the greater 
tuberosity of the humerus. 5. Teres major ; arises from the lower 
third of the inferior border of the scapula ; inserted into the posterior 
bicipital ridge. 6. Deltoid, a large triangular muscle forming the con- 
vexity of the shoulder ; arising from the outer third of the clavicle, tho 
acromion process, and from the whole length of the scapula ; its fibres 
converge to the middle of the outer side of the. humerus, where they 
are inserted into a rough elevation. 

Uses. — The subscapularis rotates the head of the humerus inward ; 
when the arm is raised it draws the humerus downward. It is a 
powerful defence to the shoulder joint. The supra-spinatus raises the 
arm feebly from the side ; the infra-spinatus and teres minor rotate the 
head of the humerus outward ; the teres minor assists its rotation in- 
ward, carrying it also toward the side, and somewhat backward. The 
most important use of the supra-spinatus, infra-spinatus, and teres minor 
is to protect the joint against displacement, for wh'ch purpose their 



Fig. 53. 

tendons, with that of the subseapuiaris, are in 
immediate contact, forming a part of its liga- 
mentous capsule. They are, consequently, 
generally ruptured in luxations of the shouldei 

Fig. 5.3 exhibits the muscles of the anterior aspect of the 
upper arm. 1. Coracoid process of the scapula. 2. 
Coraco-clavicular ligament passing outward to the scapular 
end of the clavicle. 3. Coraco-acromial ligament, passing 
outward to the acromion. 4. Subseapuiaris. 5. Teres 
major ; through the triangular space above the dorsalis 
scapulas vessels pass. 6. Coraco-brachialis. 7. Eiceps. 
8. Upper end of the radius. 9. Brachialis anticus ; a por- 
tion of this muscle is'seen on the outer side of the tendon 
of the biceps. 10. Internal head of the biceps. 

Humeral Region. — Four muscles: the 
first three are anterior, the last posterior. 1. 

Coraco - brachialis y 

arises from the cor- 
acoid process ; in- 
serted into a rough 
line on the inner 
side of the middle 

MUSCLES OF THE UPPER of the humerus. 2. 
ARM. „. ■ , 

Biceps ; arises by 
two tendons, one, called the short head, from 
the coracoid process ; the other, the. long 
head, which passes through the capsular 
ligament of the joint, from the upper part 
of the glenoid cavity; inserted by a rounded 
tendon into the tubercle of the radius. 3. 
Brachialis anticus, a broad muscle covering 
the anterior surface of the lower part of the 
humerus ; arises from fleshy serrations on 
both sides of the insertion of the deltoid, the 
anterior surface of the humerus, and from 
the intermuscular septa attached to the con- 
dyloid ridges ; its fibres converging are in- 

Fig. 54 is a posterior view of the upper arm, showing 
the triceps muscle. 1. Its external head. 2. Its long, 
or scapular head. 3. Its internal, or shfrt head. 4. 
Olecranon process of the ulni 5. Radivft 6. C»->«u- 
lar ligament 

Fig. 54. 




sterled into the coronoid process of the ulna. 4. Triceps extensor cubiti, 
a three-headed muscle ; the external head arises from the humerus, 
below the insertion of the teres minor, and from the intermuscular 
septum; the internal head arises from the septum and the humerus, 
below the insertion of the teres major ; the middle, or scapidar head, 
arises from the upper third of the inferior border of the scapula ; the 
three heads unite, and form a broad muscle, which is inserted into the 
olecranon of the ulna. 

Brachial Regiox. — This group comprises twenty muscles: the 
first five constitute the anterior superficial layer ; the next three the 
anterior deep layer ; the seven succeeding the posterior superficial 
layer ; and the five remaining the posterior deep layer. 

1. Pronator radii teres; arises by two heads, 
one from the inner condyle of the humerus and 
adjoining fascia, the ether from the coronoid 
process of the ulna ; inserted into the middle 
third of the oblique ridge of the radius. 2. 
Flexor carpi radialis ; arises from the inner 
condyle and intermuscular fascia, and its tendon, 
passing through a groove formed by the scaphoid 
and trapezium, is inserted into the base of the 
metacarpal bone of the index finger. 3. Pal- 
maris longus ; arises with the preceding ; in- 
serted into the annular ligament and palmar 
fascia. 4. Flexor sublimis digitorum ; arises 
from the inner condyle, internal lateral ligament, 
coronoid process of the ulna, and oblique ridge 
of the radius, and divides into four tendons, 
which pass beneath the anuular ligament into 
the palm of the hand ; inserted into the base of 
the second phalanges cf the fingers. 5. Flexor 
carpi ulnaris ; arises ry two heads, one from 

In Fig. 55 is seen the superficial layer of the muscles of 
the fore-arm. 1. Lower part of the biceps, with its tendon. 
2. Part of the brachialis amicus. 3. Part of the triceps. 4. 
Pronator radii teres. 5. Flexor carpi radialis. 6. Palmaris 
longus. 7. One of the fasciculi of the flexor sublimis digi- 
torum. 8. Flexor carpi ulnaris. 9. Palmar fascia. 10. 
Palmaris brevis. 11. Abductor pollicis. 12. One portion 
of the flexor brevis pollicis. 13. Supinator longus. 14. 
Extensor ossis metacarpi, and extensor primi internodii SUPERFICIAL ANTERIOR 
pollicis. curving around the lewer border of tin fore-an*. LATER. 



the inner condyle, the other from the olecranon and upper two thirds 
of the inner border of the ulna; its tendon is inserted into the pisiform 
bone, and base of the metacarpal bone of the little finger. C. Flexor 
'profundus digitorum ; arises fro n the upper two thirds of the ulna and 
part of the interosseous membrane, and terminates in four tendons, 
which pass beneath the annular ligaments, to be inserted into the base 
of the last phalanges. 7. Flexor lonrus pollicis ; arses from the upper 
two thirds of the radius Mid part cf the interosseous membrane ; its 
tendon passes beneath the annular ligament to be inserted into the Inst 
phalanx of the thumb. 8. Pronator quad ratus ; arises from the ulna; 
inserted i'lto the lower part of the oblique line on the outer side of the 

In Fig. 56 is seen the deep layer of muscles of the 
fore-arm. 1. Internal lateral ligament of t\ie elbow joint. 
2. Anterior ligament. 3. Orbicular ligament of the head of 
the radius. 4. Flexor profundus digitorum. 5. Flexor 
longus pollicis. 6. Pronator quadratus. 7. Adductor pol- 
licis. 8. Dorsal interosseous muscle of the middle finger, 
and palmar interosseous of the ring finger. 9. Dorsal inter- 
osseous muscle of the ring finger, and palmar interosseous 
of the little finger. 

Fig. 56. 


9. Supinator longus ; arises from the exter- 
nal condyloid region of the humerus, and, pass- 
ing along the radial border of the fore-arm, is 
inserted into the styloid process of the ulna. 
] 0. Extensor carpi radialis longus ; arises from 
the humerus below the preceding; inserted into 
the base of the metacarpal bone of the index 
finger. 11. Extensor carpi radialis brevis ; 
irises adjoining the preceding ; inserted into 
the base of the metacarpal bone of the middle 
finger. 12. Extensor communis digitorum ; 
arises with the preceding, and divides into four 
tendons, which are inserted into the second and 
third phalanges of the fingers. 13. Extensor 
minimi digiti, is an offset from the extensor 
communis; inserted into the last two phalanges. 
14. Extensor carpi ulnaris ; arises from the 
external condyle and upper two thirds of the 
border of the ulna; inserted into the metacarpal 
bone of the little finger. 15. Anconeus, a small 
triangular muscle, arising from the outer con- 
dyle ; inserted in the olecranon and upper end 
of the ulna. 



In Fig. 57 is seen the superficial layer of the muscles of 
the posterior aspect of the fore-arm. 1. Lower part of the 
biceps. 2. Part of the brachialis anticus. 3. Lower part 
of the triceps inserted into the olecranon. 4. Supinator 
longus. 5. Extensor carpi radialis longior. 6. Extensor 
carpi radialis brevior. 7. Tendons of insertion of these 
muscles. 8. Extensor digitorum communis. 9. Extensor 
minimi digiti. 10. Extensor carpi ulnaris. 11. Anconeus. 
12. Part of the flexor carpi ulnaris. 13. Extensor ossis 
metacarpi and extensor primi internodii, lying together. 
14. Extensor secundi internodii ; its tendon is seen cross- 
ing the two tendons of the extensor carpi radialis longior 
and brevior. 15. Posterior annular ligament. The ten- 
dons of the common extensor are seen upon the back of 
the hand, and their mode of distribution on the dot Bum 
of the fingers. 

16. Supinator brevis ; arises from the ex- 
ternal condyle, lateral and orbicular ligament, 
and the ulna, and winds around the upper part 
of the radius, to be inserted into tb', upper 
third of its oblique line. 17. Extensor ossis 
metacarpi pollicis ; arises from the ulna, ra- 
dius, and interosseous membrane, and is in- 
serted into the base of the metacarpal bone of 
the thumb. 18. Extensor primi internodii 
pollicis ; arises from the interosseous mem- 
brane and ulna, and is inserted into the bas.i 
of the first phalanx of the thumb. 19. Ex- 
tensor secundi internodii pollicis ; arises with 
the preceding, and is inserted into the base of 
the last phalanx of the thumb. 20. Extensor 
indicis ; arises with and a little above the two 
preceding ; inserted into the aponeurosis form- 
ed by the common extensor tendon of the index finder. 


Note.— The tendons of tlie flexor and extensor muscles of the fore- 
arm are provided with synovial bursa;, as they pass beneath the annular 
ligament ; those of the back of the wrist have distinct sheaths formed 
by the posterior annular ligament. These bursa: are small membran- 
ous sacs filled with a mucous fluid, and they serve as soft cushions for 
the tendons to play upon, in a situation exposed to a great degree and 
rapidity of motion. The advantages and even necessity of an additional 
covering, or distinct sheath, for the tendons on the back of the wrist, is 
obvious, from their exposed situation and feeble protection by flesh and 



Fig. 58. 

Fig. 58 exhibits the deep layer of muscles on the poa 
terior aspect of the lore-arm. 1. Lower part of the hu- 
merus. 2. Olecranon. 3. Ulna. 4. Anconeus. 5. Su 
pinator brevis. 6. Extensor ossia metaoE.rpi pollii-is. 
7. Extensor primi internodii pollicis. 8. Extensor se. 
enndi internodii pollicis. 9. Extensor iudicis. 10. First 
dorsal interosseous ligament. The other three dorsal 
interossii are seen between the metacarpal bones of their 
respective fingers. 

Uses. — The pronator radii teres and pro- 
nator quadratus rotate the radius .lpon the 
ulna, producing pronation of the hand. The 
flexor carpi radialis and ulnaris bend the 
wrist ; the flexor sublimis and profundus 
bend the second and last joints of the_ fiugers ; 
the flexor longus pollicis bends the last joint 
of the thumb. The palmaris longus draws 
the palmar fascia tense, and assists in the 
flexion of the wrist and fore-arm- The an- 
coneus assists the triceps in extending the 
fore-arm upon the arm ; the supinatus longus 
and brevis produce supination of the fore- 
arm, and antagonize the pronators ; the ex- 
tensor carpi radialis longior and brevior, and 
ulnaris, extend the wrist, antagonizing the 
two flexors of the carpus. The extensor 
communis digitorum extends the fingers, an- 
tagonizing the flexors, sublimis, and profun- 
dus. The extensor ossi metacarpi, primi 
internodii, and secundi internodii pollicis, are 
the special extensors of the thumb, and coun- 
terbalance the actions of the flexor ossis metacarpi, flexor brevis, and 
flexor longus pollicis. The extensor indicis extends the first finger, 
and is hence called " indicator ;" the extensor minimi digiti is the spe- 
cial extensor of the little finger, enabling it to be extended distinctly 
from the other fingers. 



Radial Region. — Four muscles : 1. Abductor pollicis ; arises from 
the scaphoid and annular ligament; inserted into the base of the first 
phalanx of the thumb. 2. Flexor ossis metacarpi; arises from the 
trapezium and annular ligament; inserted into the whole length of the 
metacarpal bone, '.i Flexor brevis pollicis : its external portion arise) 



with the preceding ; its internal from the trapezoides and os magnum ; 
both are inserted into the base of the first phalanx of the thumb, hav- 
ing each a sesamoid bone in the tendon to protect the joint. 4. Ad- 
ductor jJollicis ; arises from the whole length of the metacarpal bone 
of the middle finger, and its converging fibres are inserted into the base 
of the first phalanx. 

Uses. — These muscles, as their names import, produce in the thumb 
the movements of abduction, adduction, and flexion. 

Fig. 59. 

The muacles of the hand are seen in 
Fig. 59. 1. Annular ligament. 2, 2. Ori- 
gin and insertion of the abductor pollicis, 
the middle portion being removed. 3. 
Flexor ossis metacarpi. 4. One portion 
of the flexor brcvis pollicis. 5. Its deep 
portion. C. Adductor pollicis. 7, 7. Lum- 
bncales, arising from the deep flexor ten- 
dons, on which the numbers are placed, 
the tendons of the flexor sublimis having 
been removed from the palm. 8. One of 
tks tendons of th* deep flexor, passing 
between the two terminal slips of the 
tendon of the flexor sublimis, to reach the 
last phalanx. 9. Tendon of the flexor 
longus pollicis, passing between the two 
portions of the flexor brevis to the las 1 
phalanx. 10. Abductor minimi digiti. II. 
Flexor brevis minimi digiti ; the edge of 
the flexor ossis metacarpi is seen project- 
ing beyond the inner border of the flexor 
brevis. 12. Prominence of the pisiform 
bone. 13. First dorsal interosseous 


Ulnar Region. — Four muscles : 1. Palmaris brevis ; a thin plane, 
arising from the annular ligament and pahnar fascia, and passing trans- 
versely inward, is inserted into the integuments on the inner border 
of the hand. 2. Abductor minimi digiti ; a small tapering slip, arising 
from the pisiform bone ; inserted into the base of the first phalanx of 
the little finger. 3. Flexor brevis minimi digiti ; a small muscle, aris- 
ing from the unciform lone and annular ligament : inserted into the 
base of the first phalanx. 4. Flexor ossis metacarpi ; arises with the 
preceding ; inserted into the whole length of the metacarpal bone of 
the little finger. 

Uses. — These muscles are subservient to the motions of the little 

Palmar Region. — Three sets of muscles: '. Licmbricales ; four 


in number, arising froiii the tendons of the deep flexor, and inserted 
into the aponeurotic expansion of the extensor tendans on the radial side 
of the fingers. 2. Palmar interossei ; three in number, each arising 
from the base of the metacarpal bone of one finger, and are inserted 
into the base of the first phalanx and aponeurotic expansion of the ex- 
tensor tendon of the same finger, the middle one being excepted. 3. 
Dorsal interossei ; these are situated in the four spaces between the 
metacarpal bones ; they arise by two heads from the adjoining sides of 
the of the metacarpal bones ; inserted into the base of the first 
phalanges, and aponeurosis of the extensor tendons. 

Uses. — The lumbricales are auxiliary to the deep flexors ; the 
palmar interossei are adductors, and the dorsal interossei abductors ; 
hence eacli linger is furnished with its proper adductor and abductor, 
two flexors, and, with the exception of the middle and ring fingers, 
which have but one, two extensors. The thumb has a flexor and ex- 
tensor of the metacarpal bone ; and the little finger a metacarpal flexor. 


These have usually been arranged into groups corresponding with 
the regions of the hip, thigh, leg, and foot. 

Muscles of the Hip. — There are nine muscles of the hip, which 
together constitute the Gluteal Region : 1. Gluteus maximus ; 
this is the thick quadrangular mass of flesh forming the convexity of 
the nates, or buttocks. It arises from the back part of the crest of the 
ilium, the posterior surface of the sacrum and coccyx, and the great 
sacro-ischiatic ligament ; passing obliquely outward and downward, it is 
inserted into the rough line between the trochanter major to the linea 
aspera ; by means of its tendon it is continuous with the fascia lata 
covering the outer side of the thigh. Between its broad tendon and 
the femur a large bursa is situated. 2. Gluteus medius ; arises from 
the outer lip of the crest of the ilium for four fifths of its length, and 
from the dorsum ilii and surrounding fascia ; its fibres converge to the 
outer part of the trochanter major, into which its tendon is inserted. 
3. Gluteus minimus; arises from the surfa' e of the dorsum ilii; its 
fibres converge to the anterior border of the trochanter major, where 
they are inserted by a rounded tendon. 4. Pyriformis ; a pear-shaped 
muscle, arising from the anterior surface of the sacrum and ilium ad- 
joining; it passes out of the pelvis through the great sacro-ischiatic 
foramen ; inserted, by a rounded tendon, into the trochanteric fossa of 
the femur. 5. Gemellus superior ; a small slip arising from the spine 
of the ischium, and inseited into the tendon of the obturator internus, 
and into the trochanteric fossa. 6. Obturator internus: arises from 



Fig. 60. 

the inner surface of the interior 
wall of the pelvis ; passes out of the 
pelvis through the lesser sacro- 
ischiatic foramen, and is inserted 
into the trochanteric fossa. 

Tig. 60 shows the deep muscles of the 
gluteal region. 1. External surface of the 
ilium. 2. Posterior surface of the sacrum. 
3. Posterior sacroiliac ligaments. 4. Tuber- 
osity of the ischium. 5. Great or posterior 
sacro-ischiatic ligament. 6. Anterior or less- 
er eacro-ischiatic ligament. 7. Trochanter 
major. 8. Gluteus minimus. 9. Pyriformis. 
10. Gemellus superior. 11. Obturator inter- 
nus, passing out of the lesser sacro-ischiatic 
foramen. 12. Gemellus inferior. 13. Quad- 
ratus femoris. 14. Adductor magnus, its 
upper part. 15. Vastus exteruus. 16. Biceps. 
17. Gracilis. 18. Semitendinosus. 

7. Gemellus inferior ; arises from 
the anterior point of the tuberosity 
of the ischium ; inserted into the 
trochanteric fossa and tendon of the 
obturator internus. 8. Obturator 

externus ; arises from the obturator membrane and surrounding bone ; 
its tendon passes behind the neck of the femur, to be inserted into the 
trochanteric fossa. 9. Quad ratus femoris, a square muscle arising 
from the external border of the tuberosity of the ischium ; inserted 
into a rough line, called linea quadrati, on the posterior border of the 
trochanter major. 

Uses. — The gkitei are abductors of the thigh, when acting from the 
pelvis ; when the thigh is their fixed point, they steady the pelvis on 
the head of the thigh bone, as in standing ; they also assist in carrying 
the leg forward in walking ; the minimus rotates the limb slightly in- 
ward ; the medius and maximus rotate it outward. The other muscles 
of this group are called external rotators, their office being to rotate the 
limb outwardly, everting the knee and foot. 



These are divided into three regions — anterior, internal, and posterior. 

Anterior Femoral Region. — Six muscles : 1. Tensor vagina 
femoris, a short flat muscle on the outer side of the hip, arising from 
the crest of the ilium, near its anterior superior spine ; inserted between 
two layers of the fascia lata at one fourth down the thigh. 2. Sartoriut 



(tailor's muscle) ; a long ribl Dn-like muscle, arising from the anterior 
superior spinous process of the ilium, and the notch below, and cross- 
ing the upper part of the thigh obliquely, descends behind the inner 
condyle of the femur, and is inserted into the inner tuberosity of the 
tibia by an aponeurotic expansion. 3. Rectus ; a straight muscle, 
arising by two tendons, one from the anterior inferior spinous process 
of the ilium, the other from the upper lip of the acetabulum ; insert- 
ed by a broad, strong tendon into the upper border of the patella. 4. 
Vastus externus ; arises from the inner border of the patella; inserted 
into the femur and outer side of the linea aspera, as high as the base 
of the trochanter. 5. Vastus internus ; arises from the inner border 
of the patella ; inserted into the femur and inner side of the linea 
ospera as high up as the anterior intertrochanteric line. 6. Crureus ; 
Fig. 61. arises from the upper border of the patella ; 

J. -~ 7-,7~- inserted into the front aspect of the femur, as 

/ \f fl '// ' m'iili < ' it k'fidi as the anterior intertrochanteric line. 

Note. — The two vasti and crureus together 
constitute the triceps extensor cruris. 

Fig. 61 shows the muscles of the anterior femoral region. 
1. Crest of the ilium. 2. Its anterior superior spinous pro 
cess. 3. Gluteus medius. 4. Tensor vaginas femoris; its 
insertion into the fascia lata is seen inferiorly. 5. Sartorius. 
6. Rectus. 7. Vastus externus. 8. Vastus internus. 9. Pa- 
tella. 30. Iliacus internus. 11. Psoas rnagnus. 12. Pecti- 
neu6. 13. Adductor longus. 14. Part of the adductor rnag- 
nus. 15. Gracilis. 


Uses. — The tensor vaginre femoris stretches 
the fascia lata, rendering it tense, and slightly in- 
verting the limb ; the sartorius bends the leg 
upon the thigh, and the thigh upon the pelvis, 
carrying the leg across that of the opposite side 
— the tailor's sitting position • when fixed below 
it assists the extensors of the leg in supporting the 
trunk. The four remaining muscles extend the 
leg upon the thigh. By their attachment to the 
patella, which acts as a fulcrum, they are advan- 
tageously disposed for great power. When their 
fixed point is from the tibia they steady the thigh 
upon the leg ; and the rectus, by its attachment 
to the pelvis, serves to iolance the trunk upoD 
the lower eternity. 


Internal Femoral Region. — Seven muscles : 1. Iliacus intcrnus; 
aflat radiated muscle, arising from the inner cor cave surface of the 
ilium, and, joining with the tendon of the psoas, is inserted into the 
trochanter minor of the femur. 2. Psoas magnus ; arises from the 
intervertebral substances, part of the bodies and bases of the trans- 
verse processes of the lumbar vertebras, and from tendinous arches 
thrown across the constricted portion of the last dorsal and four upper 
lumbar vertebras, and, passing along the margin of the brim of the 
pelvis and beneath Poupart's ligament, its tendon, united with that of 
the iliacus internus, is inserted into the posterior part of the trochanter 
minor, a bursa being interposed. 3. Pectineus ; a flat quadrangular 
muscle, arising from the pectineal line of the pubis and surface of bone 
in front ; inserted into the femur, between the anterior intertrochan- 
teric line and the linea aspera. 4. Adductor longus ; arises by a round 
tendon from the front surface of the pubis below the angle ; inserted 
into the middle third of the linea aspera. 5. Adductor brevis ; arises 
from the body and ramus of the pubis ; inserted into the upper third 
of the linea aspera. 6. Adductor magnus ; a broad triangular muscle ; 
arises from the ramus of the pubes and ischium, and tuber ischii, and, 
radiating outward, is inserted into the whole length of the linea aspera 
and inner condyle of the femur. 7. Gracilis ; a slender muscle, aris- 
ing from the'body of the os pubis, and ramus of the pubis and ischium ; 
inserted into the inner tuberosity of the tibia. 

Uses. — The iliacus, psoas, pectineus, and adductor longus bend the 
thigh upon the pelvis, and rotate the entire limb outward ; the pecti- 
neus and adductors move the limb outward powerfully. The gracilis 
assists in adduction, and contributes also to the flexion of the leg. 

Posterior Femoral Region. — Three muscles : 1. Biceps femoris ; 
double-headed, one head arising in common with the semi-tendinosus, 
the other from the lower two thirds of the linea aspera ; inserted by a 
strong tendon into the head of the fibula ; a portion of its tendon is 
continued into the fascia of the leg, and another is attached to the 
outer tuberosity of the tibia. 2. Semi-tendinosus ; remarkable for its 
long tendon ; arises from the tuberosity of the ischium with the long 
head of the biceps ; inserted into the inner tuberosity of the tibia. 3. 
Semi-membranosus ; named from its tendinous expansion ; arises from 
the tuberosity of the ischium in front of the preceding ; inserted into 
the back part of the inner tuberosity of the tibia. 

Note. — The biceps forms the outer hamstring; the tendons of the 
eemi-tendinosus, semi-membranosus, gracilis, and sartorius form the 
inner hamstring. 



Uses. — These muscles are the direct flexors of the leg upon the 
thigh; those fibres which originate fr: m below also balance the pelvis on 
the lower extremities. The biceps everts the leg 
when partially flexed, and the semi-tendinosus 
turns it inward when partially flexed. 

Fig. 63. 

Fig. 62 exhibits the muscles of the posterior femoral and 
gluteal region. 1. medius. 2. Gluteus maxinus. 3. 
Vastus externus covered in by fascia lata. 4. Long head of 
the biceps. 5. Its short head. 6. Semi-tendinosus. 7. Semi- 
membranosus. 8. Gracilis. 9. Part of the inner border of the 
adductor magnus. 10. Edge of the sartorius. 11. The popli' 
teal space. 12. Gastrocnemius ; its two heads. 

muscles oi vm: leg. 

They are divided into three regions : anterior 
tibial, fibular, and posterior tibial. 

Anterior Tibial Region. — Four muscles : 1. 
Tibialis anticus ; arises from the upper two thirds 
of the tibia, the interosseous membrane, and the 
deep fascia; its tendon passes through a distinct 
sheath in the annular ligament, and is inserted 
into the inner side of the internal cuneiform bone, 
and base of the metatarsal bone of the great toe. 
2. Extensor longus digitorum ; arises from the 
head of the tibia, upper three fourths of the fibu- 
la, interosseous membrane, and from the deep 
fascia ; below it divides into four tendons, which 
pass beneath the annular ligament, and are insert- 
ed into the second and third phalanges of the four 
lesser toes. 3. Peroneus tertius ; arises from the 
posterial femoral ]ower f ourt h f the tibia ; inserted into the base of 
muscle. ; , : „ , ,. , M _, A 

the metatarsal bone of the little toe. 4. Extensor 

proprius pollicis ; arises from the lower two thirds of the fibula and 
interosseous memrrane ; inserted into the base of the last phalanx of 
the great toe. 

Uses. — The first two are direct flexors, bending the foot upon the 
leg ; acting with the tibialis posticus, they direct the foot inward, and 
with the peroneus longus and brevis, outward. They help to main- 
tain the flatness of the foot during progression. The extensor longus 
digitorum and extensor proprius pollicis are direct extensors of the 
toes ; they also assist the flexion of the entire foot upon the leg. When 
acting from beZ?w they increase the firmness of the ankle joint. 



Posterior Tibial Region. — Seven muscles ; the first three make 
the superficial group; the last four the deep layer: 1. Gastrocnemius; 
arises by two heads from the two condyles of the femur, which, uniting 
to form the bellied part of the leg, are inserted, by means of the tendo 
Achillis, into the lower part of the tuberosity of the os calcis, a synovial 
bursa being interposed between the tendon and bone. 2. Plantaris, a 
very small muscle, arising from the outer condyle of the femur, and 
inserted, by a long, slender tendon, into the os calcis, by the side of the 
tendo Achillis. 3. Soleus, a broad muscle, arising from the head and 
upper third of the ♦Viula, and oblique line and middle third of the tibia : 
its fibres converge to the tendo Achillis, by which it is inserted into the 
os calcis. 

Uses. — These three muscles of the calf draw Flg ; 63 - 

powerfully on the os calcis, lift the heel, and contin- V'^$M\ V l\J 
uing their action, raise the entire body. They are 
the principal muscles in walking, leaping, and danc- 
ing. When they are fixed below they steady the 
leg upon the foot. 

The superficial muscles of the posterior aspect of the leg are 
shown in Fig. 63. 1. Biceps, forming the outer hamstring. 2. 
The tendons forming the inner hamstring. 3. Popliteal space. 
4. Gastrocnemius. 5, 5. Soleus. 6. Tendo Achillis. 7. Posterior 
tuberosity of the os calcis. 8. Tendons of the peroneus longus 
and brevis, passing behind the outer ankle. 9. Tendons of the 
tibialis posticus and flexor longus digitorum, passing into the foot 
oehind the ankle. 

4. Popliteus ; arises by a rounded tendon from a 
deep groove on the outer side of the external condyle 
of the femur, beneath the external lateral ligament, 
and spreading obliquely over the head of the tibia, Is 
inserted into the bone above its oblique line. 5. 
Flexor longus pollicis ; arises from the lower two 
thirds of the fibula, and passing through a groove in 
the astragalus and os calcis, is inserted into the bone 
of the last phalanx of the great toe. 6. Flexor longus 
digitorum ; arises from the surface of the tibia, below 
the popliteal line; its tendon passes through a sheath 
with the tibialis posticus behind the inner malleolus, 
and then through a second sheath connected with a 
groove in the astragalus and os calcis, into the sole 
of the foot, where it divides into four tendons, which tibial muscles 
are inserted into the base of the last phalanx of the four lesser toes, 
perforating the tendons of the flexor brevis digitoruin. 7. Tibialis 

134 IN ATOM V. 

posticus ; arises by two heads from the adjacent sides of the tibia and 
fibula their whole length, and from the interosseous membrane ; its 
tendon runs into the sheath with the flexor longus digitorum. passes 
through its proper sheath over the deltoid ligament, and is inserted 
into the tuberosity of the scaphoid and internal cuneiform bone. 

Uses. — The popliteus flexes the leg upon the thigh, at the same time 
carrying it inward, so as to invert the leg. The flexors are connected 
in the foot by a tendinous band, so that they act together in bending 
the toes. The tibialis posticus extends the tarsus upon the leg, antag- 
onizing the tibialis anticus. These last two combine in adducting the 

Fibular .Region. — Two muscles: 1. Peroneus longus; arises from 
the head and upper third of the outer side of the fibula, and terminates 
in a long tendon which passes behind the external malleolus, and 
obliquely across the sole of the foot; inserted into the base of the 
metatarsal bone of the great toe. 2. Peroneus brevis, lies beneath the 
former, arising from the lower half of the fibula, and terminates in a 
tendon which passes behind the external malleolus, and through a 
groove in the os calcis, to be inserted into the base of the metatarsal 
bone of the little toe. 

Uses. — The peronei are extensors of the foot, conjointly with the 
tibialis posticus, and antagonize the tibialis anticus and peroneus tertius. 
All of these acting together maintain the foot in a flat position, as in • 
walking. of the foot. 

These may be arranged, according to their situation above or below, 
into those of the dorsal and those of the plantar regions. 

Dorsal .Region. — Two muscles: 1. Extensor brevis digitorum; 
arises from the outer side of the os calcis, crosses the foot obliquely, 
and terminates in four tendons, one of which is inserted into the first 
phalanx of the great toe, and the others into the sides of the long ex- 
tensor tendons of the second, third, and fourth toes. 2. Dorsal inter- 
ossei ; these are placed between the metatarsal bones. 

Plantar Region. — The muscles of this region are subdivided into 
four layers. 

■First Layer Three muscles : 1. Abductor pollicis, lies along the 

inner border of the foot, one head arising from the inner tuberosity 
of the os calcis, the other from the internal annular ligament and nla tar 
fascia; inserted into the first phalanx of the great toe, and internal sesa- 

M Y L G T. 


Fig. 64. 

moid bone. 2. Abductor minimi digiti, lies along 
the outer border of the foot, arising from the 
outer tuberosity of the os calcis, and plantar fascia ; 
inserted into the base of the first phalanx of the 
little toe. 3. Flexor brevis digitorum, situated 
between the two preceding; arises from the under 
surface of the os calcis, from the plantar fascia and 
intermuscular septa ; inserted, by four tendons, 
into the base of the second phalanx of the four 
lesser toes. 

The first layer of muscles in the sole of the foot is shown in 
Fig. 64. 1. Os calcis. 2. Posterior part of the plantar fascia 
divided transversely. 3. Abductor pollicis. 4. Abductor 
minimi digiti. 5. Flexor brevis digitorum. 6. Tendon of the 
flexor longus pollicis. 7, 7. Lumbricales. 

Second Layer. — Two muscles : 1. Musculus 
accessorius ; arises by two slips from either side 
of the under surface of the os calcis; inserted into 
the outer side of the tendon of the flexor longus 
digitorum. 2. Lumbricales, four muscular slips, 
arising from the tibial side of the tendon of the 
flexor longus digitorum ; inserted into the expan- 
sion of the extensor tendons, and base of the first 
phalanx of the four lesser toes. 

The third and part of the second layer of muscles of the 
sole of the foot are seen in Fig. 65. 1. Divided edge of the 
plantar fascia. 2. Musculus accessorius. 3. Tendon of the 
flexor longus digitorum. 4. Tendon of the flexor longus pol- 
licis. 5. Flexor brevis pollicis. 6. Adductor pollicis. 7. 
Flexor brevis minimi digiti. 8. Transversus pedis. 9. Dorsal 
and plantar interoseei. 10. Convex ridge formed by the ten- 
don of the peroneus longus in its oblique course across the 

Third Layer. — Four muscles : 1. Flexor bre- 
vis pollicis ; arises from the side of the cuboid, 
and from the external cuneiform bone ; inserted 
by two heads into the base of the first phalanx of 
the great toe. Two sesamoid bones are found in 
these tendons. 2. Adductor pollicis ; arises from 
the cuboid bone and sheath of the tendon of the 
peroneus longus, and from the base of the third 
and fourth metatarsal bones ; inserted into the 
base of the first phalanx of the great toe. 3. 
Flexor brevis minimi digiti; arises from the base plantar muscles. 


Fig. 65. 



Fig. 66. 

of the metacarpal bone of the little toe, and sheath 
of the peroneal tendon ; inserted into the base of 
the first phalanx of the little toe. 4. Transversus 
pedis ;. arises by fleshy slips from the heads of the 
metatarsal bones of the four lesser toes ; inserted 
into the base of the first phalanx of the great toe, 
its tendon being blended with that of the adductor 

Fig. 66 shows the deep-seated muscles in the sole of the 
foot. 1. Tendon of the flexor longus pollicis. 2. Tendon of 
the flexor communis digitorum pedis. 3. Flexor accessorius. 
4, 4. Lumbricales. 5. Flexor brevis digitorum. 6. Flexor 
brevis pollicis pedis. 7. Flexor brevis minimi digiti pedis. 

Fourth Layer. — One set of muscles : 
plantares ; three in number, placed upon the 
metatarsal bones ; arising by the base of the me- 
tatarsal bones of the three outer toes; inserted 
into the inner side of the extensor tendon and 
ss base of the first phalanx of the same toes. 

Fig. 67. 


The interossei plantares are seen in Fig. 67. 1. Abductor 
tertii. 2. Abductor quarti. 3. Interossei minimi digiti. 

Uses. — All the muscles of the foot act upon the 
toes, the action and nature and situation of each 
muscle being expressed by its name. The move- 
ments of the toes are flexion, extension, adduc- 
tion, and abduction. The great toe, like the 
thumb, is provided with special muscles for inde- 
pendent action. The lumbricales are assistants to 
the long flexor ; and the transversus pedis is placed 
across the foot for the purpose of drawing the toes 

The firm articulations of all the metacarpal 
bones, and the great strength and number of tho 
ligaments and tendons of the leg, feet, and toes, 
are admirably adapted for combining power of en- 
durance with facility of motion ; the toes generally 
have four flexors, two extensors, four adductors, 
and four abductors ; while the great toe, in addi- 
tion, has two distinct flexors, two extensors ona 
adductor, and one abductor. 





The soft structures and delicate organs of the body are every where 
invested with protecting coats, or bandages, called fasciae. They are 
composed of lamina; of various thickness, and are divided into cellulo- 
fibrous and aponeurotic. 

The cellulo-fibrous fascia invests the whole body between the skin 
and the deeper parts, and affords a medium of connection between 
them. It is composed of fibrous tissue, arranged in a cellular form, 
the cells containing adipose substance, thus affording a yielding and 
elastic structure, through which the minute vessels and nerves pass to 
the papillary layer of the skin, without obstruction or injury from 
pressure. By dissection it may be separated into two layers, between 
which the subcutaneous vessels and nerves are found. In some situa- 
tions this fascia is condensed into strong inelastic membrane, as in the 
deep fascia of the neck and thorax, and the sheaths of vessels. 

Fig. 68. 
Fig. 68 is a transverse section of the neck. 

showing the deep cervical fascia and its nu- 
merous prolongations, forming sheaths for 

the different muscles. 1. Platysma myoidcs. 

2. Trapezius. 3. Ligamentum nuchas, from 

which the fascia may he traced forward 

beneath the trapezius, inclosing the other 

muscles of the neck. 4. Division of the fascia 

to form a sheath for the sterno-mastoid mus- 
cle (5). 6. Point of reunion. 7. Union of 

the deep fascia of opposite sides of the neck. 

8. Section of the sterno-hyoid. 9. Omo-hy- 

oid. 10. Sterno-thyroid. 11. Lateral lobe of 

the thyroid gland. 12. Trachea. 13. JEso- 

phagus. 14. Sheath containing the common 

carotid artery, internal jugular vein, and 

pneumoga6tric nerve. 15. Longus colli; the 
sympathetic nerve is in front. 16. Rec- 
tus anticus major. 17. Scalenus anticus. 18. 
Scalenus posticus. 19. Splenius capitis. 20. 
Splenius colli. 21. Levator anguli scapulae. 
22. Complexus. 23. Trachleo-mastoid. 24. Transversalis colli. 25, Cervicalia ascen- 
dens. 26. Semi-spinalis colli. 27. Multifidus spinas. 28. A cervical vertebra ; the 
transverse processes are seen to be traversed by the vertebral artery and vein. 

The aponeurotic fascia is strong and inelastic, composed of parallel 
tendinous fibres, connected by others passing in different directions. 


128 A 3 A T >1 Y. 

In the limbs it forms distinct sheaths, inclosing all the muscles and ten. 
dons, constituting the deep fascia. It is firmly connected to the bones, 
and to the prominent points of the clavicle, scapula, elbow, wrist, pelvis, 
knee, ankle, etc. Its pressure assists the muscular action and the cir- 
culation of fluids. In the palm of the hand and sole of the foot it is a 
powerful protection to the structures. 


Temporal Fascia. — The fascia of the temple is a strong aponeurotic 
membrane covering the temporal muscle on each side of the head. 

Cervical Fascice. — The fascial of the neck are divided into the 
superficial, which is a part of the common superficial fascia of the 
entire body, and the deep, a strong cellulo-fibrous layer which invests 
the muscles of the neck, and retains and supports the vessels and nerves. 

Thoracic Fascia. — The thoracic fascia is a dense layer of cellulo- 
fibrous membrane stretched horizontally across the superior opening of 
the thorax, and forming the upper boundary of the chest, as the dia- 
phragm does the lower. It supports the heart in its situation, and also 
the large blood-vessels, windpipe, and sesophagus, which pass through it. 

Abdominal Fascice. — The lower part of the walls of the abdomen, 
and the cavity of the pelvis, are supported on their internal surface with 
a layer of fascia ; at the bottom of the pelvis it is reflected inward to 
the sides of the bladder. In different-situations its parts are called 
fascia transversalis, iliac, and pelvic fascia. The transverse and iliac 
fasciae meet at the crest of the ilium and Pou part's ligament; the pelvic 
is confined to the cavity of the true pelvis. These fasciae are important 
in their relations to 

inguinal hernia. 

There are two Kinds of inguinal hernia, oblique and direct. In the 
oblique, the intestine escapes from the abdominal cavity into the sperm- 
atic canal, through the internal abdominal ring ; this ring is situated in 
the fascia transversalis, about midway between the spine of the pubis 
and superior anterior spine of the ilium, half an inch above Poupart's 
ligament. The bowel pushes along a pouch of peritoneum which 
forms the hernial sac, and distends a process of the transverse fascia. 
After emerging from the internal ring, it passes beneath the lower 
borders of the transversalis and internal oblique muscles, and finally 
through the external abdominal ring in the aponeurosis of the external 
oblique muscle. While passing the internal oblique, it receives the 
cremaster muscle as an additional -investment, and upon protruding 
from tilt external ring, still another from the intercolumnar fascia. 


Hence the coverings of an inguinal hernia from the surface to the 
bowel are : 1. The integument. 2. Superficial fascia. 3. Inter- 
columnar fascia. 4. The cremaster muscle. 5. Transversalis fascia. 
6. Peritoneal sac. 

The spermatic canal is about an inch and a half in length, and in the 
normal condition gives passage to the spermatic cord in the male, and 
the round ligament of the uterus, with its vessels, in the female. It is 
bounded at its inner termination by the internal, and at its outer ex- 
tremity by the external, abdominal ring. It is also bounded in front by 
the aponeurosis of the external oblique ; behind by the transversalis 
fascia and the conjoined tendon of the internal oblique and transversalis ; 
above by the arched borders of the same muscles ; below by the 
grooved border of Poupart's ligament. 

Of oblique inguinal hernia there are three kinds: 1. Common oblique; 
already described. 2. Congenital ; this has no proper sac, but is con- 
tained within the tunica vaginalis ; the other coverings are the same as 
in the first variety. It results from the pouch of the peritoneum, which 
is carried downward into the scrotum by the descent of the testicle in 
the foetus, not closing, so that the intestine is forced into the open canal. 
3. Encysted ; a protrusion of the intestine in which the pouch of the 
peritoneum forming the tunica vaginalis, being only partially closed, 
and remaining open externally to the abdomen, admits of its passing 
into the scrotum behind the tunica vaginalis. The surgeon, in operat- 
ing, divides three layers of serous membrane, the first and second being 
those of the tunica vaginalis, and the third the peritoneal layer, or true 
hernial sac. 

Direct inguinal hernia is so called when the bowel passes directly 
through the external ring, forcing before it the opposing parietes. Its 
coverings are the same as in the oblique hernia, except that the con- 
joined tendon of the internal oblique and transversalis muscles form 
its fourth investment, instead of the cremaster muscle. 

Direct inguinal hernia never attains as great bulk as the oblique form ; 
all these varieties may descend into the cavity of the scrotum, and are 
then called scrotal hernia. 

Iliac Fascia. — The iliac fascia invests the psoas and iliacus muscles ; 
beneath the femoral arch it forms a part of the sheath of the femoral 

Pelvic Fascia. — This is attached to the inner surface of the os pubis, 
and along the margin of the pelvis, from which it descends into the 
pelvic cavity, where it divides into two layers, the pelvic and obturator. 
The pelvic layer is reflected inward from near the symphisis pubis to 
the neck of the bladder, forming th© anterior vesical ligaments ; an 



ascending reflected portion encloses the sides of the bladder and vesical 
plexus of veins, and forms the lateral ligament of the bladder. Other 
reflexions constitute layers for investing the lower portion of the ali- 
mentary canal. The obturator layer passes downward, covering the 
obturator internus muscle, and encloses the internal pudic vessels and 

Perineal Fascia. — The superficial perineal fascia is a thin apo- 
neurotic layer covering the muscles of the genital portion of the peri- 
neum. The deep perineal fascia, called also Camper's, and triangular 
ligament, is stretched across the pelvis, so as to constitute a defence to 
its outlet. 

Fig- 69. In the side view of the viscera 

of the pelvis, Fig. 69, is shown 
the distribution of the perineal 
and pelvic fasciae. 1. Symphisis 
pubis. 2. Bladder. 3. The 
rectovesical fold of peritoneum, 
passing from the anterior sur- 
face of the rectum to the back 
part of the bladder. 4. The 
ureter. 5. The vas deferens. 
6. Right vesicula seminalis. 7. 
Prostate gland divided by a 
longitudinal section. 8, 8. Sec- 
| tion of a ring of elastic tissue 
' encircling the prostatic portion 
of the urethra at its commence- 
ment. 9. Prostatic urethra. 
10. Membranous portion. 11. 
The commencement of the cor- 
pus spongiosum penis, the bulb. 12. Anterior ligaments of the bladder. 13. Edge of the 
pelvic fascia reflected upon tlie rectus. 14. Location of a plexus of veins, between the 
pelvic and deep perineal fascia. 15. Phe deep perinea] fascia ; its two layers. 16 
Cowper's gland of the right side. J - '. Superficial perineal fascia, ascending in front of 
the root of the penis to become continuous with the dartos of the scrotum (18). 19. 
Layer of the deep fascia prolonged to the rectum. 20. Lower part of the levator ani. 
21. The inferior segment of the funnel-shaped process giv.n off from the posterior layer 
of the deep perineal fascia, which is continuous with the recto-vesical fascia; the attach- 
ment of this fascia to the recto-vesical fold of peritoneum is seen at 22. 

Fascia of the Upper Extremity. — The superficial contains between 
its layers the superficial nerves, veins, and lymphatics. The deep is 
thick upon the dorsum of the scapula, but thin in the axillary space 
In the fore-arm it is very strong at the elbow and wrist joints, uniting 
with the ligamentous structures. In the latter joint it forms the p> os ~ 
terior annular ligament. The palmar fascia occupies the middle and 
side of the hand, its central portion spreads over the heads of the meta- 
carpal bones, where it divides into slips which are attached to the 



Fascia of the Lower Extremity. — As in the upper extremity, the 
superficial fascia of the lower contains between its layers the superficial 
vessels and nerves. At the groin these layers are separated by the 
lymphatic glands. The deep fascic of the thigh is called, from its great 
extent, fascia lata. It is strongly connected with the prominent points 
of bone around the hip, knee, a^d ankle joints. The sheath of the 
femoral vessels is a continuation of the abdominal fascia down the thigh. 
In this sheath is an interval between the vein and its inner wall, the 
upper opening of which is called the femoral ring. This ring is 
bounded in front by Poupart's ligament- behind by the os pubis, inter- 
nally by Gimbernat's ligament, and externally by the femoral vein, and 
is closed only by a thin layer of areolar tissue, called septam crurale, 
which retains the lymphatic gland in position, and the peritoneum. 


When violent or long-continued pressure is made on the abdominal 
viscera, a portion of intestine may be forced through the femoral ring 
into the interval or space in the sheath of the femoral vessels, consti- 
tuting femoral hernia. The protruding intestine pushes along the 
peritoneum and septum crurale. If the causes continue, the intestine 
will be forced forward through an opening, called saphenous, in the 
fascia lata, carrying along two additional coverings, the sheath of the 
"emoral vessels, or fascia proper, and another investment, called the 
cribriform fascia ; next curving upward over Poupart's bgament, the 
hernia becomes fixed beneath the superficial fascia and skin. Its direc- 
tion being therefore downward, then forward, and then upward, the 
efforts to reduce it must be directed in the reverse order. 

The fascia of the leg is thickened toward the ankle joint into narrow 
bands, which form the annular ligaments. 

The plantar fascia forms strong layers, which invest the tendons 
and joints of the foot and toes. 



The arteries constitute that part of the circulating system whic*. 
carries the blood from the heart to all parts of the body. They are 
dense, cylindrical tubes, which form the}' retain when emptied of 



blood, and even after death, from which circumstance the ancients 
regarded them as air-vessels.* 

Fig- 70. The aorta, which proceeds 

from the left ventricle of the 
heart, and branches, contain 
the pure or arterial blood, and, 
with the veins which return 
this blood again to the heart, 
constitute the greater or sys- 
temic circulation. The pul- 
monary artery, which conveys 
the venous or impure blood to 
the lungs, with its correspond- 
ing veins, is called the lesser or 
pulmonary circulation. 

Structure of Arteries. 
— Arteries are composed of 
three coats : the external is 
cellular, or areolo-fibrous ; the 
middle is muscular, or, rather, 
a mixed tissue of elastic and 
contractile fibres; and the in- 
ternal is nervous, or a serous 
membrane, throughout whose 
AneTe P sT n y e*e e Substance are ramified .ftp 
*L£"' ** *? nerves of organic life. . The 
outer coat is firm and strong: 
the middle is thick and soft; 
and the internal thin and pol- 


Distribution of Arteries.— All the arteries of the general sys- 
tem are branches of the aorta, which divide and subdivide to their final 
ramifications in the capillary system. From the aorta most of the 
branches pass off at right angles, which moderates the impetus of the 
blood ; but in the extremities the branches leave the main artery at an 
acute angle, which favors the most rapid circulation. When an artery 
dxvides, the area of its branches is always greater than that of the sin- 

* The term angeiology has been applied to the vascular system : it fibdnH.. .u ■_, , 
vessels, arteries, and veins, and the lymphnties. '"eludes the blood- 

The Nerves 


gle trunk ; and the combined area of the ultimate ramifications of all 
the arteries is vastly greater than that of the aortic trunk. This ar- 
rangement allows a more quiet motion of the vital current in the ex- 
treme vessels, where decomposition and recomposition of structures 
are effected. All the arteries are invested with a fibro-cellular sheath, 
which also contains their accompanying veins, and sometimes a nerve. 

Intercommunication of Arteries. — In all parts of the body the 
arterial tubes communicate with each other by branches passing be- 
tween, called inosculations, or anastomoses. These connections in- 
crease in frequency as the vessels diminish in size, so that their final 
distribution is a complete circle of inosculations. The advantage of 
this provision against obstructions which are most liable to occur in the 
smaller branches is obvious. When an artery is divided, or its cavity 
obliterated, the anastomosing branches above enlarge and make up the 
loss of blood by a collateral circulation. The arteries do not terminate 
directly in veins, but in an intermediate system, called the capillary, 
an extremely minute network of vessels and nerves, from which the 
veins arise. 


Aorta. — The aorta arises from the left ventricle of the heart, opposite 
the articulation of the fourth costal cartilage with the sternum, and arches 
backward and to the left, and then descends on the left side of the 
spine to the fourth lumbar vertebra. It is hence divided into ascend- 
ing, arch, and descending, the descending portion being subdivided into 
thoracic and abdominal. At its commencement there are three dilata- 
tions, called its sinus, corresponding with the three semilunar valves. 

The coronary arteries are the only branches given off by the ascend- 
ing aorta ; they arise just behind the semilunar valves, pass through 
the grooves between the auricles and ventricles, and are distributed to 
the substance of the heart. 

Arteria Innominata.— The arteria innominata arises from the 
arch of the aorta, is an inch and a half in length, and ascends obliquely 
toward the right side in front of the trachea ; behind the right sterno r 
clavicular joint it divides into the right carotid and right subclavian. 

Common Carotid Arteries. — The right common carotid arises 
from the bifurcation of the innominata, and ascends the neck perpen- 
dicularly to the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, where it divides 
into the external and internal carotids. The left arises from the arch 
of the aorta, ascends the neck, and divides like the rig 1 '*. 


an; to my. 

Fig. 71 shows the relations of the 
large vessels proceeding from the 
root of the heart, that viscis being 
removed. 1. Ascending aorta. 2. 
Arch. 3. Thoracic aorta. 4. In- 
nominata; this divides, at 5, into 
right carotid, which, at 6, subdi- 
vides into external and internal 
carotid ; and 7, the right subcla- 
vian. 8. Axillary. 9. Brachial. 

10. Bight pneumogastric nerve. 

11, Left carotid. 12. Left subcla- 
vian. 13. Pulmonary. 14. Left 
pulmonary. 15. Right pulmonary. 
16. Trachea. 17. Right bronchus. 
18. Left bronchus. 19, 19. Pul- 
monary veins. 20. Bronchial ar- 
teries. 21. Intercostal. 

External Carotids. — 
Each external carotid, pass- 
ing through the deep por- 
tion of the parotid gland, 
ascends nearly perpendicu- 
larly to the space between 
the neck of the lower jaw 
and the meatus auditorius, 
where it divides into the 
temporal and internal maxil- 
lary. It gives off nine branches ; the first three anteriorly, the next three 
superiorly, and the last three posteriorly. 1. Superior thyroid ; curves 
downward to the thyroid gland, where it is distributed. It sends a hy- 
oid branch to the muscles of the hyoid bone, and superior and inferior 
laryngeal, and muscular branches to the larynx. 2. Linguinal ; ascends 
obliquely to the under surface of the tongue, running forward in a 
serpentine direction to its tip, where it is called the ranine artery; it 
gives off the hyoid, dorsalis linguee, and sublingual branches. A 
branch of this latter branch is often divided in cutting the franum 
linguae in tongue-tied children. 3. Facial; this arises above the os 
hyoides, and descends obliquely to the submaxillary gland, where it is 
embedded ; it then curves around the body of the lower jaw, ascends 
to the angle of the mouth, and thence to the angle of the eye, giving 
off, below the jaw, inferior palatine, submaxillary, submental and 
pterygoid branches, and on the face the masseteric, inferior labial, 
inferior coronary superior coronary, and lateralis nasi branches 4 
Mastoid; turns downward to be distributed to the sterno-mastoid 




Fig. 72. 

muscle and lymphatic glands of the neck. 5. Occipital passes back- 
ward a little below the facial, forms a loop with the hypo-glossal nerve, 
and is distributed upon the occiput, anastomosing freely with the opposite 
occipital, the temporal, and auricular arteries. It gives oft" the inferior 
meningeal to the dura mater, and the princeps cervicis, a large branch 
which descends the neck between the complexus and semi-spinaMs 
colli, and inosculates with the deep cervical branch of the subclavian. 
This branch establishes an important collateral circulation between the 
branches of the carotid and subclavian, after the ligature of the common 
carotid. 6. Posterior auricular ; arises above the level of the digastric 
and stylo-hyoid muscles, and ascends below the parotid gland, to be 
distributed, by two branches, to the external ear and side of the head, 
anastomosing with the occipital and temporal. It sends off" the stylo- 
mastoid branch to the tympanum and aquaeductus Fallopii. The ante- 
rior arteries of the ear are branches of the temporal. 7. Ascending 
pharyngeal ; arises near the external carotid bifurcation, and ascends 
to the base of the skull, where it divides into two branches — meningeal, 
which, passing through the foramen lacerum posterius, is distributed 
to the dura mater, and pharyngeal, which supplies the pharynx, tonsils, 
and Eustachian tube. 8. 
Parotideans; four or five 
branches distributed to the 
parotid gland and adjacent 
integuments. 9. Transver- 
salis facei ; arises from 
the trunk within the parotid 
gland, crosses the masseter 
muscle, and is distributed 
to the temporo-maxillary 
articulation, and muscles 
and integuments of the side 
of the face, inosculating with 
the facial and infra-orbital. 

Fig. 72 is a plan of the common 
carotids, with the branches of the 
external. 1. Common carotid. 2. 
External carotid. 3, Internal ca- 
rotid. 4. Carotid foramen in the 
petrous portion of the tempora 
bone. 5. Superior thyroid. 6 
Lingual. 7. Facial. 8. Mastoid 
9. Occipital. 10. Posterior auric- 
ular. 11. Transverse facial. 12. 

Internal maxillary. 13. Temporal CA moTIDS AND BRANCH*. 

14. Atcending pharyngeal 


The Temporal Artery. — This terminal branch of the external 
carotid ascends over the root of the zygoma, where it divides into two 
branches : 1. Anterior temporal ; distributed over the front of the 
temple and arch of the skull, anastomosing witn its fellow, the frontal 
. and supra-orbital. 2. Posterior temporal ; curves upward and back- 
Ward, inosculating with its fellow, the occipital and posterior auricular. 
It sends off three branches — the orbitar to the palpebral arteries, the 
middle temporal to the temporal muscle, and the anterior auricular to 
the ear. 

The Internal Maxillary Artery. — The other terminal branch 
of the external carotid passes inward behind the neck of the lower jaw 
to the deep structures of the face. Its branches are : 1. Tympanitic 
distributed to and around the drum of the ear, passing through the 
glenoid fissure. 2. Inferior dental ; descends to the dental foramen 
and enters the canal of the lower jaw with the dental nerve. It sup- 
plies the teeth of the lower jaw, sending small branches along the 
canals in their roots. A branch also emerges at the mental foramen 
and anastomoses with the facial arteries. 3. Meningea media; passes 
through the foramen spinosum of the sphenoid bone, and becomes the 
middle artery of the dura mater, its branches ramifying through a part 
of that membrane and the bones of the skull. 4. Meningea parva; 
enters the cranium through the foramen ovale, and is distributed to the 
dura mater, giving off a twig to the nasal fossa; and soft palate. 5. 
Muscular branches ; distributed to the muscJes of the maxillary region. 

6. Superior dental; descending, winds around the tuberosity of the 
upper jaw, and gives branches to the back teeth, gums, and the antrum 

7. Infra-orbital; enters the orbit of the eye, and passes along the infra- 
orbital canal, sending branches to the orbit, antram, teeth of the upper 
jaw, and integuments. 8. Pterygopalatine ; a small branch sent to 
the upper part of the pharynx and Eustachian tube. 9. Spheno- 
palatine, or nasal; enters the upper meatus of the nose, and supplies 
the mucous membrane of its septum and walls, and sphenoid and 
ethmoid cells. 10. Posterior palatine ; descends along the posterior 
palatine canal, and is distributed to the palate. A branch called Vidian 
passes backward to the sheath of the Vidian nerve and Eustachian tube.' 

Internal Carotjd ARTERr ES .-From the bifurcation of the com 
mon carotid, each internal carotid curves digirtfr outward, then ascends 
nearly perpendicularly through the maxillo-pharyngeal sn T h 
carotid foramen in the os petrosum. It next passes *w/ a * on ° he 
carotid canal, forward by the sella turcica and then uproard, JSJ 


the dura mater, and dividing into three terminal branches. These re- 
markable angular curves greatly diminish the force of blood thrown 
into the substance of the brain. The cerebral portion of the artery 
gives off the following branches: 1. Ophthalmic; it enters the orbit 
through the optic foramen, passes to the inner angle of the eye, and 
divides into two groups of branches, the first being distributed to the 
orbit and surrounding parts, and the second supplying the muscles and 
globe of the eye. These branches are named from their distribution : 
Lachrymal, supra-orbital, posterior ethmoidal, anterior ethmoidal, pal- 
pebral, frontal, nasal, muscular, anterior ciliary, short ciliary, long 
ciliary, and centralis retince. 2. Tympanitic; this enters the tym- 
panum through a small foramen in the carotid canal. -3. Anterior me- 
ningeal ; distributed to the dura mater and Casserian ganglion. 4. 
Anterior cerebral ; passes forward along the longitudinal fissure be- 
tween the two hemispheres of the brain, and gives branches to the 
optic and olfactory nerves, anterior lobes, third ventricle, corpus callo- 
sum, and inner surface of the hemispheres. The two anterior*.cere- 
bral arteries are connected soon after their origin; the anastomosing 
trunk is called the anterior communicating artery. 4. Middle cerebral; 
passes outward along the fissure of Sylvius, and divides into three 
branches, which supply the anterior and middle lobes of the brain, and 
the corpus striatum. 5. Posterior communicating ; passes backward, 
and inosculates with the posterior cerebral. 6. Choroidean ; a smaU 
branch sent off to the choroid plexus, and walls off the middle cornua. 

The Subclavian Arteries. — The right arises from the innomi- 
nata, and the left from the arch of the aorta. Each emerges from the 
chest by passing over the first rib between the anterior and middle 
6caleni muscles. Its primary branches are five, most of which are 
given off before it arrives at the upper rib. The first three ascend ; 
the remaining two descend. 1. Vertebral ; this is its largest branch ; 
it passes through the foramina in the transverse processes of all the 
cervical vertebra?, except the lower, and enters the skull through the 
foramen magnum of the occipitis. At the lower border of the pons 
Varolii the two arteries unite to form the basilir. The vertebral and 
basilir arteries send off the foEowing secondary branches : Lateral 
sjrinal, to the spinal cord and membranes; posterior meningeal, to the 
dura mater, cerebellar fossa?, and falx cerebelli ; anterior spinal, to the 
spinal cord ; posterior spinal, to the spinal cord ; inferior cerebellar, to 
the lower surface of the cerebellum ; transverse, to the pons Varolii 
and adjacent parts of the Drain ; superior cerebellar, to the upper sur- 
face of the cerebellum; and posterior cerebral, to the posterior lobes 



of the cerebrum. A remarkable connection of arteries at the base of 
the brain, formed by the interior communicating branch, anterior cere- 
brals, and internal carotids in front, and by the posterior communicat- 
ing, posterior cerebrals, and basilir behind, is called the circle of Willis. 

Fig. 73 exhibits the communi- 
cation of the arteries constituting 
the circle of Willis. 1 . Vertebral 
arteries. 2. The two anterior 
spinal branches united to form a 
single vessel. 3* One of the pos- 
terior spinal arteries. 4. Poste- 
rior meningeal. 5. Inferior ce- 
rebellar. 6. Basilir, giving off 
transverse branches to either 
side. 7. Superior cerebellar. 8. 
Posterior cerebral. 9. Posterior 
communicating branch of the 
internal carotid. 10. Internal ca- 
rotid, showing its curvature 
within the skull. 11. Ophthal- 
mic, divided across. 12. Middle 
cerebral. 13. Anterior cerebral, 
connected by, 14. The anterior 
communicating artery. 

2. Thyroid axis ; this 
is a short trunk, dividing 
soon after its origin into 
four branches : Inferior 
thyroid, distributed to the 
thyroid gland, and send- 
ing twigs to the trachea, 
larynx, and oesophagus ; 
supra-scapular, distributed to the muscles on the upper surface of the 
shoulder blade, sending a twig to the trapezius ; posterior scapular, 
passing across the neck, supplying the muscles behind the scapula, and 
giving branches to those of the neck ; with the branches of the exter- 
nal carotid, subclavian, and axillary, it establishes an important anasto- 
motic communication ; superficial cervical, distributed to the deep 
muscles and glands of the neck, and sending twigs through the inter- 
vertebral foramina to the spinal cord and membranes. 3. Profunda 
cervicis ; passes backward below the lower cervical vertebra, and then 
ascends the back of the neck, inosculating with branches of the occi- 
pital and scapular. 4. Superior intercostal ; descends behind the 
pleura upon the necks of the first two ribs, supplying their spaces, and 
inosculating with the first aortic intercostal. 





Fig. 74 shows the branches of the right sub- Fig. 74. 

clavian. 1. Innominata. 2. Right carotid. 3. 
First portion of the subclavian. 4. Its second 
portion. 5. Its third portion. 6. Vertebral ar- 
tery. 7. Inferior thyroid. 8. Thyroid axis. 9. 
Superficialis cervicis. 10. Profunda cervicis. 
11. Posterior scapular. 12. Supra-scapular. 13. 
Internal mammary. 14. Superior intercostal. 

5. Internal mammary ; descends by 
the side of the sternum to the dia- 
phragm, where it enters the sheath of 
the rectus, and inosculates with the 
epigastric ; it sends off the following 
branches : Anterior intercostal, to the 
front intercostal muscles ; mammary, 
to the breasts ; comes nervi phrenica, 
which accompanies the phrenic nerve ; 
mediastinal and pericardiac, to the mediastinum, pericardium, and thy- 
mus gland ; and musculo-phrenic, to the diaphragm and intercostal 

The Axillary Arteries. — The axillaries curve gently through the 
middle of the armpit, where they become the brachial. Each axillary 
gives off seven branches : 1. Thoracica acromialis ; distributed to the 
pectoral muscles and mammary gland, and inosculating with the supra- 
scapular. 2. Superior thoracic ; distributed with the preceding, inos- 
culating with the intercostal and mammary. 3. Inferior thoracic ; dis- 
tributed to the pectoralis minor, serratus magnus, and subscapularis 
muscles, and axillary and mammary glands, inosculating with the su- 
perior thoracic, intercostal, and mammary. 4. Thoracica axillaris; 
distributed to the plexus of nerves and glands in the armpit. 5. Sub- 
scapular ; the largest branch ; supplies the muscles on the under sur- 
face and lower border of the shoulder blade, and the side of the chest. 
A branch, called dorsalis scapula, is sent to the upper side of the 
scapula. 6. Circumflex ; these wind around the neck of the humerus, 
and supply the shoulder joint. 7. Posterior circumflex ; a larger branch 
distributed to the joint and deltoid muscle. 

Brachial Arteries. — Each brachial artery extends down the arm, 
from the lower border of the latissimus dorsi to the elbow, where it 
divides into the radial and ulnar. Along the arm it gives off four 
branches : 1. Superior profunda ; winds around the humerus between 
the triceps and bone and inosculates with the radial recurrent ; it sendi 



the posterior articular to the elbow joint. 2. Inferior profunda ; arises 
from the middle of the brachial, descends to the elbow with the ulnar 
nerve, and inosculates with the posterior ulnar recurrent. 3. Anasto- 
motica magna ; arises two inches above the elbow, and inosculates 
with both ulnar recurrents and the inferior profunda. 4. Muscular 
branches ; distributed to the muscles along its course, viz., coraco-bra- 
chialis, biceps, deltoid, brachialis anticus, and triceps. 

Fig. 75. 


The Radial Artery. — The radial di- 
vision of the brachial runs along the radial 
side of the fore-arm from the elbow to the 
wrist, where it turns around the base of the 
thumb beneath its extensor tendons, and 
passes into the palm of the hand. It then 
crosses the metacarpal bones to the ulnar 
side, forming the deep palmar arch, and 
terminates by inosculating with the super- 
ficial palmar arch. This is the artery 
which, from its superficial position above 
the wrist and base of the thumb, is select- 
ed for " examining the pulse." Its branches 
are : 1. To the fore-arm ; the recurrent ra- 
dial and muscular. 2. To the wrist; su- 
perficialis voice, carpalis anterior, carpalis 
posterior, metacarpalis, and dorsales polli- 
cis. 3. To the hand ; princeps pollicis, 
radialis indicis, interossete, and perforantes, 
distributed as their names import. 

The arteries of the fore-arm are shown in Fig. 75. 
1. Biceps muscle. 2. Inner condyle of the humerus. 
3. Pronator radii teres. 4. Supinator longus. 5. 
Flexor longus pollicis. 6. Pronator quadratus. 7. 
Flexor profundus digitorum. 8. Flexor carpi ulnaris. 
9. Annular ligament. 10. Brachial artery. 11. Anas- 
tomotica magna. 12. Radial. 13. Radial recurrent. 
14. Superficialis vote. 15. Ulnar. 16. Its superficial 
palmar arch. 17. Magna pollicis and radialis. 18. 
Posterior ulnar recurrent. 19. Anterior interosseous. 
20. Posterior interosseous. 

The Ulnar Artery. — The ulnar division of the brachial crosses 
the arm obliquely, then runs down the ulnar side to the wrist, crossing 
the annular ligament, forming the superficial palmar arch, and termi- 
nating by inosculating with the superficial vote. Its branches are: 1. 


To the fore-arm ; anterior and posterior recurrent, anterior and poste- 
rior interosseous, and muscular. 2. To the wrist ; carpialis anterior 
and posterior. 3. To the hand ; digitales, distributed as then - names 

The Thoracic Aorta. — In the cavity of the chest the aorta gives 
off three groups of branches: 1. Bronchial; four in number, distrib- 
uted to the bronchial glands and tubes ; they also send branches to the 
oesophagus, pericardium, and left auricle. They are the nutritive ves- 
sels of the lungs. 2. (Esophageal ; numerous small branches distrib- 
uted to the oesophagus, and making a chain of anastomoses along its 
course. 3. Intercostal ; nine on each side, arising from the posterior 
part of the aorta, and sent to the nine lower intercostal spaces, where 
each branch gives off a dorsal branch ; thus dividing into spinal and 
muscular branches, which supply the spina cord, and muscles and in- 
teguments of the back. 

The Abdominal Aorta. — In the abdominal cavity the aorta gives 
off nine primary brandies : 1. Phrenic ; these are given off* imme- 
diately below the diaphragm, and soon divida into an internal branch, 
which inosculates with its fellow in front of the oesophageal opening, 
and an external, which is distributed to the circumference of the dia- 
phragm, and sends branches to the supra-renal capsules. The phrenic 
arteries inosculate with branches of the internal mammary, inferior in- 
tercostal, epigastric, oesophageal, gastric, hepatic, and supra-renal. 2. 
The Caliac axis ; this is a single trunk, arising just above the first 
lumbar vertebrae, about half an inch in length ; it divides into three 
large branches, the gastric, hepatic, and splenic. 

The Gastric artery is the smallest branch; it ascends between the 
two layers of the lesser omentum to the cardiac orifice of the stomach, 
to be distributed to the lower part of the oesophagus and lesser curve 
of the stomach. It inosculates with branches of the hepatic and 

The Hepatic branch ascends along the right border of the lesser 
omentum to the liver, where it divides into right and left branches; 
these are distributed along the portal canals to the right and left lobes. 
It sends a pyloric branch to the lesser curve of the stomach and duo- 
denum ; the gastro-duodenalis, dividing into the gastro-epiploica dextra 
and pancreatico-duodenalis, which are distributed to the greater curve 
of the stomach, pancreas, and duodenum ; and the cystic, which is dis- 
tributed to the gall-bladder. The gastric, pyloric, and splenic branches 


A N A T M V. 

inosculate with each other, and with branches of the pancreas, duode- 
num, jejunum, and mesentery. 

The abdominal aorta is shown in 
F 'g- 76 - Fig. 70, with its branches. 1. Phre- 

nic arteries. 2. Coeliac axis. 3. 
Gastric artery. 4. Hepatic. 5. 
Splenic. 6. Right supra-renal. 7. 
Right renal. 8. Lumbar. 9. Su- 
perior mesenteric. 10. The two 
spermatic. 11. Inferior mesenteric. 
12. 8acra media. 13. Common ili- 
acs. 14. Right internal iliac. 15. 
External iliac. 16. Epigastric. 17 
Circumflexa ilii. 18. Femoral. 

The Splenic artery is the 
largest branch of th« cceliac 
axis ; it passes horizontally 
to the left along the upper 
border of the pancreas, and 
enters the spleen by five or 
six divisions, which are dis- 
tributed to its structure. In 
its course it is tortuous and 
serpentine, frequently mak- 
ing a complete turn upon 
itself. It is accompanied by 
the splenic vein, and splenic 
plexus of nerves. It sends 
off numerous small branch- 
es, pancreaticee parva, to the 
pancreas ; the largest follows 
the pancreatic duct, and is 
called pancreatica magna ; 
several branches, vasa brevia, to the great end of the stomach, to which 
they are distributed, inosculating with branches of the gastric ; and the 
gastro-epiploica sinistra, which appears to be the continuation of the 
splenic artery ; it passes from left to right along the great curve of the 
stomach, and inosculates with the gastro-epiploica dextra; its distribu- 
tion is to the curve of the stomach and great omentum. 

3. Superior mesenteric ; arises behind the pancreas, and descends 
within the layers of the mesentery to the right iliac fossa. Its branches 
are : Vasa intestini tenuis ; fifteen or twenty branches, distributed to 
the small intestines. Between the layers of the mesentery the larger 




branches inosculate so as to form series of arches ; from these second- 
ary arches are similarly formed, and from the latter a third series, from 
which branches are distributed to the intestinal coats. Sometimes a 
fourth or even fifth series of arches is produced. Ileo-colic ; descends 
to the right iliac fossa, where it divides into branches, which form 
arches, and are finally distributed to the ilium, caecum, and colon. 
Colica dextra ; forms arches, from which branches are distributed to 
the ascending colon. Colica media ; distributed, like the preceding, to 
the transverse part of the -colon. All the branches of the superior 
mesenteric inosculate freely with each other. 

Fig. 77. 

Fig. 77 shows the course 
and distribution of the su- 
perior mesenteric artery. 

I. Duodenum. 2. Its trans- 
verse portion. 3. Pancreas. 
4. Jejunum. 5. Ileum. 6. 
Caecum, with its vermiform 
appendix. 7. Ascending co- 
lon. 8. Its transverse por- 
tion. 9. Commencement of 
the descending colon. 10. 
Superior mesenteric artery. 

II. Colica media. 12. The 
branch inosculating with the 
colica sinistra 13. Branch 
of the superior mesenteric 
inosculating wUh the pan- 
creatico-duodenalis. 14. Co- 
lica dextra. 15. Ileo-colica. 
16, 16. Branches from the 
convexity of the superior 
mesenteric to the small in- 

4. Spermatic ; the 
spermatic arteries are 
two small vessels aris- 
ing from the aorta be- 
low the mesenteric, 
and, passing obliquely 
outward, accompany the ureters along the front of the psoas muscle to 
the border of the pelvis. Each spermatic artery is then directed out- 
ward to the internal abdominal ring, following the spermatic cord, with 
its corresponding veins and plexus of nerves, through the scrotum to 
the testicle, to which it is distributed. In the female they descend 
into the pelvis, and pass between two layers of the broad ligaments of 


144 AN ITOMV. 

the uterus, to be distributed to the ovaries, Fallopian tubes, and round 
ligaments, inosculating with the uterine arteries. 5. Inferior mesen- 
teric ; arises two inches below the superior mesenteric, and descends 
to the left iliac fossa, when it divides into the colica sinistra, which is 
distributed to the descending colon ; the sigmoidex, several branches 
sent to the sigmoid flexure of the colon ; and the superior hemorrhoid- 
al, which descends to the rectum, and is there distributed. 6. Supra- 
renal; two small vessels sent to the supra-renal capsules. 7. Jtenal ; 
two large trunks given off immediately below the superior mesenteric ; 
they divide into several large branches, which are minutely ramified in 
the substance of the kidneys. 8. Lumbar ; four or five branches 
curving around the lumbar vertebrae, then, dividing into branches, dis- 
tributed to the vertebrae, spinal cord, dorsal and abdominal muscles. 
9. Sacra media ; arises at the bifurcation of the aorta, and, descend- 
ing, inosculates with the lateral sacral arteries, sending branches to the 
rectum and anterior sacral nerves. 

The Common Iliac Arteries. — The abdominal aorta divides into 
the two common iliacs opposite the fourth lumbar vertebra. They are 
about two and a half inches long, and opposite the sacro-iliac symphasis 
divide into the internal and external iliac. 

The Internal Iliac Arterv. — This is a short trunk, from one to 
two inches in length, dividing opposite the great sacro-ischiatic foramen 
into an anterior and posterior trunk. The branches of the anterior 
trunk are: 1. Umbilical; this is the commencement of the fibrous 
cord, into which the umbilical artery of the foetus is converted after 
birth. In after life the cord remains pervious a short distance, consti- 
tuting the umbilical artery of the adult ; it gives off the superior and 
middle vesical, and middle hemorrhoidal arteries to the bladder, vesi- 
culas seminales, prostate gland, and rectum. 2. Ischiatic ; presses 
downward to the lower border of the great ischiatic notch, where it 
emerges from the pelvis, then passes down between the trochanter 
major and tuberosity of the ischium, in company with the ischiatic 
nerves, where it divides into the hemorrhoidal, distributed to the rec- 
tum ; inferior vesical, to the base and neck of the bladder, vesiculas 
seminales, and prostate gland ; coccygeal, to the integuments and mus- 
cles around the anus and coccyx ; inferior gluteal, to the gluteus maxi- 
mus; comes nervi ischiatici, to the lower part of the thigh; and mus- 
cular branches, which supply the posterior part of the hip and thigh. 
2. Internal pudic ; passes down in front of the ischiatic, emerges from 
the pelvis through the great sacto- ischiatic foramen, crosses the spine 


of the ischium, and re-enters the pelvis through the lesser sacro-ischi- 
ntic foramen ; it then crosses the internal obturator muscle to the ramus 
of the ischium, ascends the ramus, and at the symphysis enters the 
deep perineal fascia, finally reaching the dorsum of the penis, along 
which it runs, much diminished in size, supplying that organ under the 
name of dorsalis penis. Within the pelvis it sends branches to the 
bladder, vesicute seminales, prostate gland, and rectum. Externally to 
the pelvis it gives off the external hemorrhoidal to the muscles and in- 
teguments of the anus and perineum ; superficialis perinei, to the 
scrotum and perineum ; bulbosa, to the corpus spongiosum of the 
penis ; corposis cavernosi, to the corpus cavernosum ; and dorsal, dis- 
tributed to the body of the penis. 

In the female the internal pudic is smaller; its distribution is the 
same in principle to the corresponding organs. The uterine and vaginal 
arteries are derived from the internal iliac, umbilical, internal pudic, and 
ischiatic arteries. 

The branches of the posterior trunk are : 1 . Ileo-lumbar ; distrib- 
uted to the abdominal muscles. 2. Obturator ; this passes from the 
pelvis through the obturator foramen, and divides into internal and ex- 
ternal branches, which are distributed to the muscles around the hip 
joint. 3. Lateral sacral ; two in number ; the superior passes through 
the posterior sacral foramen, and is distributed to the spinal canal and 
sacral integuments ; the inferior supplies the sacral nerves. 4. Glu- 
teal ; this is the continuation of the main trunk ; it passes through the 
great sacro-ischiatic foramen, and divides into a su2>erficial branch, 
which ramifies in the gluteus maximus and adjacent integuments ; a 
deep superior branch, which inosculates with the circumflex arteries ; 
and deep inferior branches, which are sent to the gluteus minimus and 
capsule of the hip joint. 

The External Iliac. — The external iliac of each s ; de passes 
obliquely downward along the inner border of the psoas muscle, from 
opposite the sacra-iliac symphysis to the femoral arch, where it be- 
comes the femoral artery. It is surrounded by lymphatic vessels and 
glands throughout its whole course. Its branches are : 1. Epigastric ; 
arises near Poupart's ligament, passes forward between the peritoneum 
and transversalis fascia, ascends obliquely to the sheath of the rectus, 
which it enters and passes upward behind that muscle. It is distrib- 
uted to the rectus, inosculating in its substance with the internal mam- 
mary. It sends a cremasteric branch to the muscle of that name, and 
inosculating branches to the obturator artery. The epigastric artery 
forms the prominence of the peritoneum, which divides the iliac fossa 


into internal and external portions, from the former of which direct 
inguinal hernia issues, and from the latter oblique inguinal hernia. 2. 
Circumjlexa ilii ; arises nearly opposite the epigastric. It is distrib- 
uted to the abdominal muscles, inosculating with the inferior intercostal 
and lumbar. 

The Femoral Artery. — After emerging from Poupart's ligament 
the external iliac enters the thigh, and takes the name of femoral. It 
passes down the inner sid« of the thigh midway between the anterior 
superior spine of the iliun_ and the symphysis pubis, to the opening in 
the adductor magnus, which is about two thirds the distance to the 
knee, where it takes the name of popliteal. Its branches are : 1 Su- 
perficial circumjlexa ilii ; to the integuments of the groin and inguinal 
glands. 2. Superficial epigastric; distributes branches to the groin, 
and ascends toward the umbilicus, to inosculate with branches of the 
epigastric and internal mammary. 3. Superficial external pudic ; to 
the penis and scrotum in the male, and the labia in the female. 4. 
Deep external pudic; to the scrotal integuments and perineum. 5. 
Profunda ; to the flexor muscle on the back of the leg. This artery 
which arises two inches below Poupart's ligament, divides into the ex- 
ternal circumflex, which supplies the muscles on the front and outer 
side of the thigh, and inosculates with the gluteal and ischiatic ; the 
internal circumflex, which winds around the inner side of the neck of 
the femur, supplying the muscles on the upper and inner side of the 
thigh, anastomosing with the adjacent vessels; and the perforating ar- 
teries ; three branches, distributed to the posterior, anterior, and flexoi 
muscles of the thigh, and inosculating freely with the surrounding 
branches of other arteries. These anastomoses maintain the collatera, 
circulation of the limb after ligature of the femoral artery. 6. Mus- 
cular; given off to nil tie surrounding muscles. 7. Anastomotica 
magna ; this runs along the tendon of the adductor magnus to the 
inner condy'e, and inosculates with the arteries around the knee joint; 
some of the branches are distributed to the vastus internus. 

The Popliteal Artery.— This continuation of the femoral passe9 
obliquely outward to the lower border of the popliteal muscle, where* 
it divides into the anterior and posteior tibial. Its branches are: 1 
Superior articular ; two branches, external and internal, which wino 
around the femur, supplying the knee joint and lower part of the fe- 
mur, anastomosing with each other and the adjacent arteries. 2. Azy- 
gos articular ; one or more sent to the interior of the synowal mem- 
brane. 3. Inferior articulzr; two branches, external and internal, 


which wind around the head of the tibia, supply the knee joint, heads 
of the tibia and fibula, and anastomose with each other and the adjacent 
arteries. 4. Crural ; two large muscular branches, distributed to the 
two heads of the gastrocnemius. 

The Anterior Tibial Artery. — This runs down the front aspect 
of the leg to the ankle joint, where it becomes the dorsalis pedis. Its 
branches are: 1. Recurrent; distributed to the knee joint, and anasto- 
mosing with the articular. 2. Muscular ; numerous branches distrib- 
uted to the anterior tibial region. 3. Malleolar ; two branches, ex- 
ternal and internal, distributed to the ankle joint, and anastomosing 
extensively with adjacent arteries. 

The Dorsalis Pedis. — This continuation of the anterior tibial runs 
forward along the tibial side of the upper surface of the foot, from the 
ankle to the base of the metatarsal bone of the great toe, where, after 
sending off the tarsea branches to the tarsal articulations, and the me- 
tatarsea, which form an arch across the base of the foot and bones, 
and also giving off the interossece, which are distributed to the dorsal 
interossei muscles and toes, it divides into the dorsalis pollicis, dis- 
tributed to the great and second toes, and the communicating, which 
passes to the sole of the foot, inosculating with the external plantar. 

The Posterior Tibial Artert. — This division of the popliteal pass 
es obliquely down the tibial side of the leg to the concavity of the os cal 
cis, where it divides into the internal and external plantar. Its branch er 
are : 1. Peroneal ; a largo branch §iven off two inches below the 
lower border of the popliteal muscle ; it runs downward along the 
inner border of the fibula to its lower third, where it divides into an 
anterior branch, distributed around the outer malleolus, and a. posterior, 
to the tarsus. 2. Nutritious ; to the nutritive canal of the tibia. 3. 
Muscular ; numerous branches sent to the deep muscles of the leg. 
A recurrent branch passes up and anastomoses with the articular arte- 
ries. 4. Internal calcanean ; several branches sent to the os calcis and 
integuments, and anastomosing with the neighboring arteries. 

The Plantar Arteries. — The internal proceeds from the bifur- 
cation of the posterior tibial, along the inner border of the foot, sup- 
plying that part and the great toe. The external, the largest division, 
passes outward to the fifth metatarsal space, then turns horizontally 
inward between the layeis of muscles to the first metatarsal space, 
where it inosculates with the communicating branch of the dorsalis 


pedis. It sends off branches, named after their manner of distribution, 
muscular, articular, digital, anterior and posterior perforating, which 
supply the various structures and parts of the foot, and form numerous 
inosculating connections with each other 


The pulmonary artery arises from the left side of the right ventricle 
in front of the origin of the aorta ; it ascends obliquely to the under 
surface of the aorta, where it divides into the right and left pulmonary. 
In its course upward and backward it crosses the commencement of 
the aorta, to which it is connected by a thick, impervious cord, the re- 
mains of the ductus arteriosus. 

The Right Pulmonary passes beneath the arch and behind the 
ascending aorta to the root of the lungs, where it divides into three 
branches, which are distributed to the three lobes of the right lung. 

The Left Pulmonary, the largest division, passes in front of the 
descending aorta to the root of the left lung, to which it is distributed. 

These arteries divide and subdivide in the substance of the lungs, 
and finally terminate in a network of capillary vessels around the ah 
cells and intercellular passages. 



The veins are the vessels which return the blood to the heart, after 
it has been circulated through the various structures of the body by 
the arteries. They are thinner than the arteries, and collapse and flat- 
ten on becoming empty. 

In the systemic circulation the veins cdnvey the dark-colored blood 
from the capillaries to the right auricle of the heart. The veins of the 
pulmonary circulation correspond to the arteries of the systemic circu- 
lation, as they convey the pure red blood from the capillaries of the 
lungs to the left auricle. 

Veins originate by minute radicles in all the textures of the body, 
and converge to larger trunks, the sum of the radicles being larger 
than that of the main trunk ; hence the blood, in returning to the 
heart, passes from a larger to a smaller channel, which increases its 
rapidity of motion. 



Structure of Veins. — Like the arteries, the veins have three 
coats. The external is cellular, or areolar ; the middle is fibrous, or 

Fig. 78. 

muscular ; and the internal is nervo- 
serous. The middle coat consists 
of an outer layer of circular fibres, 
and an inner layer of longitudinal 
organic muscular fibres. The inner 
coat is probably a continuation of the 
inner coats of arteries. The differ- 
ences between the structures of ar- 
teries and veins is the thinness and 
inelasticity of the veins, and the ex- 
istence of valves in them. These 
valves are generally semilunar fibrous 
flaps, arranged in pairs, one on each 
side of the vessel ; sometimes, how- 
ever, there is a single spiral flap, and 
occasionally three. The free border 
of the valvular flaps is concave, and 
directed forward, allowing a free 
current toward the heart, but pre- 
venting a retrograde motion. The 
valves are most numerous in the 
veins of the extremities ; they are 
generally absent in very small veins, 
in the portal and cerebral veins, and 
those of the viscera ; they are also 
absent in the large trunks, as the 
cavse, azygos, innominata, and iliac. 

Veins are divided into superficial, 
deep, and sinuses. The sinuses are 
excavations in the structure of an 
organ, and lined by the internal coat 
of the veins. The principal are 
those of the dura mater, the diploe, the canalous structure of bones, 
and the uterus. 


Veins of the Head. — The venous blood from the face and exterior 
of the head is principally collected by veins which accompany the ar- 
teries, and have the same names. The principal trunks are : 1 
Facial ; descends along the middle of the forehead, passes downward 
by the side of the root of the nose, and continues beneath the zygo- 


matic muscles, receiving the supra-orbital, nasal, ophthalmic, alveolar, 
una palpebral branches, and finally terminating in the internal jugular. 
2. Internal maxillary ; receives the branches from the zygomatic and 
pterygoid fossae, and joins with the temporal behind the neck of tho 
lower jaw, constituting the temporo-maxillary. 2. Temporo-maxillary ; 
passes down through the parotid gland, at the lower border of which 
it becomes the external jugular, receiving in its course the anterior 
auricular, masseteric, transverse facial, and parotid. 3. Temporal ; 
descends between the meatus auditorius externus and the condyle of 
the lower jaw, and unites with the internal maxillary. 4. Occipital ; 
follows the occipital artery, and terminates in the internal jugular. 

Veins or the Difloe. — The venous blood of the bones of the 
head is received from the cellular capillaries, which terminate exter- 
nally in the veins of the pericranium, and internally in the veins and 
sinuses of the dura mater. 

Veins of the Cerebrum and Cerebellum.— The superficial 
cerebral are situated on the surface of the hemispheres, lying in 
grooves formed by the convexities of their convolutions. The superior 
terminate in the superior longitudinal sinus. The deep commence 
within the lateral ventricles, and unite to form the venee galeni, which, 
escaping through an opening, called the fissure of Bichat, terminates 
in the straight sinus. 

The cerebellar are disposed like the cerebral, and terminate in the 
lateral and petrosal sinuses. 

Sinuses of the Dura Mater. — These are irregular channels, 
formed by a splitting of the layers of the membrane, which are lined 
by a continuation of the inner coat of the veins. The principal are : 
1. Superior longitudinal ; attached to the falx cerebri ; it extends 
along the middle line of the arch of the skull to the occipital bone, 
where it divides into the lateral sinuses. Its termination forms a dila- 
tation, called torcular Herophili, which is the point of communication 
of the six sinuses, the superior longitudinal, two lateral, two occipital, 
and the straight. 2. Inferior longitudinal ; situated in the lower free 
margin -of the falx cerebri, terminating in the straight sinus. 3. 
Straight ; extends across the tentorium, from the inferior longitudinal 
to the torcular Herophili. 4. Occipital ; two canals commencing 
around the foramen magnum, and terminating in the torcular Hero- 
phili. 5. Lateral ; these commence at the torcular Herophili, and 
terminate in the internal jugulars. 



Fig. 79. 


Fig. 79 represents a part of 
the sinuses of the dura mater. 
1. Superior longitudinal si- 
nus. 2, 2. "Entrance of veins 
of the pia mater. 3. Falx 
cerebri. 4. Inferior longitu- 
dinal sinus. 5. Straight or 
fourth sinus. 6. Venae Ga- 
leni. 7. Torcular Herophili. 
8. Lateral sinuses. 9. Infe- 
rior petrosal sinus. 10, 11. 
Internal jugular veins. 

Sinuses of the Base 
of the Skull. — These 
are five in number : 1. 
Cavernous ; situated on 
each side of the sella 
turcica, receiving the 
ophthalmic veins, and 
terminating in the inferior petrosal. 2. Inferior petrosal- ; terminates in 
the internal jugular with the lateral. 3. Circular ; surrounds the pitu- 
itary gland in the sella turcica, communicating on each side with the 
cavernous. 4. Superior petrosal ; this establishes a communication be- 
tween the cavernous and lateral on each side. 5. Transverse ; passes 
across the basilir process of the occipital, forming a communication with 
the two inferior petrosal. 

Veins of the Neck. — The veins which return the blood from the 
head are : 1. External jugular ; descends the neck from the parotid 
gland, in a line drawn from the angle of the lower jaw to the middle 
of the clavicle, crosses the sterno-mastoid muscle, and terminates in the 
subclavian. 2. Anterior jugular ; this collects the blood from the su- 
perficial structures of the neck, and opens into the subclavian, near the 
preceding. 3. Internal jugular ; commences at the foramen lacerum 
posterius on each side of the base of the skull, and descends near the 
carotids to the root of the neck, where it unites with the subclavian to 
form the vena innominata. It receives facial, lingual, pharyngeal, 
occipital, and thyroid branches. 4. Vertebral ; descends by the side 
of the vertebral artery in the canal of the transverse cervical processes, 
and terminates at the commencement of the vena innominata. 

Veins of the Upper Extremities. — These are divided into the 
deep, which accompany the arteries, and are called vena comites, and 
,Ae superficial, the principal branches of which are : 1. Anterior ulnar; 


running up the inside of the fore-arm to the elbow, where it becomes the 
basilic. 2. Posterior ulnar; ascends the back of the hand and fore-arm, 
and terminates in the anterior ulnar at the ianer condyle. 3. Basilic ; 
ascends from the common ulnar formed by the two preceding, along 
the inner side of the arm to the axilla, where it becomes the axillary 
vein. 4. Radial; commences in the large vein of the thumb, ascends 
the outer border of the fore-arm to the elbow, becoming there the 
cephalic. 5. Cephalic ; ascends the outer side of the arm, and ter- 
minates in the subclavian beneath the clavicle. 6. Median ; passes 
up between the anterior ulnar and radial ; at the elbow it receives a 
branch from the deep veins, and divides into the median cephalic and 
median basilic. 7. Median cephalic ; passes outward in the groove 
between the biceps and supinator longus to join the cephalic. 8. 
Median basilic; passes inward, and terminates in the basilic. The 
median cephalic and median basilic branches are comraonly selected 
for the operation of venesection, or bleeding, by which that " minute 
instrument of mighty mischief" — the lancet of the surgeon — has shed 
more blood in the civilized world than has the sword of the warrior ; 
in both cases unfortunately for science and humanity. 

The Axillary Vein. — The vena? comites of the brachial artery and 
the basilic vein unite to form the axillary vein, which becomes the sub- 
clavian at the lower border of the first rib. It lies in front of the axillary 

The Subclavian Vein. — This crosses over the first rib beneath the 
clavicle, and unites with the internal jugular to form the vena innomi- 
nata. It lies in front of the subclavian artery. 

Veins of the Lower Extremities. — The deep veins accompany 
the arteries in pairs. Near the knee joint the anterior and posterior 
tibial and peroneal veins unite to form the popliteal, which, as it 
ascends, becomes the femoral, and then the external iliac. 

The Popliteal Vein. — Ascending through the popliteal region it 
receives several muscular and articiiar branches, and the external, 

The Femoral Vein. — This vein ascends the thigh in the sheath with 
the artery, and on entering the pelvis becomes the external iliac. It 
receives muscular veins — the profunda, and internal saphenous. 

The saphenou s veins collect the blood from the foot and leg. 

Veins of 'i«e Trunk. — Of these there are seven divisions: 1. 
Superior vena cava and its formative branches. The superior cava is 
n short trunk, about threo inches in length, fortved by the junction of 



the venfB innominata?. It descends on the right side of the mediastinum, 
and entering the pericardium, terminates in the upper part of the right 
auricle. Its branches are : the venee innominata, two large trunks 
formed by the union of the internal jugular and subclavian at each side 
of the root of the neck ; the right vena innominata lies externally to 
the arteria innominata, and receives the right lymphatic duct, right 
vertebral, right internal mammary, and right inferior thyroid veins ; the 
left vena innominata, much the longest, extends across the roots of the 
three great arteries arising from the arch of the aorta, where it unites 
with the right to constitute t^e superior cava. 

Fig. 80 is a representation of the principal veins of 
the trunk and neck. 1. Superior cava. 2. Left in- 
nominata. 3. Right innominata. 4. Right subclavian. 
5. Internal jugular. 6. External jugular. 7. Anterior 
jugular. 8. Inferior cava. 9. External iliac. 10. In- 
ternal iliac. 11. Common iliac ; the small vein be- 
tween is the sacra media. 12, 12. Lumbar veins. 13. 
Right spermatic. 14. Left spermatic. ) 5. Right renal. 
16. Trunk of the hepatic veins. 17. Greater azygos 
18. Lesser azygos. 19. A branch communicating witl 
the left renal. 20. Termination of the lesser in the 
greater azygos. 21. Superior intercostal, communi- 
cating below with the lesser azygos, and above in the 
left innominata. 

2. Inferior vena cava, and its formative 
branches. The inferior cava is formed by 
the union of the common iliac veins between 
the fourth and fifth lumbar vertebral, ascends 
along the front of the spine, on the right 
of the aorta, passes through the fissure in 
the back side of the liver, and the opening 
in the middle of the diaphragm, to the right 
auricle. It receives as branches: 1. The 
iliac veins, external and internal, which 
commence in the pelvic cavity, and passing 
upward along its brim, terminate opposite 
the sacro-iliac symphisis, by uniting together 
to form the common iliac vein. 2. The com- 
mon iliac receives the ejrigastric and circum- 
flexa ilii immediately above Poupart's liga- 
ment; the lumbar veins from the loins ; the 
right spermatic from the veneus plexus in 
the spermatic cord — in the female the 



ovarian, from She ovaries, round ligaments, and Fallopian tubes ; the 
renal, or cmulgent, from the kidneys — the left spermatic vein is re- 
ceived by the left renal — and the supra-renal, phrenic, and hepatic from 
the ramifications of the renal and phrenic arteries and the liver. 3. 
Azygos veins; these comprise the rena azygos major, vena azygos mi- 
nor, and superior intercostal vein, which form a communicating system 
between the superior and inferior cava, and return the blood from that 
part of the trunk in which these vessels are deficient on account of 
theh connection with the heart. The azygos major commences in the 
lumbar region, passes up through the aortic opening in the diaphragm, 
and, receiving all the right intercostal veins, terminates in the superior 
cava. The azygos minor commences on the left side of the lumbar 
region, passes beneath the border of the diaphragm, and receiving the 
six or seven lower left intercostal veins, terminates in the azygos major. 
The superior intercostal is the trunk formed by the union of the five or six 
upper intercostal veins of the left side. 4. Vertebral and spinal veins. 
The plexuses of the veins of the vertebral column and spinal cord iire 
numerous, and may be grouped into the clorsi-spinal, which receive 
the returning blood from the dorsal muscles and surrounding structures ; 
the meningeo-rachidian, which form two longitudinal trunks extending 
the whole length of the vertebral column, pouring their blood into the 
sacral, lumbar, vertebral, and intercostal veins ; and the medulli- spinal, 
which receive the blood from the membranes of the spinal marrow. 
5. Cardiac veins. The veins returning the blood from the substance 
of the heart are named, according to their situation and size, the grea 
cardiac, or coronary, anterior and posterior cardiac, and vents Thebesii 

The Portal System. — The veins which return the blood from the 
chylopoietic viscera constitute the portal system. There are four of 
them : 1. Inferior mesenteric ; this receives the blood from the rectum 
by means of the hemorrhoidal veins, from the sigmoid flexure and de- 
scending colon, and terminates in the splenic. 2. Superior mesenteric ; 
formed by branches, which collect the blood from the ramifications of 
the superior mesenteric artery ; it unites with the splenic in the forma- 
tion of the portal vein. 3. Splenic ; arises from the spleen in several 
large trunks, passes horizontally behind the pancreas, and unites with 
the superior mesenteric, receiving in its course the gastric, pancreatic, 
and inferior mesenteric veins. 4. Gastric; the gastric veins corres- 
pond with the gastric, gastro-epiploic, and vasa brevia arteries, and ter- 
minate in the splenic vein. 

The Vena Portjs.— The portal vein is formed by the union of the 



splenic and superior mesenteric veins behind the pancreas, ascends to 
the transverse fissure of the liver, where it divides into two branches, 
one of which is sent to each lateral lobe of that viscus ; each prim- 

Fig. 81. 

ary branch then di- 
vides into numerous 
secondary branches. 
Within the liver the 
portal vein receives 
the venous blood from 
the capillaries of the 
hepatic artery. 

Fig. 81 shows the rela- 
tions of the vena portse. 1. 
Inferior mesenteric vein ; 
the dotted lines trace its 
course behind the pancreas 
(2), to terminate in the 
splenic vein (3). 4. The 
spleen. 5. Gastric veins 
opening into the splenic. 
6. Superior mesenteric. 7. 
Descending portion of the 
duodenum. 8 * Its trans- 
verse portion. 9. Portal 
vein. 10. Hepatic artery. 
11. The ductus communis 
choledochu8. 12. The di- 
vision of the duct and ves- 
sels at the transverse na- 
ture of the liver. 13. The 
cystic duct leading to the 
gall bladder. 

Pulmonary Veins. — The veins which return the arterial blood 
from the lungs to the left auricle of the heart are four in number. 
They differ from veins in general, in being but little larger than their 
corresponding arteries, and in accompanying singly each branch of the 
jmlmonary artery. The right pulmonary veins pass behind the supe- 
rior cava, and the left behind the pulmonary artery, to the left auricle. 




The lymphatic vessels constitute what is called the absorbent system. 
They are named from the lymph, or water-like fluid, which they con- 



vey. They are minute transparent vessels, uniform in size, having 
numerous valves, which give them a knotted appearance, and before 
Fig. 82. entering a gland di- 

vide into several 
branches. Their of- 
fice is to collect the 
nutritive products of 
digestion from the 
alimentary canal, and 
the effete, disorgan- 
ized matter from all 


parts of the body, 
and convey them in- 
to the venous blood 
near the heart. 

Lymphatic vessels 
originate in a deli- 
cate network distrib- 
uted throughout the 
skin, the various sur 
faces and internal 
structures of organs, 
and proceed in near- 
ly straight lines to 
ward the root of the 
neck. They are in 
tercepted in their 
course by numerous 
oblong, flattened bo- 
dies, called lympha- 
tic glands, The ves- 
sels entering these 
glands are called va- 
sa inferentia, and 
those which leave 
them vasa efferen- 
tia. These divisions 
of the lymphatics 
subdivide just before 
entering and just 
after leaving the 

N G £ 1 L O G Y. 157 

Though lymphatic vessels are generally distributed throughout the 
tissues — probably all the tissues — yet they have never been detected in 
the brain, spinal cord, eye, bones, cartilages, tendons, membranes of 
the ovum, umbilical cord, and placenta. 

Like arteries and veins, they are composed of three coats. \t as- 
tomoses between them occur, though less frequently than with arteries 
and veins. They are smallest in the neck, larger in the upper, and 
still larger in the lower extremities. 

The valves of lymphatic vessels give them a knotty or constricted 
appearance similar to that of the veins; near the glands the valves 
are most numerous. The presence of valves is marked by two small 
dilatations, or pouches, analogous to the valvular sinuses of the veins. 
These sinuses are always on the side of the valves toward the 

Lymphatic glands are composed of a minute plexus of lymphatic 
vessels, intimately connected with a plexus of blood-vessels, and en- 
closed in a thin capsule of cellular tissue. In their internal substance 
numerous convolutions are formed by the lymphatic vessels. In form 
they are small, oval, somewhat flattened or rounded bodies, termed 
conglobate, or absorbent, presenting a lobulated appearance on the sur- 
face, while the face of a section appears cellular, from the division of 
the numberless convolutions which are formed by the lymphatic vessels 
within its substance. These glands are larger in young persons than 
in the adult, and smallest in old age. 

The lacteals are the lymphatic vessels of the small intestines, which 
convey the milk-like fluid, called chyle, to the thoracic duct. These 
are the nutritive absorbents, and in their course pass through the nu- 
merous glands of the mesentery. 

The superficial lymphatic vessels follow the course of the veins, 
passing through the deep fascia in convenient situations to join the 
deep lymphatics. 

The superficial lymphatic glands are placed in the most protected 
situations of the superficial fascia, as in the hollow of the ham and 
groin, and on the inner side of the arm. 

The deep lymphatics accompany the deep veins; those from the 
lower part of the body converging to the glands around the inferior 
vena cava, and terminating in the thoracic duct. From the upper 
part of the trunk of the body on the left side, and from the left side of 
the head and neck, they also proceed to the thoracic duct. But those 
on the right side of the head and neck, right arm, and right side of the 
thorax, form a distinct duct, which terminates at the junction of the 
right subclavian and internal jugular veins. 



Fig. 83. 

Fig. S3 exhibits the course and termination of tlio 
thoracic duct. 1. Arch of the aorta. 2. Thoracic 
aorta. 3. Abdomi aal aorta and its branches. 4. 
Arteria rTmominata, dividing into right carotid and 
right sutoiavian. 5. Left carotid. 6. Left subclavian. 
7. Superior cava, formed by the union of 8, the vena> 
innominate, and then by the junction (9) of the inter- 
nal jugular and subclavian at each side. 10. Greater 
azygos vein. 11. Termination of the lesser azygos in 
the greater. 12. Receptaculum chyli ; several lymph- 
atic trunks are seen opening into it. 13. Thoracic 
duct, divided opposite the middle of the dorsal verte- 
brae into two branches, which soon reunite ; the course 
of the duct behind the arch of the aorta and left sub- 
clavian artery is shown by a dotted line. 14. The 
duct, making its turn at the root of the neck, and 
receiving several lymphatic trunks before terminating 
in the venous circulation. 15. Termination of the 
trunk erf the right lymphatic duct. 

The Thoracic Duct. — This is the 
centre of the lymphatic system. It com- 
mences in the abdomen by a triangular 
dilatation, called receptaculum chyli, which 
is situated on the front of the body of the 
second lumbar vertebra. From this it as- 
cends through the aortic opening of the 
diaphragm to the fourth dorsal vertebra, 
where it inclines to the left, passes behind 
the arch of the aorta, ascends by the side 
of the oesophagus to the root of the neck, 
and curving forward and downward pours 
its contents into the venous blood at the 
junction of the left subclavian with the left 
internal jugular vein. In size it is about equal to the diameter of a 
goose-quill. Its termination is provided with valves to prevent the 
admission of venous blood. It receives as branches four or five large 
trunks, which unite to form the chylous receptacle, the trunks of the 
lacteals, a large trunk from the liver ; also branches from the thoracic 
viscera and parieties, and trunks from the left side of the head, neck, 
and upper extremity. 


The Ductus Lymphaticus Dexter. — This is a short trunk 
which receives the lymphatic vessels from the right side of the head, 
neck, right arm, right lung, right side of the chest, and some branches 
from the liver. Like the thoracic duct, it is provided with valves, 


where it discharges its contents into the veins, at the point before 

Lymphatics or the Head and Neck. — The principal superficial 
glands are the occipital, posterior auricular, parotid, zygomatic, buccal, 
and submaxillary, situated as their names indicate, and the cervical, 
extending along the course of the external jugular vein. The deep 
glands axe numerous and large around the internal jugular veins and 
carotid arteries, extending from the base of the skull to the root of the 

The superficial vessels are disposed in occipital, temporal and facial 
groups, which converge to the deep cervical, parotid, and submaxillary 
glands. The deep vessels are the meningeal and cerebral, which pass 
through foramina at the base of the skull to terminate in the deep 
cervical glands. 

Lymphatics of the Upper Extremity. — The superficial glands 
are few and srr.all in the arm and fore-arm. The principal chain of 
deep glands accompanies the brachial artery. The axillary glands 
are large and numerous; a small chain of them extends along the lower 
"border of the large pectoral muscle to the mammaiy gland. They re- 
ceive the lymphatics of the integuments of the chest and the mam- 
mary gland. 

The superficial vessels commence upon the fingers, and course along 
the fore-arm to the elbow, where they are arranged in two groups, 
which extend upward to the axillary glands of the armpit. 

The deep vessels accompany the blood-vessels, communicate occa- 
sionally with the superficial, and enter the axillary and subclavian glands. 

Lymphatics of the Lower Extremity. — The superficial in- 
guinal glands are those of the groin ; the smallest group extends along 
the course of Poupart's ligament, and receives vessels of the walls of 
the abdomen, gluteal - egion, perineum, and genital organs; the largest 
group clusters around the termination of the internal saphenous vein, 
and receives the vessels of the lower extremities. The deep glands 
are the anterior tibial, p>opliteal, deep inguinal, gluteal, and ischiatic, 
situated in the regions after which they are named. 

The superficial vessels are divisible into an internal group, commenc- 
ing on the dorsum of the foot, and ascending the leg along the interna] 
saphenous vein to the glands of the groin, and an external group, which 
commences on the outer side of the foot and back part of the ankle, 
and accompanies the external saphenous vein to the popliteal glands. 


The deep vessels follow the deep veins and arteries, and, after joining 
the deep inguinal glands, communicate with the numerous glands 
around the iliac vessels. 

Most of the efferent lymphatics from the superficial inguinal glands 
communicate with the large gland in the femoral ring, by which a 
communication is established between the lymphatics of the trunk and 
those of the lower extremity. 

Lymphatics of the Trunk. — These may be arranged into three 
groups: 1. Superficial; the superficial vessels of the upper part of the 
trunk converge to the axillary glands, and to those at the root of tho 
neck. Those of the lower half of the trunk, gluteal region, perineum, 
and external organs of generation, converge to the upper group of su- 
perficial inguinal glands. 2. Deep; the deep glands are the intercos- 
tal, situated on each side of the vertebral column, the internal mam- 
mary, in the intercostal spaces beside the internal mammary arteries, 
and the anterior and posterior mediastinal, situated about the large 
vessels at the root of the heart, and extending along the course of the 
aorta and oesophagus in the mediastinum, communicating with the deep 
cervical, intercostal, and abdominal glands ; the lumbar, numerously situ- 
ated around the common iliac vessels, aorta, and vena cava; the external 
iliac, placed around the external iliac vessels ; the internal iliac, located 
along the course of the internal iliac vessels, and the sacral, placed on 
the concave surface of the sacrum. The deep vessels of the thorax 
are the intercostal, following the course of the intercostal arteries; 
(he internal mammary, which commence in the walls of the abdo- 
men, and, communicating with the epigastric, ascend to the root of 
the neck ; the diaphragmatic, which pursue the direction of their cor- 
responding veins. The deep vessels of the abdomen are continued up- 
ward from the thigh, beneath Poupart's ligament, and along the exter- 
nal iliac vessels to the lumbar glands, receiving in their course the 
epigastric, circumflexa ilii, and ilio-lumbar vessels. Those fr/>m tho 
walls of the pelvis and from the gluteal, ischiatic, and obturator vessels, 
follow the course of the internal iliac arteries, and unite with the lum- 
bar lymphatics ; and the lumbal - vessels, after receiving all the lymph- 
atics from the lower extremities, pelvis, and loins, terminate by several 
large trunks of the receptaculum chyli. 3. Visceral ; the lymphatic 
vessels of the lungs are of large size, distributed throughout their 
textures and surfaces, and converge to the numerous glands around 
the roots of the lungs and bifurcation of the trachea. These bronchial 
glands in the adult are af a variable brown ; sh tint, and in old age pre- 
sent a deep black ^olor- 


Those of the heart follow the course of its blood-vessels to the glands 
around the arch of the aorta, and to the bronchial glands. The lymph- 
atic vessels of the liver proceed from its different parts to the glands, 
along the course of the hepatic artery and lesser curve of the stom- 
ach, mediastinal glands, to those situated around the inferior cava, and 
to the lumbar glands ; those from the gall-bladder, which are large, and 
form a remarkable plexus, enter the glands in the right border of the 
lesser omentum. 

Those of the spleen and pancreas pass through the splenic glands, 
and those along the course of the splenic vein, and join the aortic glands 
before entering the thoracic duo 1 . 

Those of the stomach proceed variously to the glands along its lesser 
and greater curves, and to the splenic, pyloric, and aortic glands. 

The lymphatics of the small intestines are of two kinds : those which 
run upon the surface and belong to their structure, and those which 
commence in the substance of the mucous membrane, and .are called 
lacteals. Both enter the mesenteric glands. These glands are situ- 
ated between the layers of the mesentery, in the meshes formed by 
the superior mesenteric artery. They are most numerous and largest 
near the duodenum, and near the termination of the ileum. 

The lacteals commence by tubular mouths, which open into a fine 
network, situated in the sub-mucous tissue, from whence they 'proceed 
to the mesenteric glands, and thence to the thoracic duct. 

Those of the large intestines proceed in two different directions : the 
vessels of the ca?cum, ascending and transverse colon, traverse their 
own proper glands, and then enter the mesenteric, and those of the 
descending colon and rectum proceed to the lumbar glands. 

Those of the kidneys follow the blood-vessels to the lumbar glands, 
situated around the aorta and inferior cava ; those of the supra-renal 
capsules, which are very large and numerous, terminate in the renal. 

Those of the pelvic viscera terminate in the sacral and lumbar 



The nervous system may be divided into two sub-systems — the 
cerebrospinal and the organic. Th? former comprises the brain, 
spinal marrow, the nerves of sensatior. and the nerves of motion ; the 



Latter embraces the nerves and ganglions which preside over the de- 
velopment and functional changes of the body; this division of the 
Fi „ 84 nervous structure lias been called 

the sympathetic, ganglionic, and, 
more properly, the organic sys- 
tem. This system is essential to 
animal existence ; the lowest ani- 
mals are destitute of the cerebro- 
spinal structure. 

The nervous tissue is enclosed 
in membranes, or sheaths, and 
consists of two pulpy materials, 
one of which is of a white color 
— the medullary substance, and 
the other gray-colored — the cine- 
ritioils substance. The medul- 
lary structure is fibrous, the fibres 
being looped at their termina- 
tions, and containing a central 
stripe, called the cylinder axis of 
Purkinje. The cineritious is 
more vascular, and composed of 
kidney-shaped globules, contain- 
ing a vesicular nucleus with a 
nucleolus. These globules are 
soft, and of a yellow or brownish 

The ganglions and nervous 
centres consist of a mixture of 
white fibres and gray globules. 
The sheath of the nerves is call- 
ed neurilemma, and the enclosed 
matter neurine. The trunks of nerves frequently interchange trunks 
or fasciculi, forming anastomoses ; and a combination of these anasto- 
moses into a network forms a plexus. 

Numerous small elliptical bodies, attached to the ulnar and digital 
nerves, are called Pacinian corpuscles ; these have no terminal loops, 
being the only exception to the general rule. 

Microscopic observation makes out the elements of the nervous sys- 
tem to be, white nerve-fibres, gray nerve-fibres, nerve-cells, and nerve- 




Fig. 85 represents the microscopic elements of the 
nervous structure. 1. Mode of termination of white 
nerve-fibres in loops ; three of these loops are simple, 
the fourth is convoluted. The latter is found in situ- 
ations where a high degree of sensation exists. 2. A 
white nerve-fibre from the brain, showing the vari- 
cose or knotty appearance produced by traction or 
pressure. 3. A white nerve-fibre enlarged to show 
its structure, a tubular envelope and a contained sub- 
stance — neurilemma and neurine. 4. A nerve-cell, 
showing its composition of a granular-looking cap- 
sule and granular contents. 5. Its nucleus containing 
a nucleolus. 6. A nerve-cell, from which several 
processes are given off; it contains also a nucleated 
nucleus. 7. Nerve-granules. 

Fig. 85. 


White nerve-fibres compose most of the brain, spinal cord, and cere- 
bro-spinal nerves, and enter into the structure of the organic system. 
They terminate in the various internal organs, at the surface of the 
body, and in the substance of the cerebro-spinal axis, by forming loops. 
In size they vary from — to — of an inch in diameter. 

J J 2000 140U0 

Gray nerve-fibres are smaller in diameter, and less transparent. 
They constitute the principal part of the organic system, and are also 
f. ' isent in the cerebro-spinal nerves, most abundantly in those of 

The nerve-cells vary from ^ to — of an inch in diameter. They 
are composed of a capsular sheath, containing a reddish-gray granular 
substance, and one or more nuclei and nucleoli, the nucleus being 
attached to the sheath. Nerve-cells are found in the gray substance 
of the brain and spinal cord, in the ganglions of the cerebro-spinal 
nerves, and in the organic nerves and their ganglia. From the circum- 
ference of the nerve-cells arise one or more delicate thread-like pro- 
cesses, from — to y^-j of an inch in diameter, which are the origins 
of the gray nerve-fibres. 

The nerve- granules exist in the forms of minute homogeneous parti- 
cles, aggregated particles, and nucleated corpuscles, varying in diameter 
between — and rggj of an inch. They serve as a bond of connection 
between the fibres and cells of the brain and spinal cord, and enter into 
the various ganglia. 

A nerve is a collection of nerve-fibres into small bundles, or fascicuf 
each fasciculus being invested by a distinct neurilemma. Several of 
these fasciculi are again collected into larger bundles, which are also 
enclosed in a separate neurilemma ; then again the larger fasciculi are 
collected into a grand bundle, which i9 enclosed in a general neurilem- 
ma, or sheath, of white fibrous tissue 

164 A N A T M Y. 


The brain is the mass of nervous substance contained within the 
cranium. It is divided into cerebrum, cerebellum, and medulla oblongata. 
Its investing membranes are called dura mater, arachnoid, and pia 
mater. The brain and its membranes together constitute the cnccphalon. 

Membranes of the Brain. — The external covering is the dura 
mater, a strong, whitish fibrous membrane which adheres to the inter- 
nal surface of the cranium, and is prolonged into the spinal column 
under the name of theca vertebralis ; but there it is not adherent to 
the bones. From its internal surface processes extend inward to 
support and protect different parts of the brain, and externally other 
processes for sheaths for the nerves passing out of the skull and spinal 
column. Its internal processes are the falx cerebri, which extends ver- 
tically across the median line from the crista galli of the ethmoid bone 
to the tentorium, dividing the cerebrum into right and left hemisjihercs ; 
the tentorium, which stretches horizontally across the cranium, separat- 
ing the cerebrum from the cerebellum ; and the falx cerebelli, which 
divides the cerebellum into two lobes or hemispheres. 

The arachnoid membrane is the middle covering and the serous 
membrane of the cerebro-spinal centre. It is very thin and transparent. 
It surrounds the nerves until their exit from the brain, where it is re- 
flected back upon the dura mater. It does not enter into the ventricles. 

The jria mater s the internal covering, vascular, consisting of innu- 
merable blood-vessels held together by a thin layer of cellular tissue. 
It invests the whole brain and each of its convolutions by extending 
thiough all the fissures between them. It contains usually a number 
of small granular bodies, called the Pacchioni ; these are 
larger in old persons, and are considered by some anatomists to be of 
morbid oiigin. The pia mater, is the nutrient membrane of the brain. 

The Cerebrum. — The cerebral portion of the brain is an oval mass 
divided superiorly into two hemispheres by the great longitudinal fis- 
sure. Each hemisphere is divided on its under surface into anterior, 
middle, and posterior lobes. The anterior rests upon the roof of the 
orbit, the middle is received into the middle fossa at the base of the 
skull, and the posterior is supported by the tentorium. The surface 
of the cerebrum presents a number of slightly convex elevations, con- 
stituting the convolutions, called gyri, which are separated from each 
other by sulci or fissures of various depths. The interior cerebral sub- 
stance is medullary and the exterior cineritious to the depth of one or 
two lines 



Fig. 86. 


The external surface of the ao.rebrum 
is seen in Fig. 8G. a a. The scalp turned 
down, b b. Cut edges of the skull 
bones. 3. The dura inater suspended 
by a hook. 4. The left hemisphere. 

The anatomical distinctions 
of the cerebrum are the fol- 
lowing : 

Crura cerebri ; two thick 
white cords diverging from the 
anterior border of the pons va- 
rolii, their fibres terminating in 
the hemispheres. A layer of 
medullary matter occupies a 
triangular space between them, 
which is called the locus per- 

Eminentice mammillarcs ; 
two white globular bodies, near 
the size of a pea, between the 
crura and in front of the locus perforatus. 

Tuber cinereum; a soft gray mass in front of the eminentix mammil- 
lares* and behind the chiasm of the optic nerves. 

Infundibulum ; a hollow, conical, reddish body resting on the tuber 
cinereum, and attached by its apex to the pituitary gland. 

Pituitary gland ; a vascular mass, consisting of two lobes, which 
occupies the sella turcica. 

Longitudinal fissure ; the sulci which separates the hemispheres 
laterally, and contains the falx cerebri. 

Corpus callosum ; a white arched band, forming the great commissure 
between the two hemispheres at the bottom of the longitudinal fissure. 
It is about an inch broad and three and a half inches long. Its fibres 
are mostly medullary matter ; a few, .however, are cineritious ; these 
pass longitudinally, and are called the raphe. 

Septum lucidum; a vertical partition separating the lateral ventricles, 
It is in contact superiorly with the corpus callosum, and below witl 
the fornix. 

Fornix; a triangular arch, the base of which is continuous with the 
corpus callosum behind ; its apex divides into two crura, which termi- 
nate in the eminentia mammillares ; its under surface is called lyra. 
Under these crura is the foramen of Munro, which communicates be- 
tween the third and the two lateral ventricles. 

166 A N A T M Y 

Velum interpositum ; a triangular process of pia mater under the 
fornix, containing in its edges a plexus of veins, called plexus choroides. 

Pineal gland ; a small, reddish-gray, conical body, situated upon the 
tubercula quadrigemina, and connected with the optic tubercles by two 
crura. This little thing is memorable from having been regarded by 
the ancients as the seat of the soul. 

Tubercula quadrigemina ; four prominences over the junction of 
the pons and crura cerebri. Under them is a passage between the 
third and fourth ventricles, called the aqueduct of Sylvius, or iter a 
tertio ad vcntriculum quartum. 

Corpus striatum ; a gray oblong mass medullary within, situated in 
each lateral ventricle. 

Thalamus opticus ; an oval body behind the corpus striatum on each 
side. It is a mixed mass of medullary and cineritious matter, and has 
three prominences, called corpora geniculala. It is connected with its 
fellow by a gray substance, which is called the soft commissure. 

Tenia striata ; a thin slip of medullary matter occupying the groove 
between the corpus striatum and thalamus opticus. 

Hippocampus major ; a scroll extending into the inferior cornu of 
the lateral ventricle ; its extremity resembles a foot, and is called the 
pes hippocampi. 

Corpus fimbrialum ; a thin edge of medullary matter on the concave 
side of the hippocampus major; beneath it is a layer of cineritious 
substance, having a serrated appearance, called the fascia dentata. 

Hippocampus minor ; a conical elevation, resembling the spur of a 
cock, pointing backward into the posterior cornu. 

Ventricles ; five in number. The lateral exist in each hemisphere, 
and contain the corpus striatum and thalamus opticus ; the roof is 
formed by the corpus callosum. In each are three angular depressions, 
called cornua; the, posterior contains the hippocampus minor, the in- 
ferior the hippocampus major, the anterior is vacant. They are par- 
tially separated by the septum lucidum, but communicate with each 
other and with thethird by the foramen of Munro. The third ven- 
tricle is the spaca^Rveen the thalami optici. Its roof is formed of the 
velum interposituwrind fornix, and its floor by the locus perforatus and 
the tuber cinereum. Its front is traversed by the anterior commissure, 
a medullary cord extending between the corpora striata, and by the 
posterior commissure, which extends transversely between the thalami 
optici. It communicates with the fourth by the aqueduct of Sylvius, 
and with the lateral by the foramen of Munro. The fourth ventricle 
is situated between the pons Varolii, cerebellum, and medulla oblongata. 
Its floor is tht calamus scriptorius, and its roof is the valve of the brain 



[t communicates only with the third Laterally it is limited by the pia 
mater and arachnoid. The fifth ventricle is situated between the lam- 
ina? of the septum lucidum, and has no communication with the others. 

Fig. 87 represents the 
mesial surface of a longi- 
tudinal section of the brain. 
1. Inner surface of left 
hemisphere. 2. Divided 
centre of the cerebellum, 
showing the arbor vitas. 3. 
Medulla oblongata. 4. Cor- 
pus callosum. 5. Fornix, 
b'. One of the crura of the 
fornix. 7. One of the cor- 
pora albienntia, pea-shaped 
bodies between the crura 
cerebri. 8. Septum luci- 
dum. 9. Velum interposi- 
tum. 10. Section of the 
middle commissure in the 
third ventricle. 11. Section 
of the anterior commissure. 


12. Section of the posterior commissure. 1:3. Corpora quadrigemina. 14. Pineal gland. 
15. Aqueduct of Sylvius. 16. Fourth ventricle. 17. Tons Varolii, through which are 
seen passing the diverging fibres of the corpora pyramidalia. 18. Crus cerebri of the 
left side ; the third nerve arising from it. 19. Tuber cinereum, from which projects the 
infundibulum, having the pituitary gland appended to its extremity. 20. One of the 
optic nerves. 21. The left olfactory nerve terminating anteriorly in a rounded bulb. 

The Cerebellum. — The cerebellar portion constitutes one sixth oii 
one seventh of the brain. It is an oblong, flattened body, situated be- 
tween the occiput and tentorium. Its external substance is cineritious, 
and the internal medullary. It is divided by a longitudinal fissure into 
two hemispheres ; in the upper part of this fissure is a ridge, called 
vermis superior ; in front of this is an elevation, called monticulus ; in 
the lower part of the fissure is a smaller ridge, called vermis inferior. 
Two small protuberances are seen at the root of the crura cerebelli, 
the lower of which is called lobulus amygdaloides, and the upper lo- 
bulus nervi pneumogastrici. Extending from the lower surface of the 
cerebellum to the corpora restiformia is a thin gray plate, called the 
valve of the brain. The substance of the cerebellum, on a section 
being made in either lobe, presents an arborescent arrangement of 
medullary matter, called arbor vita. A gray mass in the trunk of this 
medullary tree, with serrated edges, is called corpus dentatum. The 
cerebellum is associated with the rest of the encephalon by means of 
three pairs of rounded cords, called superior, middle, and inferior pe- 
duncles. Its two hemispheres are united by the commissure called 


pons Varolii ; this consists of transverse fibres, separated into twc 
layers by the fasciculi of the corpora pyramidalia and corpora olivaria. 
These two layers, the upper and lower on each side, are collected to- 
gether to form the crura cerebelli. 

The Medulla Oblongata. — This is the upper enlarged part of 
the spinal cord, about an inch in length, conical in shape, extending 
from the pons Varolii to the atlas. It is separated anteriorly and pos- 
teriorly by vertical fissures into two symmetrical lateral cords, or col- 
umns, each column being subdivided by small grooves into three smaller 
cords ; these are the corpora pyramidalia, two narrow tapering cords 
on either side of the anterior fissure, whose fibres decussate freely 
about an inch below the pons ; the corpora olivaria, two oblong convex 
bodies, half an inch in length, behind the corpora pyramidalia, from 
which they are separated by a fissure — a section of them exhibits an 
arrangement of cineritious matter, called corpus fimbriatum ; and the 
corpora restiformia, which comprehend the posterior half of each late- 
ral column. That part of the posterior fissure between them is called 
calamus scriptorius, across which pass transverse fibres of medullary 
matter. Two slightly convex columns of the medulla oblongata, which 
enter into the formation of the floor of the fourth ventricle, are called 
funiculi teretes, or posterior pyramids. 

The fibres composing the columns of the medulla oblongata have a 
peculiar arrangement on its upper part ; those of the corpora pyramid- 
alia and olivaria enter the pons Varolii, and are prolonged through the 
■crura cerebri, thalami optici, and corpora striata to the hemispheres of 
the cerebrum ; while those of the corpora restiformia are reflected 
backward into the cerebellum, and form its inferior peduncles. These 
fibres were termed by Gall the diverging fibres. They constitute both 
the cerebrum and cerebellum ; while another set of fibres, called con- 
verging, associate their symmetrical halves and distant parts of the 
same hemispheres. These converging fibres constitute the commis- 
sures of the brain already mentioned. The corpus callosum is the 
commissure of the hemispheres ; 'he fornix, septum lucidum, the bo- 
dies called anterior, middle, and posterior commissures, and the pe- 
duncles of the pineal gland, connect different parts of the cerebrum, 
while the pons Varolii connects the hemispheres of the cerebellum. 

The gray matter which is intermixed with the white fibres of the 
medulla oblongata was regarded by Gall and Spurzheim as the channels 
of nutrition ; this supposition is strengthened by the great vascularity 
of the former substance, which enables it to convey tl large proportion 
of the elements of growth and development 



In Fig. 88 are seen several sections 
of the base of the brain, the distri- 
bution of the diverging fibres. 1. 
Medulla oblongata. 2. Half of the 
pons Varolii. 3. Crus cerebri, cross- 
ed by the optic nerve (4), and spread- 
ing out into the hemisphere, where it 
is called corona radiata. 5. Optic 
nerve. 6. Olfactory nerve. 7. Cor- 
pora albicantia. 8. Fibres of the 
corpus pyramidale passing through 
the pons. 9. The fibres passing 
through the thalamus opticus. 10. 
The fibres passing through the cor- 
pus striatum. 11. Their distribu- 
tion to the hemisphere. 12. Fifth 
nerve. 13. Fibres of the corpus 
pyramidale, which pass outward 
with the corpus restiforme into the 
cerebellum. 14. Section through 
one of the hemispheres of the cere- 
bellum, showing a body called cor- 
pus rhomboideum in the centre of 
its white substance, and the arbor 
vitsB. 15. The opposite hemisphere. 

Fig. 88. 


The Spinal Cord. — The spinal column contains the spinal cord, 
medulla spinalis, its membranes, and the roots of the spinal nerves. 
Its outer membrane is the theca vertebralis, continuous with the dura 
mater of the skull; the central is the arachnoid, a continuation of the 
serous membrane of the brain, and the internal is the prolongation of ' 
the pia mater, which is more firm and fibrous, and less vascular, than 
in the brain. The anterior are separated from the posterior roots of 
the spinal nerves throughout the entire length of the cord, by their 
processes of pia mater, called membrana dentata. A transverse sec- 
tion of the spinal marrow exhibits an arrangement of gray matter in- 
ternally and medullary externally. It extends from the pons Varolii 
to the first or second lumbar vertebra, where it terminates in a rounded 
point. Its diameter varies in different parts, and exhibits three enlarge- 
ments, the uppermost being the medulla oblongata, the middle corres- 
ponding with the origin of the nerves of the upper extremities, and the 
lower corresponding with the origin of nerves that supply the lower 
extremities. It is divided into lateral halves by anterior and posterior 
longitudinal fissures, which extend deeply into its substance. Each 
lateral half is divided by a lateral sulcus, or fissure, into anterior and 
posterior columns, the anterior giving origin to the nerves of motion, 
and the posterior to those of sensation. Another slight fissure indicates 



a middle lateral column, which Sir Charles BeD 
supposed to pertain to the respiratory nerves, 
though such functional arrangement has not yet 
been demonstrated. 

In Fig. 89 are seen the relations of the spinal marrow to the 
medulla oblongata, pons Varolii, and cerebellum, as well aB the 
several enlargements in its course. 

The Cranial Nerves. — These are so called 
from their emerging through the foramina at the 
base of the cranium. There are nine pairs of them, 
all of which are named numerically and functionally. 

Fig. 90. 


8 8 1 


Fig. 90 shows the origin of the cranial nerves. The numbers 
are placed against the corresponding pairs of nerves. 11 and 
12 air spinal nerves, a a a. Cerebrum, b. Cerebellum, t. 
Meduua oblongata, d. Medulla spinalis. /. Corpus callosum. 

First Pair — Olfactr-y; the nerves of smelling. Each arises by 
three roots, which unite in the fissure of Sylvius ; passing forward it 
enlarges into a bulbous mass of white and gray substance, which rests 
on the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone. From this bulbous olfac- 
torius the nerves are given off which are distributed upon the mucous 
membrane of the nose. 


Second Pair — Optic; the nerves of seeing. Each is a large cord 
arising from the thalamus opticus and tubercula quadrigemina, winding 
around the crus cerebri as a flattened band, under the name of tracLus 
opticus, joining its fellow in front of the tuber cinereum, forming a 
chiasm called the optic commissure, then proceeding forward it diverges 
from its fellow, and passes through the optic foramen to the eyeball, 
pierces the sclerotic and choroid coats, and expands into the nervous 
membrane called the retina. 

Third Pair — Motores oculorum ; nerves of motion. They arise 
from the eras cerebri, pass forward between the posterior cerebral and 
superior cerebellar artery, and through the sphenoidal foramen to be 
distributed to all the muscles of the eyeball except the external rectus 
and superior oblique. Each sends a branch to the ophthalmic ganglion, 
from which proceed the ciliary nerves that supply the iris. 

Fourth Pair — Pathetici; nerves of motion, and the smallest of the 
cerebral. Each patheticus arises from the valve of the brain (valve of 
Viessens), winds around the crus cerebri, passes along the cavernous 
sinus, and entering the orbit at the sphenoidal fissure, is distributed to 
the superior oblique muscle. In the sinus it gives off a recurrent brand* 
to the lining membrane. 

In Fig. 91 is seen the distribution of the 
fifth pair of nerves. 1. Orbit. 2. Antrum 
of the upper jaw. 3. Tongue. 4. Lower 
jaw. 5. Root of the fifth pair, forming 
the gauglion of Casser. 6. Ophthalmic 
branch. 7. Superior maxillary. 8. Infe- 
rior maxillary. 9. Frontal branch. 10. 
Lachrymal. 11. Nasal. 12. Internal nasal. 
13. External nasal. 14. External and in- 
ternal frontal. 15. Infraorbitary. 16. 
Posterior dentals. 17. Middle dental. 18. 
Anterior dental. 19. Labial and palpebral 
branches of the infra-orbital. 20. Orbitar. 
21. Pterygoid. 22. Masseter, temporal, 
pterygoid, and buccal branches. 23. Lin- 
gual branch, joined at an acute angle by 
the chorda tympani. 24. Inferior dental, 
terminating in 25. Mental brandies. 26. 
Superficial temporal. 21 Auricular 

branches. 28. Mylo-hyoid branch. 

Fifth Pair— Trifacial; the 
largest cranial nerves, and the 
principal nerves of sensation of 
the head and face, arise, like the 
spinal nerves, from two roots. 

Fig. 91. 



Each trifacial commences in a tract of yellowish matter in front of the 
floor of the fourth ventricle, and passing forward through an opening 
in the border of the tentorium, near the extremity of the petrous bone, 
spreads out into a large semilunar ganglion, called Casserian, the an- 
terior root, which is much the smallest, merely lying against the under 
surface, but not forming a part of the ganglion. This ganglion divides 
into the ophthalmic, superior maxillary, and inferior maxillary branches. 

The ophthalmic nerve is a short trunk, three fourths of an inch long ; 
it passes out at the sphenoidal foramen, and divides into three branches; 
the frontal passes through the supra-orbiter foramen to the integument 
of the forehead, supplying also the conjunctiva and upper eyelid ; it 
gives off" a supra-trachlear branch to the inner angle of the eye and 
root of the nose. The lachrymal is the smallest branch, and is dis- 
tributed to the lachrymal gland, temple, cheek, and inner portions of 
the orbit. The nasal passes forward between the two heads of the 
external rectus muscle, and enters the nose by the opening at the side 
of the crista galli, where it divides into an internal branch, supplying 
the anterior part of the mucous membrane, and an external, distributed 
to integuments at the extremity of the nose. Within the orbit the 
nasal nerve gives off a ganglionic branch, which forms the superior 
long root of the ciliary ganglion, ciliary branches to the iris, and an 
irifra-trochlear to the lachrymal sac, caruncula lachrymalis, conjunc- 
tiva, and inner angle of the orbit. 

The superior maxillary nerve passes through the foramen rotundum, 
crosses the spheno-maxillary fossa, enters the canal in the floor of the 
orbit, emerges on the face through the infra-orbital foramen, where it 
divides into several branches, distributed to the lower eyelid and con- 
junctiva, muscles, and integument of the upper lip, nose, and cheek, 
forming a plexus with the facial nerves. The orbital branch traverses 
the infra-orbital canal, and enters the orbit at the infra-orbital foramen, 
where it divides into a temporal branch, which passes through a canal 
in the malar bone to supply the integuments of the temple region, and a 
malar branch, which emerges upon the cheek through an opening in 
the malar bone, to communicate with branches of the infra-orbital rwid 
facial nerves. Two branches ascend from Meckel's ganglion, and join 
the orbital nerve as it crosses the spheno-maxillary fossa, called pterygo- 
palatine. The posterior dental branches pass through small foramina 
in the back surface of the upper jaw, and run forward to the base of 
the alveolus, supplying the back teeth and gums. The middle and an- 
terior dental branches descend to tho corresponding teeth and gums ; 
previously to their distribution the dental nerves form a plexus in tho 
outer wall of the. upper maxillary bone, above the alveolus, from whicb 

N E U R L 3 G Y. 173 

filaments are given off to the pulps of the teeth, gums, mucous mem- 
brane of the nose, and palate. 

The Inferior Maxillary Nerve is the largest division of the fifth pair ; 
it emerges at the foramen ovale, and divides into external and internal 
trunks. The external divides into five branches — the masseteric, two 
temporal, buccal, and internal pterygoid, all of which are distributed 
to the muscles of the temporal and maxillary regions ; the last-named 
branch is connected by filaments with the otic ganglion. The internal 
trunk divides into three branches ; the gustatory, which is distributed 
by numerous filaments to the papillae and mucous membrane of the 
tongue ; the inferior dental, which proceeds to the dental foramen, 
which it enters, and runs along the canal of the lower jaw, supplying 
the teeth and gums, and terminating in two branches ; incisive, which 
goes to the front teeth ; and mental, which passes out at the mental 
foramen, to be distributed to the muscles and integuments of the chin 
«nd lower lip ; the inferior dental gives off a mylo-hyoidean branch to 
the mylo-hyoid and digastric muscles; and the anterior auricular, which 
originates by two roots, passes backward behind the articulation of the 
lower jaw, where it forms a plexus, from which an ascending or tem- 
poral branch is given off to the temporal region, and a descending 
branch, which supplies the parotid gland and external parts of the ear, 
supplying a few filaments to the tympanum. 

Sixth Pair — Abducenles ; nerves of motion ; each arises from the 
corpus pyramidale, proceeds forward parallel with the basilir artery, 
and, ascending, passes through the cavernous sinus ; entering the orbit 
through the sphenoidal fissure to be distributed to the external rectus 
muscle. A palsy of this nerve produces internal squinting. 

Seventh Pair — Facial and Auditory ; nerves of motion ; the sev- 
enth pair consists of two nerves ; the smaller and internal is the facial, 
or porlio dura, arising from the corpus restiforme ; the larger and ex- 
ternal is the auditory, or porlio mollis, arising from the calamus scrip- 
torius. The facial nerve enters the meatus auditorius internus along 
with the auditory, passes through the canal called aqueduct of Fallo- 
pius, and emerges at the stylo-mastoid foramen, then penetrates the 
parotid gland, and at the ramus of the lower jaw divides into temporo- 
facial and cervicofacial trunks, which split into numerous branches, 
forming looped communications, called pes anserinus, to be distributed 
upon the side of the face from the temple to the neck ; in its course it 
communicates extensively with the neighboring branches of nerves; it 
also sends off the following branches : tympanitic, to the stapedius 
muscle ; chorda tympani, to the tympanum, which it crosses, and, pass- 
ing \hrough the fissura Glasseri joins the gustatory nerve between the 


pterygoid muscles, with which it descends to the submaxillary gm- 
glion ; the posterior auricular, to the muscles of the ear ; the stylo-hy- 
oid and digastric, to those muscles. The auditory nerve divides at the 
bottom of the meatus into cochlear and vestibular branches, which are 
distributed to the internal ear. 

Eighth Pair ; consists of three nerves ; glosso-pharyngeal, pneumo- 
gastric, and spinal accessory, which some authors reckon as the ninth, 
tenth, and eleventh pairs. 

The glosso-pharyngeal nerve arises from the groove between tire 
corpus olivare and restiforme, emerges at the foramen lacerum poste- 
rius, and curves forward to be distributed to the mucous membrane of 
the base of the tongue and fauces, tonsils, and mucous glands of the 
mouth. Within the jugular fossa k presents a franglionic enlarge- 
ment, called ganglion jugulare ; near its origin is also a small gan- 
glion, called petrosal, or Anderschian. Its branches are : Communicat- 
ing, which proceed from the petrosal ganglionic plexus, and, in com- 
mon with those of the facial and sympathetic, form a complicated 
plexus at the base of the skull ; tympanitic ( Jacobson's nerve), which 
proceeds from the petrosal ganglion, and, entering the bony canal in 
the jugular fossa, divides into six branches, distributed upon the inner 
wall of the tympanum, forming a plexiform communication (tympanic 
plexus) with the sympathetic and fifth pair ; it sends branches of dis- 
tribution to supply the fenestra rotunda, fenestra ovalis, and Eustachian 
tube, and communicating branches to the carotid plexus, otic ganglion, 
and petrosal branch of the Vidian nerve ; the muscular, which are sent 
to the stylo-pharyngeas, stylo-hyoid, and digastric muscles ; the pha- 
ryngeal, which are distributed to the pharynx ; the lingual, which go 
to the base of the tongue, fauces, and epiglottis ; and the tonsillitic, 
which form a plexus around the base of the tonsils, and supply filaments 
to the fauces and soft palate. 

The pneumogastric nerve arises immediately below the former, and 
emerges from the skull through the same foramen ; soon after passing 
from the skull it enlarges into a ganglion, plexus gangliformis, nearly 
an inch in length, surrounded by an irregular plexus of white nerves 
which communicate with each other, with other divisions of the eighth 
pair, and with the trunk of the pneumogastric below. Descending to 
the root of the neck, the right pneumogastric passes between the sub- 
clavian artery and vein to the posterior mediastinum, then behind ths 
root of the lung to the oesophagus, which it accompanies to the stom- 
ach. The left enters the chest parallel with the left subclavian artery, 
crosses the arch of the aorta, and descends behind the root of the lung, 
and along the anterior surface of the oesophagus to the stomach. 



In Fig. 92 is seen a representation of the origin and 

distribution of the eighth pair. 1,'3, 4. Medulla ob- 

longata. 1 is the corpus pyramidale of one side. 3. / 
Corpus olivare. 4. Corpus restiforme. 2. Tons Va- 
rolii. 5. Facial nerve. 6. Origin of the glosso-pha- 
ryngeal. 7. Ganglion of Andersch. 8. Trunk of the 
nerve. 9. Spinal accessory nerve. 10. Ganglion of 
the pneumogastric. 11. Its plexiform ganglion. 12. 
Its trunk. 13. Its pharyngeal branch forming the 
pharyngeal plexus (14), assisted by a branch from the 
glossopharyngeal (8), and one from the superior 
laryngeal (15). 16. Cardiac branches. 17. Recurrent 
laryngeal branch. 18. Anterior pulmonary branches. 
19. Posterior pulmonary branches. 20. (Esophageal 
plexus. 21. Gastric branches. 22. Origin of the 
sr;i.ial accessory. 23. Its branches distributed to the 
stoino-uiastoid muscle. 24. Its branches to the tra- 
pezius muscle. 

The branches of the pneumogastric are : 
Communicating, which connect with the 
facia!, glosso-pharyngeal, spinal accessory, 
hypo-glossal, and sympathetic ; auricular, 
which passes through a small canal in the 
petrous portion of the temporal bone to the 
pinna, sending filaments to the facial; pha- 
ryngeal, which assists to form, on the mid- 
dle constrictor muscle, the pharyngeal 
plexus, which is distributed to the muscles 
and mucous membrane of the pharynx ; 
the superior laryngeal, distributed to the 
arytenoideus muscle and mucous membrane 
of the larynx, communicating behind the 
cricoid cartilage with the recurrent laryn- 
geal, and giving off the £xternal laryngeal, 
which sends a twig to the pharyngeal plex- 
us, and supplies the inferior constrictor and 
circo-thyroid muscles and thyroid gland ; 
cardiac, two or three branches which cross 
the lower part of the common carotid, to 
communicate with the cardiac branches of 
the sympathetic, and with the great cardiac plexus ; recurrent laryn- 
geal, which passes upward from near the pulmonary branches to the 
larynx, giving off branches to the heart, lungs, oesophagus, and trachea, 
and is distributed to all the muscles of the larynx, except the circo- 
hyroid, communicating with the superior and external laryngeal and 



sympathetic nerves ; anterior pulmonary, distributed to the anterior 
aspect of the root of the lungs, and forming, with the branches of the 
great cardiac plexus, the anterior puhnonary plexus ; posterior pulmo- 
nary, which supply the posterior aspect of the root of the lungs, and 
forming, with branches from the great cardiac plexus, the posterior 
pulmonary plexus ; and the gastric, which are the terminal filaments 
of the two pneumogastric nerves, spread out upon the anterior and 
posterior surfaces of the stomach, and also distributed to the omentum, 
spleen, pancreas, liver, and gall-bladde -, communicating with the solar 

Note. — The superior 'oryngeal nerve is regarded by some anatomists 
as the nerve of sensation i» the larynx, being distributed mainly to its 
mucous membrane. The recuiTent is the proper motor nerve of the 
larynx, being distributed to its muscles. The two pneumogastric nerves 
divide into numerous branches upon the oesophagus, which communicate 
with each other, and form the asophagal plexus. 

The spinal accessory nerve arises from the spinal cord as low down 
as the fourth cervical nerve, escapes at the jugular foramen, and divides 
into two branches, one of which sends filaments to the superior pharyn- 
geal nerve, and the other, which is the proper continuation of the nerve, 
descends obliquely backward, and piercing the sterno-mastoid muscle, 
is distributed to the trapezius, communicating with the upper cervical 

Ninth Pair — Hypoglossal ; nerves of motion ; each arises from the 
groove between the corpus pyramidale and corpus olivare, by numerous 
filaments which unite into two bundles, and emerge from the cranium 
at the anterior condyloid foramen ; then passing between the internal 
carotid artery and internal carotid vein, and curving around the occipital 
artery, sends branches to the muscles of the tongue, being distributed 
principally to the genio-hyo-glossus. Its branches are : communicating, 
which connect with the pneumogastric spinafcaccessory, cervical and 
sympathetic ; descendens noni, a long, slender twig which descends 
upon the sheath of the carotid vessels, forming a loop with a long 
branch from the second and third cervical, from the convexity of which 
branches are sent off to the sterno-hyoid, sterno-thyroid, and omo- 
hyoid muscles ; and thyro-hyoidean, distributed to the thyro-hyoid 

The Spinal Nerves. — Of these there are thirty-one pairs, each 
arising by two roots, an anterior motor and a posterior sensitive ; the 
posterior are larger, and have more numerous filaments than the ante- 
vior. In the intervertebral foramai the posterior roots enlarge into a 


ganglion, after ,vhich both roots unite and form a spinal nerve, which 
passes out of t!ae foramen, and then divides into an anterior branch, 
which supplies the front portion of the body, communicating with the 
ganglion* of the sympathetic, and forming plexuses which give off the 
principal nerves to the muscles of the trunk and extremities, and a pos- 
terior, which supplies the muscles of the back. The spinal nerves are 
divided into cervical, dorsal, lumbar, and sacral 

Cervical Nerves. — Eight pairs : the first is called sub-occipital ; 
it passes out of the spinal canal, between the occiput and atlas; and the 
last passes out between the last cervical and first dorsal vertebra. The 
anterior branches of the four upper form the cervical j)lexus ; the pos- 
terior branches, posterior cervical plexus. The anterior branches of the 
four lower cervical, with the first dorsal, form the brachial plexus. 

The cervical plexus sends off the following : superjicialis colli, which 
divides into a descending branch, distributed to the integument on the 
side and front of the neck, and an ascending branch, which supplies the 
integument of the chin and lower parts of the face ; auricularis mag- 
nus, the largest of the ascending branches, which divides at the parotid 
gland into an anterior branch, distributed to the gland, adjacent integu- 
ment, and external ear, and a posterior, which pierces the parotid 
gland, crosses the mastoid process, and is then divided into branches to 
supply the integument of the side of the head and back part of the pinna, 
sending off several facial branches to the cheek ; occipitalis minor, 
which arises from the second cervical, and is distributed to the muscles 
and integument of the external ear and occipital region ; acromialcs 
and clavicular es, two or three large branches distributed to the integu- 
ment of the upper and front part of the chest; communicating, fila- 
ments which connect with the sympathetic, pneumogastric, and hypo- 
glossal ; 7iiuscular, distributed to the trapezius, levator anguli, scapula?, 
and rhomboidei muscles ; communicans noni, a long, slender branch 
forming a loop with the descendens noni over the sheath of the carotid 
vessels; and phrenic (the internal respiratory of Charles Bell), which 
descends to the root of the neck, crosses the subclavian artery, and 
enters the chest between it and the subclavian vein, passes through the 
middle mediastinum and in front of the root of the lung to the dia- 
phragm, to which it is distributed, its filaments communicating with 
the phrenic, solar, and hepatic plexuses. 

The posterior cervical plexus gives off musculocutaneous branches to 
the ligamentum nuchse, integument of the back part of the neck, and 
posterior region of the scalp ; and the occipitalis major, which is dis- 
tributed to the muscles of the neck and integument of the scalp. 

178 A JN A I U M 1! . 

The brachial plexus is broad in the neck, narrowing as it descends 
into the axilla, enlarging again at its lower part, where it divides into 
six terminal branches, which are distributed to the upper extremity 
and chest. From the plexus are sent off superior muscular branches to 
the subclavius and rhomboidei muscles, short thoracic to the two pectoral 
and deltoid muscles, long thoracic (external respiratory of Bell) to the 
serratus irmgnus muscle, supra-scapular to the supra-spinatis and infra- 
spinatis muscles, subscapular to the subscapularis muscle, and inferior 
muscular to the latissimus dorsi and teres major. The terminal 
branches are : the external cutaneous, which, piercing the coraco- 
brachial muscle, passes between the biceps and brachialis anticus to 
the outer side of the elbow, where it perforates the fascia, and divides 
into two branches ; the external follows the course of the radial vein, 
communicating with branches of the radial nerve on the back of the 
hand, and supplying the coraco-brachialis, biceps, brachialis anticus, 
and integuments on the outer side of the fore-arm ; the internal cuta- 
neous., which passes down the inner side of the arm with the basilic 
vein, piercing the deep fascia about the middle of the upper arm, and 
dividing into two branches ; the anterior descends along the palmarus 
longus to the wrist, supplying the integument in its course ; the poste- 
rior supplies the integument over the olecranon and inner condyle, and 
descends the fore-arm along the ulnar vein to the wrist, supplying the 
integument on the inner side of the fore-arm ; the lesser internal cuta- 
neous, a long, slender branch which descends on the inner side of the 
external cutaneous to be distributed to the integument of the elbow ; 
the median, which arises by two heads, embracing the axillary artery, 
crosses the brachial artery at its middle, descends to the inner bend 
of the elbow, runs down the fore-arm between the flexor sublimis and 
profundus, and beneath the annular ligament into the palm of the hand, 
where it divides into muscular, anterior interosseous, superficial palmar , 
and digital branches, to be distributed to the structures of the fore- 
arm, wrist, and fingers : the ulnar, which arises with the internal head 
of the median, runs down the inside of the arm to the groove between 
the internal condyle and olecranon, where it is superficial and easily 
compressed — giving rise to the painfully thrilling sensation along the 
inside of the fore-arm and little finger when a blow is made on it 
against the inner condyle — after which it descends along the inner side 
of the fore-arm, crosses the annular ligament, and divides into super- 
ficial palmar and deep palmar branches, which, with muscular, artic- 
ular, and anastomotic branches given off along its course, are distributed 
to the structures of the arm, fore-arm, wrist, and hand, and communicate 
with the other surrounding branches of nerves ; the muscido-spird. 

JN H U li U L G Y. 179 

nerve, the largest branch of the brachial plexus, which descends in 
front of the tendons of the latissimus dorsi and teres major muscles, 
winds around the humerus in the spiral groove, and passes to the 
elbow, where, after sending off muscular branches, and the spiral cuta- 
neous to the nerves, muscles, and integument in its course, it divides into 
the posterior interosseous and radial branches ; the radial runs along 
the radial side of the fore-arm, and about two inches above the wrist 
penetrates the deep fascia, and divides into external and internal 
branches, which are distributed to the hands and fingers ; the inter- 
osseous supplies all the muscles on the posterior aspect of the fore-arm, 
and a descending branch of it forms a large gangliform swelling on the 
back of the wrist, from which branches art- distributed to the joint ; 
and the circumflex nerve, which arises with former, winds around 
the neck of the humerus with the posterior circumflex artery, and 
terminates in numerous branches, distributed to the deltoid muscle, 
after sending off* muscular and cutaneous branches to the muscles and 
integuments of the shoulder and arm. 

The Dorsal Nerves. — There are twelve pairs of dorsal nerves. 
Each nerve, as it emerges from the intervertebral foramen, divides into 
dorsal and intercostal branches. The dorsal pass backward between 
the transverse processes of the vertebra?, where each divides into a 
muscular and a musculo-cutaneous branch, distributed to the muscles 
and integument of the back ; the intercostal branches, which are the 
true intercostal nerves, receive filaments from the adjoining ganglia of 
the sympathetic, and pass forward with the intercostal vessels in the 
intercostal spaces, supplying the intercostal muscles in their course ; 
near the sternum they pierce the intercostal and pectoral muscles, sup- 
ply the mammary glands, and are finally distributed to the muscles 
and integument in front of the chest and abdomen. 

The Lumbar Nerves.— Of these there are five pairs; the first 
passes out between the first and second lumbar vertebra?, and the last 
between the lower lumbar vertebra and sacrum. At their origin the 
anterior branches communicate with the lumbar ganglia of the sym- 
pathetic, and pass obliquely outward behind the psoas magnus muscle, 
where they intercommunicate and anastomose to form the lumbar 
plexus. The posterior branches divide into internal branches, which 
are distributed to the adjacent muscles and integuments, and external^ 
which intercommunicate, and, after supplying the deep muscles, are 
distributed to the integument of the gluteal region. The lumbar 
plexus gives oft' the following branches: 1. Musculo-cutaneous ; which 


divides into a superior blanch, and this, after winding around the crest 
of the ilium, divides into abdominal and scrotal branches, the former 
of which is distributed to the integument of the groin and around the 
pubis, and the latter accompanies the spermatic cord in the male, and 
round ligament in the female, to supply the integument of the scrotum 
and internal labium ; and an inferior branch, which passes along the 
spermatic cord, to be distributed to the genital organs. 2. External 
cutaneous ; which passes into the thigh beneath Poupart's ligament, 
and divides into a posterior branch, which supplies the integument of 
the thigh, and an anterior branch, which is distributed to the integu- 
ment on the outer border of the thigh and to the articulation of the 
knee. 3. Genito-crural ; which runs on the anterior surface of the 
psoas magnus muscle to near Poupart's ligament, where it divides into 
a genital branch, which descends along the spermatic canal, to be dis- 
tributed to the spermatic cord and cremaster muscle in the male, and 
the round ligament and external labiuna in the female, and a crural 
branch, which enters the sheath of the femoral vessels, and is distrib- 
uted to the anterior aspect of the thigh. 4. Crural, or femoral ; the 
largest division of the lumbar plexus is formed by the union of branches 
from the second, third, and fourth lumbar nerves, passes into the thigh 
beneath Poupart's ligament, then spreads out and divides into numerous 
branches : a. cutaneous, two nerves which perforate the sartorius mus- 
cle, and are distributed to the integument of the middle and lower part 
of the thigh and knee ; b. muscular, round, large twigs, distributed to 
the muscles of the anterior aspect of the thigh, sending filaments to the 
periosteum and knee joint ; c. aponeurotic, to the sheath of the femoral 
vessels and adjacent muscles; d. short saphenous, which divides at the 
sheath of the femoral vessels into a superficial branch, which runs 
down to the knee joint, and terminates by communicating with the long 
saphenous nerve, and a deep branch, which divides at the termination 
of the femoral artery into several filaments, which communicate with 
other nerves to form a plexus, some of whose filaments are distributed 
to the integument on the posterior part of the thigh; e. long saphenous, 
which enters the femoral sheath, and descends along the inside of the 
leg with the internal saphenous vein, crosses in front of the inner ankle, 
and is distributed to the integument on the inner side of the foot. In 
its course it receives a communicating branch from the obturator, near 
the division of the femoral artery, and another at the internal condyle, 
and gives off a femoral cutaneous branch, a tibial cutaneous branch, and 
an articular branch,* to the integument of the inner and back part of 
the thigh, the inner aspect of the leg, around the knee joint, the front 
and outer aspect of the leg, and the ankle joint. 5. Obturator ; formed 


by a branch from the third and another from the fourth lumbar 
nerve, passes through the angle of bifurcation of the common iliacs, 
and along the brim, of the pelvis to the obturator foramen, where it 
joins the obturator artery. After emerging from the pelvis it gives off 
twigs to the obturator externus muscle, and divides into four branches ; 
three anterior, which supply the adductor brevis, pectineus, adductor 
longus, and gracilis muscles, and a posterior which ramifies in the adduc- 
tor magnus ; from the anterior branches a communicating filament pro- 
ceeds to unite with the long saphenous, and a long cutaneous branch 
descends to the inner side of the knee, where it communicates witli 
the long saphenous ; and from the posterior branch an articular branch 
is given off, which accompanies the popliteal artery, to be distributed 
to the back part of the synovial membrane of the knee joint. 6. 
Lumbar sacral ; descends over the base of the sacrum into the pelvis, 
and forms a part of the sacral plexus. 

The Sacral Nerves. — There are six pairs of sacral nerves ; the 
first pass out of the vertebral canal through the first sacral foramina, 
and the two last between the sacrum and coccyx. The posterior are 
very small, and are distributed to the integument over the sacrum and 
coccyx and gluteal region. The anterior diminish in size from abovo 
downward ; they are distributed to the muscles and integuments around 
the coccyx and anus ; many of their branches are connected in the 
formation of the sacral plexus ; they send communicating branches to 
the hypogastric plexus, and receive branches from the sacral ganglia of 
the sympathetic. 

The Sacral Plexus. — The sacral plexus is formed by the lumbo- 
sacral and anterior branches of the four upper sacral nerves. It is 
triangular in form, its base corresponding to the sacrum, and its apex to 
the lower part of the great ischiatic foramen. Its branches are : 1. 
Visceral; three or four branches, which ascend by the rectum and 
bladder in the male, and in the female upon the side of the rectum, the 
vagina, arid bladder, supplying those viscera, and communicating with 
the hypogastric plexus. 2. Internal muscular ; given off within the 
pelvis; an obturator branch to the obturatus internus, a coccygeal 
branch, and a hemorrhoidal nerve, which descends to the rectum, 
supplying the spincter and integument. 3. External muscular; sev- 
eral branches, distributed to the capsule of the hip joint and surrou tid- 
ing muscles. 4. Gluteal ; passes out of the pelvis with the gluteal 
artery, and divides into a superior branch, which goes to the gluteus 
medius and minimus, and an inferior, which is distributed with the 

182 «^~.»„-»... 

above, and also to the tensor vaginas femoris. 5. Internal pudic ; 
passes out of the pelvis with the former, and divides, beneath the ob- 
turator fascia, into a superior branch (dorsalis penis), which accom- 
panies the dorsal artery of the penis to the glans, and is there distrib- 
uted, supplying filaments to the corpus cavernosum, integument, and 
prepuce, and an inferior branch (perineal nerve), which supplies the 
scrotum, and sends branches to the integuments of the under part of 
the penis, prepuce, sphincter ani, trap«ve:sus perinei, and accelerator 
urinae, and terminates by ramifying in tho corpus spongiosum. In the 
female the internal pudic is distributed to the parts analogous to those 
of the male ; the superior branch supplies the clitoris, and the inferior 
the vulva and parts in the perineum. 6. Lesser ischiatic ; passes out 
of the pelvis through the great ischiatic foramen, and divides into mus- 
cular branches (inferior gluteal), which are distributed to the gluteus 
maximus ; and cutaneous, which send ascending filaments to the gluteal 
integument ; the perineal cutaneous nerve, down the inside of the testis 
to the scrotum and integument on the under side of the penis ; and 
the middle posterior cutaneous, which is distributed to the integuments 
of the thigh and leg at the middle of the calf. 7. Great ischiatic ; 
this is the largest nervous cord in the whole body. It is a prolongation 
of the sacral plexus, and measures, at its exit from the great sacro- 
ischiatic foramen, three fourths of an inch in breadth. It descends be- 
tween the trochanter major and tuberosity of the ischium, and along 
the back part of the thigh to its lower third, where it divides into ter- 
minal branches, called popliteal and peroneal. Previous to its division 
it sends oft" muscular branches to the semi-tendinous, semi-membrano- 
sus, and adductor magnus, and articular branches, which descend to be 
distributed to the capsule and synovial membrane of the knee joint. 

The popliteal nerve passes down externally to the vein and artery, 
and after sending off" muscular branches to the gastrocnemius, soleus, 
plantaris, and poplitens, an articular to the interior of the knee joint, 
and a communicating, a large lerve descending between the heads of the 
gastrocnemius, and forming Lelow the knee, with a connecting branch 
from the peroneal nerve, the external saphenous nerve, it becomes the 
posterior tibial. The external saphenous penetrates the deep fascia below 
the fleshy part of the gastrocnemius, and passes down the leg along the 
outer border of the tendo-Achillis, winds around the. outer malleolus, 
and is distributed to the outer side of the foot and little toe, sending 
numerous filaments to the integument of the heel and sole of the foot. 

The posterior tibial nerve continues along the back of the leg from 
tne lower border of the poplitens muscle to the back of the inner ankle, 
where it divides into fcis intern;} ind external plantar nerve; in its 


course it sends muscular branches to the deep muscles, one or two 
filaments which entwine around the fibular artery, and then terminate 
in the integument, and plantar cutaneous branches, which pass down 
the inner side of the os calcis, to be distributed to the integument of 
the heel. 

The internal plantar nerve crosses the posterior tibial vessels, to 
enter the sole of the foot, and is distributed to the toes, integument, 
and tarsal and metatarsal articulations. 

The external plantar nerve is smaller than the former, and is dis- 
tributed to the outer side of the foot, the little toe, and outer side of 
the second. 

The peroneal nerve passes down by the tendon of the biceps, crosses 
the head of the gastrocnemius to the neck of the fibula, where it divides 
into the anterior tibial and musculo-cutaneous. 

The anterior tibial nerve descends the anterior aspect of the leg 
with the artery to the ankle, where it passes beneath the annular liga- 
ment, and accompanies the dorsalis pedis artery to supply the adjoining 
sides of the great and second toes, distributing, in its course, filaments 
to the muscles and articulations of the tarsus and metatarsus. 

The musculo-cutaneous nerve passes downward in the direction of 
the fibula, and at the lower third of the leg, where it pierces the deep 
fascia, and divides into two peroneal cutaneous branches, which pass in 
front of the ankle joint, to be distributed to the integument of the foot 
and toes, after sending filaments to adjacent muscles, and communicat- 
ing branches to the saphenous and anterior tibial nerves. 


The organic nerves, commonly called the sympathetic or ganglionic 
system, consist of a series of ganglia extending along both sides of tho 
vertebral column, which distribute brandies to all the internal organs 
and viscera, and communicate with all the other nerves of the body. 

The branches of distribution accompany the arteries which supply 
*;he different organs, and form communications around them called 
plexuses, which are named after the arteries, as mesenteric, hepatic, 
splenic, etc., plexuses. fc 

Cranial Ganglia. — There are five ganglia in the head : 1. Gan- 
glion of Ribes, situated upon the anterior communicating artery; it is 
the superior point of union between the chains of opposite sides of the 
body. 2. Ciliary ganglion, a small, flattened body within the orbit, 
between the optic nerve and external rectus muscle ; its branches of 
distribution supply the coats of the eye. 




Fig. 93. Fig. 93 is a repre. 

sentation of cranial 
ganglia of the organ- 
ic system. 1. Gan- 
glion of Kibes. 2. A 
filament by which it 
communicates with 
the carotid plexus 
(3). 4. Ciliary or 
lenticular ganglion, 
giving oft* ciliary 
branches to the 
globe of the eye. 5. 
Part of the inferior 
division of the third 
nerve, receiving a 
short, thick branch 
(the short root) from 
the ganglion. 6. Part 
of the nasal nerve, 
receiving a longer 
branch (the long 
root) from the gan- 
glion. 7. A slender 
filament (the sympa- 
thetic root), sent directly backward from the ganglion of the carotid plexus. 8. Part 
of the sixth nerve in the cavernous sinus, receiving two branches from the carotid 
plexus. 9. Meckel's ganglion (spheno-palatine). 10. Its ascending branches, communi- 
cating with the superior maxillary nerve. 11. Its descending, or palatine branches. 12. 
Its internal branches, spheno-palatine, or nasal. 13. The nasopalatine branch, one of the 
nasal branches. 14. Posterior branch of the ganglion, the Vidian nerve. 15. Its carotid 
branch communicating with the carotid plexus. 16. Its petrosal branch, joining the 
intumescentia gangliformis of the facial nerve. 17. Facial nerve. 18. Chorda tympani, 
which descends to join the gustatory. 19. Gustatory nerve. 20. Submaxillary ganglion, 
receiving the corda tympani and other filaments from the gustatory. 21. Superior cer- 
vical ganglion of the sympathetic. 

3. Spheno-palatine ganglion (Meckel's), the largest of the cranial 
ganglia, situated in the spheno-maxillary fossa. Its branches of distri- 
bution are : nasal, or spheno-palatine, four or five in number, which 
enter the nasal fossa through the spheno-palatine foramen, and supply 
the mucous membrane and spongy bones of the nose, and the upper 
part of the pharynx and the Eustachian tube; the naso-palatine to the 
septum of the nose and palate; the anterior palatine to the hard palate, 
bones of the nose, and the antrum; the middle palatine to the tonsil, 
soft palate, and uvulva; and the posterior palatine to the hard palate, 
gums, tonsil, and soft palate. Its communicating branches join the 
superior maxillary, abducens, and optic nerves, and the ciliary ganglion. 
The posterior branch is the Vidian or pterygoid nerve, which passes 
to the foramen lacerum, and divides into carotid and petrosal branches 
to the carotid plexus and the gangliform enlargement of the facial nerve; 


it also sends a filament to the otic ganglion. 4. Otic ganglion (Arnold's), 
is a small, oval ganglion, situated on the inferior maxillary nerve, im- 
mediately below the foramen ovale. It sends off two branches of dis- 
tribution, one to the tensor palati muscle, and one to the tensor tym- 
pani, and branches of communication to the auricular, chorda tympani, 
nervi molles, facial, and Vidian nerves, and the facial and Casserian 
ganglions. 5. Submaxillary ganglion, a small, triangular ganglion upon 
the submaxillary gland ; it sends branches of distribution to the gland 
and Wharton's duct, and communicating branches to the gustatory, 
facial, and ncrvi molles. 

The Carotid Plexus. — The carotid plexus is formed of the divi- 
sions of the ascending branch of the superior cervical ganglion in the 
carotid canal, where they form several loops with each other around 
the artery, together with branches derived from the petrosal branch 
of the Vidian. The continuation of this plexus onward by the side of 
the sella turcica is called the cavernous plexus. It is the centre of 
communication between all the cranial ganglia, and being derived from 
the superior cervical ganglion, between the cranial ganglia and those 
of the trunk, it also communicates with most of the cerebral nerves, 
and distributes filaments with each of the branches of the internal caro- 
tid, which accompany those branches in all their ramifications. 

Cervical Ganglia. — The cervical ganglia are three in number on 
each side. 1. Superior cervical ; a long, grayish-colored ganglion, ex- 
tending from within an inch of the carotid foramen in the petrous bone 
to the third cervical vertebra. It sends a superior branch to the carotid 
canal, whose divisions and intercommunications with each other, and 
with the petrosal branch of the Vidian, constitute the carotid plexus 
before described ; an inferior or descending branch to the middle cer- 
vical ; numerous external branches to the glosso-phaiyngeal, pneumo- 
gastric, hypoglossal, and the first three cervical nerves ; three internal 
branches, to the pharyngeal plexus, superior laryngeal nerve, and su- 
perior cardiac nerve ; and anterior branches, called from their softness 
nervi molles, which accompany the carotid artery with its branches, 
around which they form intricate plexuses, and occasionally small gan- 
glia. 2. Middle cervical (thyroid ganglion) ; of small size, situated 
opposite the fifth cervical vertebra, and resting on the inferior thyroid 
artery. It sends a superior branch to the superior cervical ganglion ; 
inferior branches to the inferior cervical ganglion ; external branches to 
the third, fouith, and fifth cervical nerves; and internal branches to 
the inferior thyroid plexus and artery, and middle cardiac nerve. 





In Fig. 94 is presented 
a view of the organic or 
sympathetic system. A 
AAA. Semilunar gan- 
glion and solar plex- 
us. B. Small splanch- 
nic nerve. C. Great 
splanchnic nerve. D 
D D. Thoracic ganglion. 

E. Internal branches. 

F. External branches. 

G. Right coronary plex- 
us. H. Left coronary 
plexus. I. Inferior cer 
vical ganglion. J. In 
ferior twigs. K. Exter 
nal threads. L. Intel-, 
nal twigs. M. Anterior 
threads. N. Middle cer- 
vical ganglion. O. In- 
terior twigs. P. Exter- 
nal twigs. Q.. Superior 
cervical ganglion. R. 
Superior branches. S. 
Inferior branch. T. Ex- 
ternal branches. U. 
Submaxillary gland. V. 
Vidian nerve. W. Na- 
so-palatine branch. X. 
Spheno-palatine gangli- 
on. Y. Ophthalmic gan- 
glion. Z. Auditory 
nerve. 1. Renal plex- 
uses. 2. Lumbar gan- 
glia. 3. Internal branch- 
es. 4. External branch- 
es. 5. Aortic plexus 

3. Inferior cervi- 
cal ; of a semilunar 
form, situated upon 
the base of the 
transverse process 
of the seventh cer- 
vical vertebra, and 
hence called "ver- 
tebral ganglion." 
It sends siqierior 
branches to the 
middle cervical 
ganglion ; inferior 


to the first thoracic ganglion ; external to the dorsal nerves and vertebral 
plexus ; and internal branches to the inferior cardiac nerve. 

The Cardiac Nerves. — The superior cardiac arises from the lower 
part of the superior cervical ganglion, and, descending the neck, passes 
behind the arteria innominata, and joins the cardiac ganglion below the 
arch of the aorta, receiving in its course branches from the pneumo- 
gastric, and sending filaments to the thyroid gland and trachea. The 
middle cardiac proceeds from the middle cardiac ganglion ; it is the 
largest of the three nerves, and at the root of the neck divides into 
several branches, and communicates with the superior and inferior car- 
diac, the pneumogastric, and recurrent nerves, and descends to the 
great cardiac plexus at the bifurcation of the trachea. The inferior 
cardiac arises from the inferior cervical ganglion, communicates with 
the recurrent laryngeal and middle cardiac, and descends to the great 
cardiac plexus. 

The cardiac ganglion is a variable enlargement beneath the arch of 
the aorta, which receives the superior cardiac nerves and a branch from 
the pneumogastric, and gives off numerous branches to the cardiac 
plexuses. The great cardiac plexus is situated upon the bifurcation 
of the trachea, above the right pulmonary artery, and behind 'iic arch 
Df the aorta; the anterior cardiac plexus is situated in front of the 
ascending aorta, near its origin ; the posterior cardiac plexus rests upon 
the posterior part of the ascending aorta, near its origin. These plex- 
uses intimately intercommunicate with each other and with the neigh- 
boring nerves, and supply the heart. Two sets of branches from the 
posterior cardiac constitute the posterior coronary plexus ; and the an- 
terior and posterior pulmonary plexuses are formed in part by branches 
from the great cardiac plexus. 

Thoracic Ganglia. — There are twelve thoracic or dorsal ganglia 
on each side, resting upon the head of the ribs ; their form is irregu- 
lar, but they present the peculiar gray color and pearly lustre of tho 
other organic ganglia. They send superior and inferior branches, to 
communicate with the ganglia above and below, two or three external 
branches to the roots of each of the spinal nerves, internal branches to 
the pulmonary, oesophageal, and cardiac plexuses, and splanchnic, sev- 
eral large cords from the lower ganglion, which unite to form the 
splanchnic nerve. 

The great splanchnic nerve arises from the sixth dorsal ganglion, 
and, receiving branches from the seventh, eighth, ninth, and tenth, de- 
scends in front of the vertebral column, within the posterior mediasti- 


num, pierces the diaphragm, and terminates in the semilunar ganglion. 
The lesser splanchnic (renal) is formed by filaments from the three 
lower dorsal ganglia, pierces the diaphragm, and descends to join the 
renal plexus. 

The semilunar ganglion is a large, irregular body, pierced by numer- 
ous openings, and appearing like an aggregation of smaller ganglia with 
intervening spaces. It is situated by the side of the cceliac axis, upon 
the aorta, and communicates with the ganglion of the opposite side, 
both above and below that trunk, forming a gangliform circle, from 
which branches pass off radiatingly in all directions ; hence the entire 
circle is called the solar plexus. It is undoubtedly the presiding centre, 
or great brain of the organic system, and probably the starting point in 
the development of all organized beings. Various sensations usually 
referred to the heart have, no doubt, their source in this ganglion. 

The solar plexus receives the great splanchnic and part of the lesser 
splanchnic nerves, the termination of the right pneumogastric, branches 
from the right phrenic, and sometimes filaments from the left, and 
transmits numerous filaments to accompany, as plexuses, all the branches 
given off by the abdominal aorta, being the phrenic, gastric, hepatic 
splenic, supra-renal, renal, superior mesenteric, spermatic, and inferior 
mesenteric plexuses, all derived from the solar plexus. 

Lumbar Ganglia. — There are four lumbar ganglia on each side, 
situated upon the anterior part of the bodies of the lumbar vertebra;. 
Their superior and inferior branches communicate with the ganglia 
above and below ; their external branches communicate with the lum- 
bar nerves ; and their internal branches interlace around the abdominal 
aorta, constituting the lumbar aortic plexus, and again over the promon- 
tory of the sacrum, forming the hypogastric plexus, which distributes 
branches to all the viscera of the pelvis. 

Sacral Ganglia. — The sacral ganglia are four or five in number 
on each side, situated near the anterior sacral foramina. Their superior 
and inferior branches communicate with the ganglia above and below ; 
the external with the sacral nerves ; and the internal are distributed to 
the pelvic viscera, sending branches to the hypogastric plexus. The 
lower sacral ganglia give off branches which join the azygos ganglion 
on the coccyx, which connects the ganglionic system infeix >rly, as the 
ganglion of Ribes does superiorly. 





The organs of sense, which bring the animal machine into relation 
with external objects, are five ; four of them, the apparatus of smell, 
sight, hearing, and taste, are situated within the head, while the organ 
of touch, resident in the skin, is distributed over the entire surface. 


The external parts of the organ of smell are called the nose, and the 
internal parts the nasal fossa. 

The Nose. — The anatomical parts of the nose are : The nostrils, 
which overhang the mouth, and are so constructed that the odors of all 
substances must be received by the nose before they can be introduced 
within the lips ; the columna, or partition between the nostrils ; tho 
vibrissa, stiff hairs which project across the openings, and guard their 
entrance ; the fibro-cartilaginous integument, which forms the tip, called 
lobulus, and wings, called alee; the muscles, already described; the 
hones — nasal and nasal processes of the superior maxillary ; the mucous 
membrane, lining its interior; the arteries, from the facial and supra 
coronary; and the nerves, which are the facial, infra-orbital, and nasa 
branch of the ophthalmic. 

Fig. y5 shows the fibro-cartilages of tho nose. 1. One of Fig. 95. 

the nasal, bones. 2. Fibro-cartilage of the septum. 3. Lateral 
tibro-cartilage. 4. The alar fibro-cartilage. 5. Central por- 
tions of the alar fibro-cartilages, which constitute the colum- 
na. 6. Appendix of the alar fibro-cartilage. 7. Nostril. 

Nasal Foss.e. — The nasal fossre are two ir- 
regular compressed cavities extending backward 
from the nose to the pharynx. They are 
bounded above by the lateral cartilage of the 
nose, and the nasal, sphenoid, and ethmoid 
bones ; below by the hard palate. On the outer 
wall of each fossa are three projecting processes, 
called spongy bones ; the two superior belong to 
the ethmoid, and the inferior is a separate bone ; 
they increase the surface upon which the mu- 
cous membrane is spread but. The spaces be- nasal cartilages. 
tween the upper and middle, the middle and lower, and lower and 
floor of the nostrils, are tho superior, middle, an! inferior meatuses. 



In the superior meatus are several openings into the nasal fossae of the 
Sphenoidal and posterior ethmoidal cells; in the middle the anterior 
ethmoidal cells, the frontal sinuses, and the antrum maxillare; and in 
the inferior the termination of the nasal duct. 

The mucous membrane of the nasal fossae is called pituitary of 
Schneiderian ; it is continuous with the lining membrane of the gastro- 
pulmonary cavities, and extends in'po the sphenoidal and ethmoidal cells, 
frontal sinus, and antrum, through the nasal duct to the eye, where it 
is continuous with the conjunctiva; along the Eustachian tubes into tho 
tympanum and mastoid cells, and through the posterior nerves into the 
pharynx and mouth, thence through the lungs and alimentary canal. Its 
surface is furnished with a delicate columna epithelium, supporting 
innumerable vibratile cilia. 

The arteries of the nasal fossa; are the anterior and posterior ethmoi- 
dal branches from the ophthalmic, and the spheno-palatine and pterygo- 
palatine from the internal maxillary. The nerves are : The olfactory, 

the spheno - palatine branches 
from Meckel's ganglion, and the 
nasal branch of the ophthalmic. 
The ultimate filaments of the ol- 
factory terminate in papillae. 

Fig. 96 is a vertical section of the mid- 
dle part of the cavities of the nose. 7. 
Middle spongy bones. 8. Superior part 
of the nasal cavities. 10. Inferior spongy 
hones. 11. Vomer. 12. Upper jaw. 13. 
Middle meatus. 14. Inferior meatus. 

17. Palatine process of the upper jaw. 

18. Hoof of the mouth, covered by mu- 
cous membrane. 19. A section of tho 

NASAL CAVITIES. mucous membrane. 


The structures of the visual organ may be conveniently divided into 
three classes : the coats, humors, and appendages of the eye. Tho 
eyeball is of a spherical form, about one inch in diameter. The globe 
of the eye is composed of three coats, or tunics, and three humors. 

Outkr Coat, or First Tunic. — The first coat of the eyeball is 
formed of the sclerotic and cornea. The sclerotic is a dark, fibrous 
membrane, investing about four fifths of the globe. Its anterior surface 
is covered with a tendinous layer, called the tunica albuginea, which 
is derived from the expansion of the tendons of the four recti muscles. 
A part of tho tunica a :uginoa is covered by a mucous membrane 



called the conjunctiva, which constitutes the "white of the eye." The 
sclerotic forms a thin, sieve-like plate, called lamina cribrosa, at the 
entrance of the optic nerve ; this lamina is full of openings for the pas- 
sage of nervous filaments. The largest of these openings in the centre 
is called the porus opticus, through which the arteria centralis retina 
— central artery of the retina — enters the eyeball. The cornea con- 
stitutes the anterior fifth of the globe. It is circular, transparent, and 
resembles a watch-glass. It is received into the grooved edge of the 
sclerotic in the manner that a watch-glass is received into its case. It 
is composed of four layers, the external being the white membrane, or 
conjunctiva, before mentioned. 

Fig. 97 is a longitudinal 
section of the globe of the 
eye. 1. The Bclerotic, 
thicker behind, than in 
front. 2. The cornea, re- 
ceived within the anterior 
margin of the sclerotic, 
and connected with it by 
means of a beveled edge. 
3. The choroid, connected 
anteriorly with (4) the cil- 
iary ligament, and (5) the 
ciliary processes. 6. The 
his. 7. The pupil. 8. The 
third layer of the eye, the 
retina, terminating ante, 
riorly by an abrupt border 
at the commencement of SECTJION OF THE GLOBE, 

the ciliary processes. 9. The canal of Petit, which encircles the lens (12) ; the thin layer 
in front of this canal is the zonula ciliaris, a prolongation of the vascular layer of tha 
retina to the lens. 10. The anterior chamber of the eye, containing the aqueous humor ; 
the lining membrane by which the humor is secreted is represented in the diagram. II. 
The posterior chamber. 12. The lens, more convex behind than before, and enclosed in 
its proper capsule. 13. The vitreous humor enclosed in the hyaloid membrane, and in 
cells formed in its interior by that membrane. 14. A tubular sheath of the hyaloid mem- 
brane, which serves for the passage of the artery of the capsule of the lens. 15. The 
neurilemma of the optic nerve. 16. The arteria centralis retinae, imbedded in the centre 
of the optic nerve. 

Midole Coat. — The second tunic is formed of the choroid, ciliary 
ligament, iris, and ciliary processes. The choroid is a vascular mem- 
brane, of a rich brown color externally, and of a deep black on its 
inner surface. Posteriorly it has an opening for the passage of the 
optic nerve ; it is connected anteriorly with the iris, ciliary processes, 
and with the junction of the sclerotic and cornea, by a dense white 
structure, callei the ciliary ligament, which surrounds the circum- 
ference of tko iris, liW *^ a ring. The choroid membrane is composed 



of three layers, the external being principally an arrangement of veins, 
called vence vorticosce. The middle layer is formed by the ramification 
of minute arteries. The internal layer is a delicate cellular structure, 
containing the pigmentum nigrum, or coloring matter of its posterior 

Fig. 98 is a dissection of the eye- 
ball, showing its second tunic, and 
the mode of the distribution of the 
vense vorticosaa of the choroid. 
After Arnold. . 1. Part of the scle- 
rotic coat. 2. The optic nerve. 
3 3. The choroid coat. 4. The 
ciliary ligament. 5. The iris. 6 
6. The vense vorticossB. 7 7. The 
trunks of the vensa vorticosaa at 
the point where they have pierced 
the sclerotica. 8 8. The posterior 
ciliary veins, which enter the eye- 
ball in company with the posterior 
ciliary arteries, by piercing the 
sclerotic at 9. 10. One of the 
long ciliary nerves, accompanied 
by a long ciliary vein. 


The ciliary ligamenttovms 
a circle round the iris, connecting the cornea and sclerotic at their 
junction with the iris and external membrane of the choroid. 

The iris, or rainbow, is so denominated from its variety of colors in 
different individuals. It makes a partition between the front and back 
chambers of the eye, and has a circular opening near its centre, called 
the pupil of ihe eye. The iris is composed of two layers ; the anterior 
Fig. 99. is muscular, consisting of both cir- 

cular fibres which surround the pu- 
pil, and radiating fibres from die 
centre to the circumference ; the 
combined contraction of these fibres 
diminishes the diameter of the pupil. 

Fig. 99 is the anterior segment of a trans- 
verse section of the globe of the eye, seen 
from within. 1. The divided edge of the 
three iunics ; sclerotic, choroid (the dark lay 
or), and retina. 2. The pupil. 3. The iris, the 
surface presented to view in this section being 
the uvea. 4. The ciliary processes. 5. The 
scalloped anterior border of the retina. 


The ciliary processes consist of 


triangular folds of the middle and internal layers of the choroid. Their 
circumference connects with the ciliary ligament; they are covered 
with a thick black pigment. 

Fig. 100 is the posterior segment of a Fig. 100. 

transverse section of the globe of the eye, „^=^r- 

seen from, within. I. The divided edge of .:,- ':.' ; j 1 "S>iv 

the three tunics. The membrane covering 
the whole internal surface is the retina. 2. /mt 

The entrance of the optic nerve with the /HWl '§'\ '■'■'" '" ' "v^ "■ ' 'V '■ , 'li ' 

arteria centralis retinae piercing its centre. 
3 3. The ramifications of the arteria cen- 
tralis. 4. Foramen of Soemmering, in the 
centre of tlie axis of the eye ; the shade from 
the side of the section obscures the limhua 
luteus, which surrounds it. 5. A fold of the 
retina, which generally obscures the foramen 
after the eye has been opened. 

^ gpr 

Inner Coat. — The third tunic 
is the retina. It is formed of three 
layers. The- external is a mere posterior segment. 

film ; the middle or nervous is the expansion of the optic nerve, en- 
veloping the vitreous humor, and extending forward to the ciliary pro- 
cesses ; the inner membrane is the vascular, composed of ramifications 
of arteries and veins. The anterior margin of the retina is connected 
with the anterior surface of the lens by a thin vascular layer, called 
zonula ciliaris. There is a circular spot in the retina, in the centre of 
the back part of the globe, called the foramen of Soemmering, sur- 
rounded by a yellowish halo, called limbus luteus. 

Humors of the Ete. — The aqueous humor occupies the two 
chambers of the eye. The anterior chamber is the space bounded by 
the cornea in front, and the iris and pupil behind ; the posterior cham- 
ber is the very small space between the pupil and posterior surface of 
the iris in front, and the ciliary processes, crystalline lens, and zonula 
ciliaris behind. Both chambers are lined by a thin membrane, which 
6ecretes the fluid of the aqueous humor, which does not exceed five or 
six drops in bulk. 

The vitreous humor makes the greater part of the bulk of the globe 
of the eye. It is a glassy, transparent fluid, enclosed in a delicate 
membrane, called the hyaloid. The inner surface of the hyaloid is 
disposed in thin lamellae or plates reflected inward, forming different 
apartments or cells, like the transverse section of an orange, for holding 
the vitreous humor. 

The crystalline humor, or lens, is situated behind the pupil, sur- 


rounded by the ciliary processes, and embedded in the front part of 
the vitreous, from which it is separated by the hyaloid membrane. 
The capsule of the lens is an elastic, transparent membrane which sur- 
rounds it. The lens is formed of concentric layers, the external being 
soft, the middle firmer, and the interior still firmer. The canal oj 
Petit is a small triangular channel around the circumference of the lens. 

Uses of the Structures. — The oc ilar group of muscles has al- 
ready been described. 

The firm sclerotic coat gives shape and form to the eye, and protects 
its complicated and delicate tissues. The transparent cornea furnishes 
a medium for the transmission of the rays of light. The choroid sup- 
ports the nutritive vessels, and by the black pigment of its posterior 
surface absorbs the scattered rays of light, that might otherwise con- 
fuse the image impressed on the retina. The iris regulates the quan- 
tity of light admitted through the pupil, by contracting when the rays 
are too strong, and expanding when the light is more feeble. The hu- 
mors refract the rays so as to impress the object on the retina in the 
most favorable manner for distinct vision 


These are the eyebrows, eyelids, eyelashes, conjunctiva, caruncula 
lachrymaiis, and the lachrymal apparatus. 

The eyebrows, called supercilia, are projecting arches of integument 
covered with short thick hairs, forming the upper boundary of the 
orbit of the eye. 

The eyelids, called palpebrce, are valvular layers in front of the eye. 
The elliptical space between is divided into the outer and inner canthus. 
The inner canthus w prolonged into a triangular space toward the nose, 
which is called the lacus lachrymaiis. The lachrymal papilla is a 
small angular projection at the commencement of the lacus lachrymaiis 
on each side, each of which ;iapilla has a small orifice at its apex, called 
punctum lachrymale, and constituting the commencement of the lach- 
rymal canal. The thin, firm, fibro-cartilaginous bands supporting the 
edges of the eyelids are called the tarsal cartilages ; in their internal 
surface are embedded a number of secretiig tubes or follicles, called 
the Meibomian glands. 

The eyelashes, called cilia, are triple rows of long thick hairs, curl 
ing upward from the upper lid, and downward from the lower ; an ar- 
rangement which prevents their interlacing each other. 

The conjunctiva covers the anterior surface of the eye, and is so 
reflected oi: the lids as to form their inner layer. The duplicates 



formed between the globe and lids of the eye are called the superior 
and inferior -palpebral sinuses. 

The caruncula lachrymalis is a small reddish body occupying the 
lacus lachrymalis at the inner canthus. It is composed of an assem- 
blage of mucous follicles, and secretes the whitish matter usually found 
at the inner angle of the eye. On the outer side of the caruncula is 
a fold of the conjunctiva, called plica semilunaris ; this is the mem- 
brana nktitans in birds, and the rudiment of the third lid in animals. 

Fig. 101 is a representation of the appendages Fig. 101. 

of the eye. 1. The superior tarsal cartilage. 2. 
The lower border of the cartilage, on which are 
seen the openings of the Meibomian glands. 3. 
The inferior tarsal cartilage; along the upper 
border of this cartilage tfie openings of the Mei- 
bomian glands are likewise seen. 4. The lachry- 
mal gland — its superior or orbital portion. 5. Its 
inferior or palpebral portion. 6. The lachrymal 
ducts. 7. The plica semilunaris. 8. The carun- 
cula lachrymalis. 9. The puncta lachrymalia of 
the lachrymal canals. 10. The superior lach- 
rymal canal. .11. The inferior lachrymal canal. 
12. The lachrymal sac. 14. The dilatation of the 
nasal duct, where it opens into the inferior meat- 
us of the nose. 15. The nasal duct 

The lachrymal apparatus consists of the lachrymal gland with its 
excretory duct, the puncta lachrymalia, tire lachrymal canals, the lach- 
rymal sac, and the nasal duct. 

The lachrymal gland is situated at the outer and upper part of the 
orbit. It secretes the tears, which are ordinarily conveyed away by 
small ducts which run a short distance between the conjunctiva, and 
then open on its surface a little above the upper border of the tarsal 
cartilages. The lachrym,al canals commence at the puncta lachrymalia 
and run inward to the lachrymal sac. The superior duct first ascends, 
then turning suddenly inward, forms an abrupt angle ; the inferior duct, 
by descending, and then turning abruptly inward, forms a similar angle. 
The lachrymal sac is the upper extremity of the nasal duct. It con- 
sists of a mucous membrane covered by a fibrous expansion of the ten- 
dons of the orbicularis and tensor tarsi muscles. The nasal duct is a 
short canal, three fourths of an inch long, running downward, back- 
ward, and outward to the inferior meatus of the nose, terminating thero 
in an enlarged orifice. 



The auditory apparatus is divided anatomically into the external ear, 
tympanum, or middle ear, and labyrinth, x internal eai . 



Fig. 102. 

,«fff" ,mn "^» i , 


Fig. 102 is a representation of all parts of the em: 1. Meatus auditorius externue. 2. 
Drum of the ear, or tympanum. 3, 4, 5. The bones of the ear. 7. Vestibule, the central 
part of the labyrinth. 8, 9, 10. The semicircular canals. 11, 12. The channels of ths 
cochlea. 13. Auditory nerve. 14. Eustachian tube, the channel from the middle ear to 
the throat. 

The External Ear. — The external ear consists of the pinna, a 
iunnel-shaped cartilaginous plate, which collects the vibrations of air, 
and the meatus, the tube which conveys them to the tympanum. 

The pinna presents several folds and hollows upon its surface ; a 
prominent rim, called helix, a curved ridge within it, called antihelix ; 
this divides above, and encloses a space called scaphoid fossa ; the 
pointed process over the opening of the ear is called tragus ; a tubercle 
opposite antitragus ; the dependent portion of the pinna is the lobulus; 
a space between the helix and antihelix is cfdled fossa innominata; and 
the large central space to which all the channels converge is the concha, 
which opens into the meatus. 

The muscles of the pinna are the major helicis, minor helicis, tragicus, 
antitragicus, and transvcrsus auricula; they are merely rudimentary 
in the human ear, but in many animals are large and active. 

The meatus auditorius is about an inch in length, extending inward 
and a little forward from the concha to the tympanum, and narrower 
in the middle than at either extremity. In the substance of its lining 
membrane are ceraminous glands, which secrete the ear-wax. Short. 



stiff hairs stretch across its interior, to prevent the ingress of insects 
and dust. 

The pinna derives a plentiful supply of arteries from the anterior 
auricular branch of the temporal, and the posterior auricular from the 
carotid. Its nerves are branches derived from the anterior auricular 
of the fifth, the posterior auricular of the facial, and the auricularis 
magnus o_° v he cervical plexus. 

Tympanum. — The middle ear is an irregular bony cavity within the 
petrous portion of the temporal bona. It is bounded externally by the 
membrana timpani, and filled with air, which enters by the Eustachian 

Fig. 103 is a diagram exhibiting the Pig. 103. 

principal divisions and parts of the ear. 
p. Pinna, t. Tympanum. I. Labyrinth. 

I. Upper part of the helix. 2. Antihclix. 
3. Tragus. 4. Antitragus. 5. Lobulus. 
6. Concha. 7. Upper part of the fossa 
innomiuata. 8. The meatus. 9. Mem- 
brana tympani, divided by the section. 
10. The thi'ee small bones of the ear, 
malleus, incus, and stapes, crossing the 
area of the tympanum ; the foot of the 
stapes blocks up the fenestra ovalis 
upon the inner wall of the tympanum. 

II. The promontory. 12. Fenestra 
rotunda; the dark opening above the 
bones leads into the mastoid cells. 13. 
Eustachian tube ; the little canal upon 
this tube contains the tensor tympani 
muscle in its passage to the tympanum. 
14. Vestibule. 15. The three semicir- 
cular canals, horizontal, perpendicular, 
and oblique. 16. The ampullae upon 
the perpendicular and horizontal ca- 
nals. 17. Cochlea. 18. A depression 
between the convexities of the two 
tubuli which communicate with the 
tympanum and vestibule ; one is the Bcala tympani, terminating at 12 ; the other the 
scala vestibuli. 


The membrana tympani is a thin, semi-transparent membrane, 
placed obliquely across the meatus, concave externally and convex 
toward the tympanum, and composed of an external epidermal, a mid- 
dle muscular, and an internal mucous coat. 

The proper bones of the ear (ossicula auditHs), viz., malleus, incus, 
and stapes, are contained in the tympanum. Tho malleus (hammer- 
like) consists of a head, neck, and handle called mcnubrivm, which is 


connected with tie membrana fympani by its whole length. The incus 
has an imagined resemblance to an anvil, from which circumstance its 
name is derived ; it consists of a flattened body and two processes ; its 
body articulates with the head of the malleus. The stapes is shaped 
like a stirrup ; its head articulates with a process of the incus called 
os orbiculare. These bones are connected together and held in their 
places by various ligaments, and moved upon themselves by four mus- 
cles, called tenso, tympani, laxator tympani, laxator tympani minor, 
and stapedius. 

There are ten foramina, or openings, in the tympanum, five large 
and five small. The large openings are, meatus auditorius, already 
described ; fenestra ovalis, communicating between the tympanum and 
vestibule ; fenestra rotunda, communicating between the vestibule and 
cochlea ; a large, irregular opening by which the mastoid cells commu- 
nicate with the upper and posterior circumference of the tympanum ; 
and the Eustachian tube, a communicating canal between the tympa- 
num and pharynx. The small openings are two for the entrance and 
exit of the chorda tympani ; one situated in a fissure called Glasseri, for 
the laxator tympani ; one immediately above the opening of the 
Eustachian tube, for the tensor tympani ; and one for the stapedius, at 
the apex of a conical body called the pyramid. Above the fenestra 
ovalis is a rounded ridge formed by a projection of the aqueeductus 
Fallopii. Beneath the fenestra ovalis is the promontory formed by 
a projection of the first turn of the cochlea, the surface of which pre- 
sents three grooves for lodging the tympanic branches of Jacobson's 

The arteries of the tympanum are derived from the internal maxil- 
lary, internal carotid, and posterior auricular. Its nerves are branches 
from the facial, the chorda tympani, the tympanic branches of Jacob- 
son's, and a filament from the otic ganglion. 

The Internal Ear. — The term labyrinth is applied to the internal 
ear on account of the complexity of its communications. It consists of 
a bony and a membranous portion. The osseous labyrinth presents a 
series of cavities channeled through the substance of the petrous bone, 
and is situated between the cavity of the tympanum and meatus audi- 
torius internus. It is divided into vestibule, semicircular canals, and 

The vestibule is a small, three-cornered cavity within the inner Avail 
of the tympanum ; its corners are called cornua, or ventricles. The 
semicircular canals open into it by five orifices behind, and the cochloa 
by a single one in 1 1 int. The fenestra :valis is on its outer wall, and 



on its inner several small holes, a cluster of which is called macula 
cribrosa, for the entrance of a portion of the auditory nerve. The 
scala vestibuli is the termination of the vestibular canal of the cochlea. 
The aqueeductus vestibuli is the commencement of the small canal 
which opens under the osseous scale upon the posterior surface of the 
petrous bone. 

The semicircular canals are three bony channels, communicating 
with the vestibule into which they open by both extremities, each ex- 
tremity being expanded like a flask, and called ampulla. 

The cochlea (snail-shell) forms the anterior part of the labyrinth. It 
is a tapering, osseous canal, one inch and a half in length; and makes 
two turns and a half spirally around a central axis, called the modiolus, 
which is a porous mass of bone perforated by numerous filaments of 
the cochlear nerve. The canal of the cochlea is partially divided into 
two passages (scala) by a thin, porous plate of bone, called lamina 
spiralis, which terminates at the apex with a hook-shaped process 
called hamulus ; this is covered by the cupola. The two scalre com- 
municate over the hamulus by an opening called helicotrema. Near 
the termination of the scala tympani is the small opening of the cochlear 
aqueduct. The internal surface of the osseous labyrinth is lined by a 
fibro-serous membrane, which exteriorly serves as a periosteum, and 
internally as a serous membrane, secreting a limpid fluid called aqua 

Fig. 104 shows the cochlea divided paral- 
lel with its axis through the centre of the 
modiolus. 1. Modiolus. 2. The infundibu- 
lum. 3, 3. Cochlear nerve. 4, 4. The scala 
tympani of the first turn of the cochlea. 5, 
5. Scala vestibuli of the first turn ; the sep- 
tum between 4 and 5 is the lamina spiralis. 
8. Loops formed by filaments of the cochlear 
nerve on the lamina spinalis. 9, 9. Scala 
tympani of the second turn of the cochlea. 

10, 10. Scala vestibuli of the second turn. 

11. Half turn of the scala vestibuli ; the dome 
over it is the cupola. 14. Helicotrema; a 
bristle is passed through it, in front of which 
is the hamulus. 

Fig. 104 


The membranous labyrinth is in form a perfect counterpart of the 
vestibule and semicircular canals, but smaller in size. In structure it is 
composed of four layers ; an external, or serous, a vascular, a nervous, 
and an internal, or serous. Its cavity is filled with a limpid fluid, and 
contains two small ca careous masses, called otoconites ; and it consists 



of a small sac, sacculus communis, of three semicircular membranous 
canals, and a small round sac, sacculus proprius. 

Fig. 105. 


Fig. 105 is the labyrinth of the left ear, laid 
open to exhibit its cavities and the membranous 
labyrinth. 1. Cavity of the vestibule. 2. Am- 
pulla of the superior semicircular canal. 4. The 
superior canal, with its contained membranous 
canal. 5. Ampulla of the inferior canal. 6. Ter- 
mination of the membranous canal of the hori- 
zontal semicircular canal in the sacculus com- 
munis. Ampulla of the middle semicircular 
canal, h. The same canal with its membranous 
canal. 9. Common canal. 10. Membranous 
common canal. 11. Otoconite of the sacculus 
communis. 12. Sacculus proprius ; its otoconite 
is seen through its membranous parieties. 13. 
First turn of the v >chlea. 14. Extremity of the 
scala tympani, corresponding with the fenestra 
rotunda. 15. Lamina spiralis. 18. Half turn of 
the cochlea. 19. Lamina spiralis, terminating in 
its falciform extremity. The dark space included 
within the falciform curve of the extremity of 
the lamina spiralis is the helicotrema. 20. The 

The auditory nerve divides, in the meatus auditorius interims, into a 
vestibular and a cochlear branch. The vestibular nerve divides into 
three branches, which are distributed to the various parts ; in the sub- 
stance of the sacculi and ampulla the nervous filaments radiate in all 
directions, anastomosing with each other, and forming interlacements 
and loops, finally terminating upon the inner surface of the membrane 
in minute papillae, resembling those of the retina. The auditory nerve 
divides into numerous filaments, which enter the foramina in the base 
of the cochlea, and are distributed to the tissue of the lamina spiralis. 
The arteries of the labyrinth are derived mainly from the auditory 
branch of the superior cerebellar artery. 


The tongue is composed of longitudinal, transverse, oblique, and 
vertical muscular fibres, between which is a quantity of adipose sub- 
stance ; it is connected posteriorly with the os hyoides by a muscular 
attachment ; and to the epiglottis by mucous membrane, which forms 
the three folds called freena epiglottidis ; and on each side with the 
lower jaw by the same membrane, which forms a fold in front beneath 
its under surface, called frcenum linguee. 

The surface of the tongue is covered by a dens< layer, which sup- 



ports its papilla, of which there are four kinds. 1. Papilla circum- 
vallatce, or lenticular, are of large size, and fifteen or twenty in number, 
situated near the root, and arranged in two rows, which meet at the 
middle line, like the branches of the letter A. At their point of meet- 
ing is a deep mucous follicle, called foramen ceecum. 2 and 3. Papilla 
conictz and papillae, conical and filiform in shape, cover the sur- 
face of the tongue in front of the circumvallatse ; their extremities are 
pierced by a minute aperture, hence they may be regarded as follicles 
rather than sentient points, the true sentient organs being extremely 
minute papilla? occupying their surface as well as that of the other 
papillae. 4. Papilla fun giformes, or capitatte, are larger than the for- 
mer, have rounded heads, and are irregularly dispersed over the dorsum 
of the tongue ; a number of these are seen at the tip. 

Behind the papilla?, at the root of the tongue, are a number of mu- 
wus glands. 

Fig. 106. 
The tongue and its papillae are seen in Fig. 106. 1. The 
raphe, which sometimes bifurcates in the dorsum, as in 
the figure 2, 2. Lobt'3 of the tongue ; the rounded emi- 
nences on this part of the organ and near its tip are the 
fungiform papilla} ; the smaller papillae, among which the 
former are dispersed, are the conical and filiform papillae. 
3. Tip of the tongue. 4, 4. Its sides, on which the papil- 
lae are arranged in fringed and lamellated forms. 5, 5. 
TheA-shaped row of papillae circumvallatae. 6. Foramen 
.;cecum. 7. Mucous glands at the root of the tongue. 8. 
Epiglottis. 9, 9. Fraena epiglottidie. 10, 10. Greater cor- 
nua of the hyoid bone. 

The tongue is abundantly supplied with 
blood by the lingual arteries. Its nerves are 
of large size, and three in number. The 
nerve of common sensation and taste is the 
gustatory branch of the fifth pair, which is 
distributed to the papillae ; the glossopharyn- 
geal supplies the mucous membrane, follicles, 
and glands, and is a nerve of sensation and 
motion ; the hypo-glossal is the principal motor 
nerve, distributed to the muscles. The chorda THE T0NGUE - 

tympani, sent from the facial nerve to the lingualis muscle, must be 
added to the motor influence. 


The skin, which is continuous with the mucous membrane of the 
internal cavities, is composed of two layers— dern,i and epidermu. 


The derma, or cutis (true skin), is chiefly composed of elastic eel 
lulo-fibrous tissue, abundantly supplied with blood-vessels, lymphatics, 
and nerves. It is divided into a deep stratum, called corium, the struc- 
ture of which is dense, white, and coarse, forming a network of chan- 
nels, by which the branches of vessels and nerves pass to the super- 
ficial layer ; and a superficial stratum, called papillary, which is raised 
in the form of papillae, or conical prominences, each being composed 
of a convoluted capillary vesse' and a convoluted nervous loop. 

Fig. 107 Fig. 107 shows the anatomy of a portion of the skin 

taken from the palm of the hand. 1. Papillary layer, 
marked by longitudinal furrows (2), which arrange the 
papilla? into ridges. 3. Transverse furrows, which divide 
the ridges into small quadrangular clumps. 4. The rete 
mucosum raisec from the papillary layer and turned 
back. 5, 5. Perspiratory ducts drawn out straight by the 
separation of the rete mucosum from the papillary layer. 


The epiderma, or cuticle (scarf-skin), en- 
velops and protects the derma, of which it is 
a. product. Its external surface is hard and 
horny, its internal soft and cellular; this sur- 
face or layer is called the rete mucosum. The 
whole epidermal structure is laminated, the 
plates or scales increasing in density from the inner to the outer 

The pores of the epiderma are the openings of the perspiratory 
ducts, hair follicles, and sebiparous glands. The arteries of the derma 
divide into innumerable intermediate vessels, forming a capillaiy plexus 
in the superficial strata and papillary layer. No lymphatics have been 
discovered in the papillae, but they are supposed to be interwoven with 
the capillary and mucous plexuses in the superficial strata of the derma. 

Appendages of the Skin. — These are the nails, hair, sebiparous 
glands, and perspiratory glands and ducts. 

The nails are a part of the epiderma, and identical in structure ; 
they ai-e implanted in a fold of the derma, called matrix, which acts 
the part of a follicle ; at the bottom of the groove of the follicle are a 
number of filiform papilla?, which produce the margin of the root, and, 
by the successive formation of new cells, push the nail onward in its 
growth. The concave surface of the nail is in contact with the derma, 
and the latter is covered by papillae, which detain the nail in place, and 
increase its thickness by the addition of newly-formed cells on its under 



Fig. 108. 


In Fig. 108 are seen — 1. The epiderma. 
2. Its deep layer, the rete mucosum. 3. 
Two of the quadrangular papillary clumps 
composed of minute conical papillae, such 
as arc seen in the pa-lm of the hand or sole 
of the foot. 4. Deep layer of the derma, 
the corium. 5. Adipose cells. 6. A su- 
doriparous gland with its spiral duct, as 
are seen in the palm of the hand and sole 
of the foot. 7. Another sudoriparous 
gland with a straighter duct, such as is 
seen in the scalp. 8. Two hairs from the 
scalp, enclosed in their follicles ; their 
relative depth in the skin is preserved. 
9. A pair of sebiparous glands, opening 
by short ducts into the follicle of the hair. 

The hairs are horny append- 
ages, produced by the involution 
of the epiderma, constituting the 
follicle, and subsequent evolution 
of the same structure, constitu- 
ting the shaft of the hair. Hairs 
nre variable in length and thick- 
ness in different parts of the body. Their free extremity is generally 
pointed, and sometimes split into filaments ; the central extremity, called 
the bulb, is implanted deeply in the integument, extending through the 
epiderma into the cellular tissue, where it is suirounded by adipose 
cells. The hair is formed from its follicle by a process identical with 
the formation of the epiderma by the papillary layer of the derma. 

The color of the hair, and also of the epiderma, is owing to the 
ooloration of the primitive granules, of which the cells are composed. 

The sebiparous glands, which are embedded in the derma, are sac- 
culated glandular bodies, of a complex variety of structure, from a 
pouch-like follicle to a lobulated gland. In some situations their ex- 
cretory ducts open on the surface of the epiderma, and in others they 
terminate in the follicles of the hairs. In the meatus auditorius the 
sebiparous glands, called ceruminous, are large, and in the eyelids are 
the largest in the body, and are there called Meibomian. 

The sudoriparous glands are deeply situated in the corium and sub- 
cutaneous tissue, and surrounded by areolar tissue. They are small 
oblong bodies, composed of convoluted tubuli, or a congeries of globu- 
lar sacs, opening in a common efferent duct, which ascends through 
the derma and epiderma, and terminates on the surface by an oblique 
funnel-shaped aperture or pore 





Fig. 109. 

Those organs of the 
body called viscera, occupy 
three great internal cavi- 
ties, the cranio - spinal, 
thorax, and abdomen. The 
first is occupied by the 
brain and spinal marrow 
already described ; the 
thoracic cavity, or chest, 
contains the heart, lungs, 
and thymus gland ; the 
abdominal cavity prop- 
er contains the stomach 
and intestines, liver, pan- 
creas, spleen, kidneys, 
and supra-renal capsules: 
and its lower portion, call- 
ed the pelvis, contains the 
bladder and internal organs 
of generation. 

The relative situation of 
the principal viscera may 
be seen in Fig. 109. 

A. Heart. B, B. Lungs. C. 
Liver. D. Stomach. E Spleen. 
m, m. Kidneys, g. Bladder, d 
is the diaphragm which forma 
the partition between the thorax 
and abdomen. Under the latter 
is the cardiac orifice of the 
stomach, and at the right ex- 
tremity, or pit of the stomach, 
Is the pyloric orifice. 



The Hkart. — The heart, which is the central organ of circulation, 


is a strong, muscular organ, enclosed in a proper membrane, called 
pericardium, and situated between two layers of pleura, which consti- 
tute the mediastinum. 

The pericardium (heart-case) consists of an external fibrous and an 
internal serous layer. 

The heart is placed oblique between the lungs, with its apex pointing 
to the space between the fifth and sixth ribs, two or three inches from 
the sternum on the left side. It consists of two auricles, right and left, 
and two ventricles, also right and left. The right is the venous, and 
the left the arterial side of the heart. 

The right auricle is larger than the left ; its interior, called sinus, 
presents five openings and two valves. 

The openings are : the superior cava, which pours the venous blood 
from the upper part of the body into its upper part ; the inferior cava, 
which returns the blood of the lower half of the body into its lower 
part ; the coronary vein, which return's the blood from the substance 
of the heart; the foramina lliebeseii, small pore-like openings through 
which the venous blood oozes from the muscular structure into the 
auricles; and auriculo-ventricular, the communication between the 
auricle and ventricle. 

The valves are : the Eustachian, which belongs to the foetal circula- 
tion, and serves to direct the placental blood from the inferior cava 
through the foramen ovale into the left auricle ; and the coronary, a 
semilunar fold across the mouth of the coronary vein. 

There are two relicts of the fdtal structure, the annulus ovalis, situ- 
ated on the partition (septum arcularium) between the two auricles, 
occupying the place of the foramen ovale of the foetus ; and the fossa 
ovalis, an oval depression corresponding with the foetal foramen ovale, 
and closed at birth by a thin valvular layer. 

The proper structure of the auricle is divided into an intervening 
portion between the openings of the cavas, called tuberculum Loweri, 
and numerous small parallel columns of muscular fibres situated in the 
appendix auricula. 

The right ventricle receives the venous blood from the right auricle, 
and transmits it to the lungs. Its anterior side is convex the greater 
proportion of the front of the heart ; its posterior and lower side is flat, 
resting upon the diaphragm. It contains two openings, two sets of 
valves, and a muscular and tendinous structure. 

The openings are, the auricular ventricular, the communication be- 
tween the right auricle and ventricle; and the opening of the pulmo- 
nary artery, which is situated close to the septum between the ventricles. 

The mires are, the tricuspid, three triangular folds of the lining 


A N A T M Y. 

membrane, strengthened by a layer of fibrous tissue, connected by 
their base around the auriculo-ventricular opening, and prevent the 
regurgitation of blood into the auricle during the contraction of the 
ventricle ; and the semilunar, three in number, situated around tho 
commencement of the pulmonary artery. 

The muscular and tendinous apparatus belongs to the tricuspid valves 
It consists of thick muscular columns (columnce camcce), and their ten- 
dons (chorda tendineee), which stand }ut from the walls of the ventri 
cles, and serve as muscles to the valves. 

The left auricle receives the arterial blond from the lungs ; it is 
smaller and thicker than the right. It has four openings for the pul- 
monary veins, two from the right and two from the left lung ;• and an 
auriculo-ventricular opening, which communicates between it and the 
left ventricle. Its musculi pectinati are fewer in number than in the 
right auricle, and are situated only in the appendix auriculae. 

The left ventricle, which receives the blood from the left auricle 
and sends it through the aorta, forms the apex of the heart ; its figure 
is conical externally and internally. Its openings are, the auriculo- 
ventricular, between the auricle and ventricle, and the aortic. Its 
valves are the mitral, attached around the auriculo-ventricular commu- 
nication to prevent the retrograde passage of the blood, and, like the 
tricuspid, are furnished with a muscular apparatus; and the semiluncer 
placed around the commencement of the aorta. 


Artery and arch of the ai/rta. 
the right side of the heart. 

Fig. HO is a general view of the inter- 
nal structure of the heart. 1. Right 
auricle. 2. Entrance of the superior 
cava. 3. Entrance of the inferior cava. 
4. Opening of the coronary vein, half- 
closed by the valve. 5. Eustachian 
valve. 6. Fossa ovalis, surrounded by 
the annulus ovalis. 7. Tuberculum 
Loweri. 8. Musculi pectinati in the 
appendix auriculas. 9. Auriculo-ven- 
tricular opening. 10. Cavity of right 
ventricle. 11. Tricuspid valve, attached 
by the chords tendinse to the carnees 
columns (12). 13. The pulmonary ar- 
tery, guarded at its commencement by 
three semilunar valves. 14. Right pul- 
monary artery, passing beneath tho 
arch and behind the ascending aorta. 
15. Left pulmonary artery, crossing in 
front of the descending aorta. * Re- 
mains of the ductus anteriosus, acting 
as a ligament between the pulmonary 
The arrows mark the course of the venous blood through 
16. I/pft auricle. 17. Openings of the fourth pulmonary 



veins. 18. Auriculo-ventricular opening. 19. Left ventricle. 20. Mitral valve, attached 
by its chordze tendinaj to two large columnar carnese, which project from the walls of 
the ventricle. 21. Commencement and course of the ascending aorta behind the pul- 
monary artery, marked by an arrow ; the entrance of the vessels is guarded by three 
semilunar valves. 22. Arch of the aorta. The comparative thickness of the two ventri- 
cles is shown in the diagram. The course of the blood through the left side of the heart 
is denoted by arrows. 

The general structure of the neart is an arrangement of strong 
muscular fibres, disposed in several layers, so as to form fibrous rings 
and bands, which afford it the greatest possible amount of strength for 
its bulk. Its arteries are the anterior and posterior coronary ; its veins 
empty into the right auricle bj the common coronnry ; its lymphatics 
terminate in the glands about its root ; and its nerves are derived from 
the cardiac plexus- 
es, which are form- 
ed by communica- 
ting filaments from 
the ganglionic and 

Fig, 111 is an external 
view of the heart, a. 
Left ventricle, b. Right 
ventricle, c, e, /. Aorta 
arising from the left ven- 
tricle, g. Arteria inno- 
minata. h. Left subcla 
vian artery, i. Left ca- 
rotid, k. Pulmonary ar- 
tery. I, I. Its right and 
left branches. m, m. 
Veins of the lungs, n. 
Right auricle. o. As- 
cending cava. q. De- 
scending cava. r. Left 
auricle, s. Left coronary 
artery. P. Portal veins, 
which return the blood 
from the liver and bow- 



The cartilaginous and muscular structure at the upper part of the 
windpipe, called the larynx, constitutes the apparatus of voice ; the 
and trachea are the organs of respiration. 


The larynx is a short tuh«. of an hour-glass form, situated at the 

208 ANY X M Y. 

upper and front part of the neck, composed of cartilages, ligaments, 
muscles, vessels, nerves, and mucous membrane. 

The cartilages are : 1. Thyroid (shield-like), which consists of two 
lateral portions (alee) meeting at an angle in front, and forming the pro- 
jecting part of the throat, called pomum Adami (Adam's fipple). Each 
ala forms a rounded border posteriorly, which terminates above in a 
superior cornu, and below in an inferior comu. 2. Cricoid (like a ring), 
a circular ring, narrow in front and broad behind, where it has two 
rounded surfaces, which articulate with the arytenoid cartilages. The 
oesophagus is attached to a vertical ridge on its posterior surface. 3. 
Two arytenoid (pitcher-like) ; triangular in form, and broad and thick 
below, where they articulate with the upper border of the cricoid ; 
above they are pointed and prolonged by two small pyriform cartilages, 
called cornicula laryngis, which form part of the lateral wall of the 
larynx, and afford attachment to the chorda vocalis and several of the 
articulating muscles. 4. Two cuneiform ; small cylinders, about seven 
lines in length, and enlarged at each extremity ; they are attached by 
the lower end to the arytenoid, and their upper extremity forms a 
prominence on the border of the aryteno-epiglottidean fold of mem- 
brane; they are occasionally wanting. 5. Epiglottis; shaped like a 
cordate leaf, and situated immediately in front of the opening of the 
larynx, which it closes when the larynx is drawn up beneath the base 
of the tongue, as in the act of swallowing. The laryngeal cartilages 
ossify more or less in old age, particularly in the male. 

The ligaments are: 1. Three thyro-hyoidean, which connect the 
thyroid cartilage with the os hyoides. 2. Two capsular crico-thyroid, 
which articulate the thyroid with the cricoid, and with their synovial 
membranes from the articulation between the inferior cornu and sides 
of the cricoid. 3. The crico- thyroidean membrane, a fan-shaped layer 
of elastic tissue, attached by its apex to the lower border of the thy- 
roid, and by its expanded margin to the upper border of the cricoid and 
base of the aiytenoid ; above it is continuous with the lower margin of 
the chorda vocalis. 4. Two capsular crico- arytenoid, which connect 
those cartilages. 5. Two superior thyro-arytenoid, thin bands between 
the receding angle of the thyroid and the anterior inner border of each 
arytenoid ; the lower border constituting the upper boundary of the 
ventricle of the larynx. 6. Two inferior thyro-arytenoid, the chorda 
vocales, which are thicker than the superior, and, like them, composed 
of elastic tissue. Each ligament, or vocal chord, is attached in front to 
the receding angle of the thyroid, and behind to the anterior angle of 
the base of the arytenoid. The inferior border of the chorda vocalis 
is continuous with the lateral expansion of the crico-thyroid ligament. 



The superior border forms the lower boundary of the ventricle of the 
larynx. The space between the two chordae vocales is the glottis, or 
r'nna glottidis. 7. Three glosso-epi glottic, folds of mucous membrane 
connecting the anterior surface of the epiglottis with the root of the 
tongue. 8. The hyo-epiglottic, an elastic baud connecting the anterior 
aspect of the epiglottis with the hyoid bone. 9. The thyro- epiglottic, 
a slender elastic slip embracing the apex of the epiglottis, and inserted 
into the thyroid above the chordae vocales. 

Fig. 112 is a vertical section of the larynx, showing Fig. 112. 

its ligaments. 1. Body of the 03 hyoides. 2. Its great 
cornu. 3. Its lesser cornu. 4. The ala of the thyroid. 
5. Its superior cornu. 0. Its inferior cornu. 7. Pomum 
Adami. 8, 8. Thyro-hyoidean membrane ; the opening 
near the posterior numeral transmits the superior 
laryngeal nerve and artery. 9. Thyro-hyoidean liga- 
ment, a. Epiglottis, b. Hypo-epiglottic ligament, c. 
Thyroepiglottic, d. Arytenoid cartilage, e. Outer 
angle of its base. /. Corniculum laryngis. £-. Cuneiform 
cartilage, h. Superior thyro-arytenoid ligament, i. 
Chorda vocalis, or inferior thyroarytenoid ; the ellipti- 
cal space between the two thyro-arytenoid is the laryn- 
geal ventricle, k. Cricoid cartilage. I. Lateral portion 
of the crico-thyroidean membrane, m. Its central por- 
tion. 11. Upper ring of the trachea, which is received 
within the ring of the cricoid cartilage. 0. Section of 
the isthmus of the thyroid gland, p, p. The levator of 
the glandulse thyroidese 

The muscles are eight in number : five 
larger ones of the chorda? vocales and glottis, 
and three smaller of the epiglottis. The 
origin, insertion, and use of each is expressed ligaments of the lahynx. 
by its name. They are the crico- thyroid, posterior 
and lateral crico-arytenoid, thyro-arytenoid, aryte- 
noid, thyro-epiglottic, and superior and inferior ary- 
teno- epiglottic. The posterior crico-arytenoid opens 
the glottis; the arytenoid approximates the aryte- 
noid cartilages posteriorly, and the crico-arytenoi- 
deus lateralis and thyro-arytenoidei anteriorly ; the 

Fig. 113 is a side view of the larynx, one ala of the thyroid 
cartilage being removed. 1. Remaining ala. 2. One of the 
arytenoid cartilages. 3. One of the cornicula laryngis. 4. Cri- 
coid cartilage. 5. Posterior crico- arytenoid muscle. 6. Crico- 
arytenoideus lateralis. 7. Thyro-arytenoid sus. 8. Crico-thy- 
roidean membrane. 9. One half of the ep jlottis. 10. Upper THE LARYNX I.AT- 
pait of the trachea. EHALLT, 

Fig. 113. 


latter also close the glottis mesially. The crico-thyroidei are tensors 
of the vocal chords, and with the thyro-arytenoidei, regulate their posi- 
tion and vibrating length. The remaining muscles assist in regulating 
the tension of the vocal chords by varying the position of theii 

The aperture of the laiynx is a triangular opening, broad in front 
and narrow behind; bounded in front by the epiglottis, behind by the 
arytenoid muscle, and on the sides by folds of mucous membrane. The 
cavity is divided into two parts by an oblong constriction produced by 
the prominence of the vocal chords ; the part above the constriction is 
broad above and narrow below, and the part beneath is narrow above 
and broad below ; while the space included by the constriction is a 
narrow, triangular fissure, the glottis, bounded fin the sides by the 
chordae vocales and inner surface of the arytenoid caitilages, and behind 
by the arytenoid muscle ; it is nearly an inch in length, somewhat 
longer in the male than female. Immediately above the prominence 
caused by the chorda vocalis, and extending nearly its length on each 
Bide of the cavity of the larynx is the ventricle of the larynx, an. ellipti- 
cal fossa which serves to isolate the chord. 

The mucous membrane lines the entire cavity of the larynx, its 
prominences and depressions, and is continuous with that of the mouth 
and pharynx, which is prolonged through the trachea and bronchial 
tubes into the lungs. In the ventricles of the larynx the membrane 
forms a caecal pouch, called sacculus laryngis, on the surface of which 
are the openings of numerous follicular glands, whose secretion lubri- 
cates the vocal chords. 

The arteries of the larynx are derived from the superior and inferior 
thyroid ; the nerves are the superior laryngeal and recurrent laryngeal 
branches of the pneumogastric. 


The trachea (windpipe) commences opposite the fifth cervical verte- 
bra, and extends to the third dorsal, where it divides into the right and 
left bronchi, the right bronchus passing off to the upper part of the 
right lung at nearly right angles, and the left, which is smaller, descend- 
ing obliquely beneath the arch of the aorta of the left lung. 

It is composed of fifteen to twenty cartilaginous rings, which form 
the anterior two thirds of its cylinder ; fibrous membrane, which forms 
the posterior third of the tube ; mucous membrane, which lines it inter- 
nally; longitudinal elastic fibres, situated beneath the mucous mem 
brane ; and muscular fibres, which form a thin, transverse layer betw*,J 
the extremities of the .arulages ; tl eir posterior surface is covered by 



cellular tissue, in which are lodged the tracheal glands, which secrete 
the lubricating mucus. 


In structure this body is composed of a dense aggregation of minute 
independent membranous cavities, enclosed by a plexus of capillary 
vessels, and connected by cellular tissue. The cavities are filled with 
cyto-blasts and cells. It is situated upon the trachea, above the sternum, 
being divided into two lobes, one of which is placed on each side ; the 
connection between the lobes is called the isthmus. This gland is 
larger in children and females than in adults and males. It is profusely 
supplied with blood by the superior and inferior thyroid arteries ; its 
nerves are derived from the superior laryngeal and sympathetic. The 
function of this organ is entirely unknown. Its enlargement constitutes 
the disease called goitre, or bronchocele. 


Fig. 114. 

Fig. 114 represents the 
anterior aspect of the 
anatomy of the heart and 
lungs. 1. Right ventri- 
cle; the vessels to the 
left of the number are the 
middle coronary artery 
and veins. 2. Left ven- 
tricle. 3. Right auricle. 
4. Left auricle. 5. Pul- 
monary artery. 6. Right 
pulmonary artery. 7. 
Left pulmonary artery. 
8. Remains of the ductus 
arteriosus. 9. Aortic arch. 
10. Superior cava. 11. Ar- 
teria innominata ; in front 
of it is the right vena inno- 
minata. 12. Right subcla- 
vian vein; behind it is its 
corresponding artery . 13. 
Right common carotid 
artery and vein. 14. Left 
vena innominata. 15. 
Left carotid artery and 
vein. 16. Left subclavian 
artery and vein. 17. Trachea. 18. Right bronchus. 19. Left bronchus. 20, 20. Pul- 
monary veins ; 18, 20, from the root of the right lung ; and 7, 19, 20, the root of the left, 
21. Upper lobe of right lung. 22. Its middle lobe. 23. Its inferior lobe. 24. Superior 
lobe of left lung. 25. Its lower lobe. 


The lungs are two conical organs occupying the cavity of the chest 


on each side of the heart, from which they are separated by a mem- 
branous partition, the mediastinum. They are tapering above, where 
they extend beyond the level of the first rib, and broad and concave 
below, where they rest on the convex surface of the diaphragm. Their 
color is pinkish-gray, variously mottled and marked with black. Each 
lung is divided into two lobes by a long, deep fissure, and in the right 
lung the upper lobe is subdivided by a second fissure. 

The root of each lung, which retains it in position, comprises the 
pulmonary artery and veins, and bronchial tubes, with the bronchial 
vessels and pulmonary plexuses of nerves. 

The structure of the lungs is composed of ramifications of the bron- 
chial tubes, terminating in intercellular passages and air-cells, and the 
ramifications of the pulmonary artery and vein, bronchial arteries and 
veins, lymphatics and nerves, the whole held together by cellular tis- 
sue, and called the parenchyma. 

The bronchial tubes, on entering the lungs, divide into two branches, 
»ud each of these divide and subdivide until lost in intercellular pas- 
sages, and these, after several bifurcations, ultimately terminate by a 
caecal extremity, which is the air-cell. The structure of the bronchial 
tubes is changed from cartilaginous to membranous after they have 
arrived within one eighth of an inch of the surface of the lung, and 
diminished to a diameter between one thirtieth and one fiftieth of an 

The pulmonary artery, which transmits the venous blood to the 
lungs, terminates in a minute network of capillary vessels, distributed 
through the walls of the air-passages and air-cells; these converge to 
form the pulmonary veins, which return the arterial blood to the heart. 
The lymphatics of the substance and surface of the lungs terminate 
in the bronchial glands. 

The nerves, derived from the ganglionic and pneumogastric, form 
anterior and posterior plexuses upon the front and back of the root of 
the lungs, from which branches follow the course of the bronchial 
tubes to supply the intercellular passages and air-cells. 


Each lung is invested and sustained by the pleura, a serous mem- 
brane, which invests it as far as the root, and is then reflected upon the 
sides of the chest and across the diaphragm. The part enclosing the 
lung is called pleura pulmonalis, and that in contact with the parieties 
of the chest, the pleura costalis ; the two reflected portions in the 
middle of the chest form a septum, caller! mediastinum, which divides 
the thorax into two pulmonary cavities; this portion is distinguished 

8 1' L A X C II N LOG Y. 213 

nto anterior, posterior, and middle portions, the latter containing the 
heart and its pericardium, the ascending aorta, the superior vena cava, 
the bifurcation of the trachea, the pulmonary arteries and veins, and 
the phrenic nerves. 


The abdominal cavity is bounded above by the diaphragm, below by 
the pelvis, in front and laterally by the lower ribs and abdominal mus- 
cles, and behind by the vertebral column and abdominal muscles; it 
contains the alimentary canal, liver, pancreas, spleen, and kidneys, with 
the supra-renal capsules. 

Abdominal Regions. — For convenience the abdominal cavity is 
divided into nine regions, by two transverse lines around the body, one 
parallel with the inferior convexity of the ribs, and the other with the 
highest points of the crests of the ilia ; and two perpendicular lines, 
one at each side, drawn from the cartilage of the eighth rib to the 
middle of Poupart's ligament; the central region of the upper zone is 
called the epigastric, and its lateral divisions right and left hypochon- 
driac ; the middle region of the middle zone is the umbilical, the two 
lateral the lumbar ; the middle of the lower zone is the hypogastric, 
and the two lateral the iliac. In the upper zone is found the liver, ex- 
tending from the right to the left side ; the stomach and spleen on the 
left, and the pancreas and duodenum behind ; in the middle zone the 
transverse colon, upper part of the ascending and descending colon, 
omentum, small intestine, mesentery, and, behind, the kidneys and 
supra-renal capsules. In the lower zone is the inferior portion of the 
omentum and small intestine, the csecum, ascending and descending 
colon with the sigmoid flexure, and the ureters. 

The peritoneum is the serous membrane of the abdominal cavity ; it 
invests each viscus separately, and is then reflected upon the surround- 
ing parieties, enclosing the whole in a sac. The diaphragm is lined by 
two layers, which, descending to the upper surface of the liver, form 
its coronary and lateral ligaments ; and, after surrounding the liver and 
meeting at its under surface, pass to the stomach, forming the lesser 
omentum. After surrounding the stomach they descend in front of the 
intestines, forming the great omentum; they then surround the trans- 
verse colon, and pass backward to the spine, forming the meso-colon, 
where the layers separate. The posterior ascends in front of the pan- 
creas and aorta to the diaphragm; the anterior descends, and, after 
investing all the small intestines, returns to the spine, thus forming the 
mesentery. Descending into the pelvis, it forms the meso-rectum, and 
a pouch called the recto-vesical fold, between the rectum and bladder; 

214 ANA T M Y. 

it then ascends upon th6 neck of the bladder, forming its false liga- 
ments, and returns upon the front walls of the abdomen to the dia- 

Fig. 115. 


Fig. 115 exhibits the abdominal cavity, with the intestines mostly removed. L. irfvef 
turned up to show its under surface. G. Gallbladder. P. Pancreas. K. Kidneys. S. 
Spleen. A. Descending aorta. V V. Ascending vena cava. R. Rectum. B. Bladder. 


In the female it is reflected on the posterior surface of the vagina 
and both surfaces of the uterus, forming on each side the broad liga- 
ment of the latter viscus. 

The great omentum consists of four layers, the two which descend 
from the stomach again returning upon themselves to the transverse 
colon ; a quantity of adipose matter is deposited around the vessels 
which ramify through it. Its function is to protect the intestines from 
cold and friction, and facilitate their movements upon each other in 
their peristaltic action. 

The mesentery retains the small intestines in their places, and gives 
passage to the mesenteric arteries, veins, nerves, and lymphatics. 

There are small, irregular pouches of the peritoneal membrane, 
filled with fat, and situated like fringes upon the large intestines, which 
are called appendices epploicce. The gastro-phrenic ligament is a du- 
pficature extending from the diaphragm to the lesser curve of the 
stomach and extremity of the oesophagus ; the gastro-splenic omentum 
is a duplicature connecting the stomach and spleen. 

In structure a serous membrane consists of an external cellular 
fibrous layer, which is vascular - and adherent to surrounding structures, 
and an internal dense and smooth layer, deficient of vessels. In gen- 
eral character serous membranes resemble a shut sac, and secrete a 
fluid resembling the serum or watery part of tne blood. 


The alimentary canal is a continuous tube from the mouth to the 
anus, musculo-membrauous in structure, and distributed into various 
portions, called mouth, pharynx, oesophagus, stomach, and intestines ; 
the intestines are subdivided into the small, which are distinguished 
into duodenum, jejunum, and ileum ; and large intestines, distinguished 
into cnecum, colon, and rectum. 

The Mouth. — The mouth is an irregular cavity, containing the 
organs of taste and instruments of mastication. 

The lips are two fleshy folds attached to the surface of the jaws, 
and formed externally of common integument, internally of mucous 
membrane, with layers of m:;scles and numerous small glands between. 

The cheeks (buccae) form the sides of the face, and are constituted 
similarly to the lips ; their glands are called buccal. 

The hard palate is a dense structure of mucous membrane, fibrous 
tissue, glands, vessels, and nerves, firmly connected to the palate pro- 
cesses of the upper maxillary and palate bones. Its middle line is 
mark?d by an elevated raphe, on each side of which are transverse 
ridges and grooves. 


The gums are thick, dense folds of mucous membrane attached to 
the periosteum of the alveolar processes, and remarkable for their 

The tongue has been already described. 

The soft palate (velum pendulum palati) is a fold of mucous mem- 
brane, with glands and muscles, at the back part of the mouth, con- 
tinuous above with the hard palate ; the uvula is a small rounded pro- 
cess hanging from the middle of its inferior border. 

The tonsils (amygdalae) are two glandular almond-shaped bodies on 
each side of the fauces, between folds of the mucous membrane of the 
soft palate, which are called the anterior and posterior pillars. They 
are composed of an assemblage of mucous follicles opening on the sur- 
face of the glands. 

The isthmus of the fauces is the space included between the soft 
palate and root of the tongue ; it is the opening between the mouth 
and pharynx. 

The salivary glands communicate with the mouth by their excre- 
tory ducts ; they are the parotid, submaxillary, and sublingual. The 
'parotid, the largest, is situated immediately in front of the external 
ear, extending deeply behind the ramus of the lower jaw. Embedded 
in its substance are the external carotid artery, temporo -maxillary vein, 
and facial nerve. Its excretory duct opens on the internal surface of 
the cheek opposite the second molar tooth of the upper jaw. The 
submaxillary is situated in the posterior angle of the submaxillary tri- 
angle of the neck, and behind the lower jaw. Its excretory duct 
opens on the papillae under the' tongue, by the side of the fraenum 
linguae. The sublingual is a flattened body beneath the mucous mem- 
brane of the floor of the mouth, on each side of the fraenum lingua?. 
Its secretion is poured into the mouth by seven or eight small ducts, 
which open on each side of the fraenum linguae. In strusture the 
salivary glands are conglomerate, consisting of lobes made up of small 
lobules, and these of still smaller lobules, the smallest lobule being com- 
posed of granules, which are minute caecal pouches, formed by the 
dilatation of the extreme ramifications of the ducts. 

The Pharynx. — The pharynx is a musculo-membranous sac be- 
tween the mouth and oesophagus. Its anterior part is incomplete, and 
has opening into it the two posterior nares, the two Eustachian tubes, 
mouth, larynx, and oesophagus. 

The QiIsophagus. — The oesophagus is the continuation of the ali- 
mentary canal from the pharynx to the stomach. In its descending 


course along the spine it inclines to the left in the neck, to the right in 
the upper part of the thorax, and to the left again as it passes through 
the posterior mediastinum. It terminates at the cardiac orifice of the 
stomach about the tenth dorsal vertebra. 

The Stomach. — The stomach is an expansion of the alimentary 
tube, its greater or splenic end being situated iii ;ue left hypochondriac 
region, where it is in contact with the cone; ve .-urface of the spleen, 
and its lesser or pyloric end extending into the epigastric region. Above 
it forms a lesser curvature, and below a greater curvature; its opening 
into the oesophagus is the cardiac orifice, and its opening into the duo- 
denum the pyloric orifice. (See fig. 107.) 

The Small Intestine. — The small intestine is about twenty-five 
feet in length, extending from the pylorus to the caecum. Its first 
division is the duodenum, about twelve fingers' breadth in length. It 
ascends obliquely backward to the under surface of the liver, then 
descends perpendicularly in front of the right kidney, and then passes 
transversely across the third lumbar vertebra. A little below its middle 
it receives the ductus communis choledochus from the liver, and pan- 
creatic duct from tho pancreas. The second division is called jejunum ; 
it forms the upper two fifths of the small intestine ; it is thicker to the 
touch than the other portions, and has a pinkish tinge. The third divi- 
sion is the ileum; it is smaller in diameter, and thinner in texture, and 
paler than the jejunum. It opens into the colon at an obtuse angle, in 
the right iliac fossa. 

The Large Intestine. — The large intestine is about five feet in 
length, sacculated in appearance, and divided into the caecum, colon, 
and rectum. The ccecum is the most dilated portion of the intestinal 
tube, forming a blind pouch, or cul-de-sac. Attached to its extremity 
is a worm-shaped tube, from one to five or six inches in length, called 
appendix vermiformis ; it is the rudiment of the long caecum found in 
all mammiferous animals except man and the higher quadrupeds. The 
colon is divided into transverse, ascending, and descending, and in the 
right iliac fossa it makes a remarkable curve upon itself, called the sig- 
moid flexure. The rectum is the termination of the large intestine ; it 
descends in front of the sacrum, and near the extremity of the coccyx 
curves backward, and terminates at the anus, which is situated a little 
more than an inch in front of the coccyx. The integument around the 
anus is covered with hairs, and arranged into numerous radiated plates, 
which are obliterated during the passage of fasces. (See fig. 107.) 


Structure of the Alimentary Canal. — The pharynx has 
mucous, fibrous, and muscular coats ; the oesophagus has only mucous 
and muscular coats: the stomach and intestines have mucous, muscular, 
and serous coats. The mucous is the internal coat, the muscular the 
middle, and the serous the external. 

The mucous coat very closely resembles the cutaneous covering of 
the exterior ; it is composed of three layers, an epithelium, a mucous 
proper, and a fibrous. The epithelium is the epiderma of the mucous 
membrane. The proper mucous layer is analogous to the papillary 
layer of the skin. In the stomach it forms polyhedral cells, into the 
floor of which the gastric follicles open ; in the small intestine it pre- 
sents numerous minute projecting papillae, called villi, which give the 
surface a velvety appearance ; in the large intestine the surface resem- 
bles the cellular network of the stomach. The fibrous layer (formerly 
called "nervous coat") is the membrane of support, as the corium is to 
the papillary layer of the skin. 

The muscular coat of the pharynx consists of the muscles already 
described ; that of the rest of the alimentary canal is composed of 
two planes of muscular fibres, one of which is external and longitudinal, 
and the other internal and circular. 

The serous coat is a layer of membrane derived from the peritoneum. 

In the oesophagus the mucous membrane is disposed in longitudinal 
plicee ; in the stomach it is formed into plaits, or ruga ; at the pylorus 
it forms a spiral fold, which constitutes a part of the pyloric valve ; in 
the lower part of the duodenum, the whole length of the jejunum, 
and upper part of the ilium, it forms valvular folds, called valvula con- 
niventes ; at the termination of the ilium in the caecum it forms two 
projecting folds, called ileo-ceecal valve ; in the caecum and colon it is 
raised into cresentric folds ; and in the rectum it forms three valvular 

The glands and follicles of the intestinal structure-are situated in 
the loose cellular or areo:hr tissue of the mucous coat, connecting the 
muceus with the fibrous layer. The pharyngeal glands are large 
and numerous around the posterior nares ; the oesophageal glands are 
small lobulated bodies opening upon its surface by a long, oblique excre- 
tory duct ; the gastric follicles are long tubular bodies situated per- 
pendicularly side by side throughout the mucous membrane of the 
stomach, and intended probably for the secretion of the gastric juice ; 
the duodenal glands are small flattened granular bodies, resembling 
in structure small salivary glands, and opening on the surface by minute 
excretory ducts ; the solitary glands are small saccular cavities in the 
email intestines, without in excretory duct, and in the large intestine* 


small circular prominences, with a minute excretory opening in the 
centre ; the aggregate, or Payer's glands, are circular patches sur- 
rounded by simple follicles, near the lower end of the ilium; and the 
simple follicles are small pouches of mucous layer, dispersed in immense 
numbers over the whole mucous membrane. 

The arteries of the alimentary canal are the pterygopalatine, ascend- 
ing pharyngeal, superior thyroid, and inferior thyroid, in the neck ; 
oesophageal in the thorax ; gastric, hepatic, splenic, superior, and infe- 
rior mesenteric, in the abdomen ; and inferior mesenteric, iliac, and in- 
ternal pudic, in the pelvis. The veins from the abdominal portion of 
the canal unite to form the vena porta?. The lymphatics and lacteals 
open into the thoracic duct. The nerves of the pharynx are derived 
from the glosso-pharyngeal, pneumogastric, and ganglionic ; those of 
the stomach are the pneumogastric, and ganglionic branches from the 
solar plexus ; those of the intestinal canal are the superior and inferior 
mesenteric and hypogastric plexuses ; the extremity of the rectum is 
supplied by the inferior sacral nerves from the spinal cord. 


The liver is a large conglomerate gland, and the largest organ in the 
body, weighing about feur pounds, and measuring about twelve inches 
through its longest diameter. It occupies the right hypochondriac re- 
gion, and extends across the epigastrium into the left hypochondriac, 
frequently reaching, by its left extremity, the upper end of the spleen. 
It is marked anteriorly by a deep notch, which divides it into two lobes. 
Above and behind it is in relation with the diaphragm, below with the 
stomach and ascending portion of the duodenum, transverse colon, 
right supra-renal capsule, and right kidney; its free anterior border 
corresponds with the lower margin of the ribs. 

It is held in its place by five ligaments ; the longitudinal, a fold of 
peritoneum extending through its notch ; two lateral, formed by layers 
of peritoneum, which connect its lobes with the diaphragm ; the coro- 
nary, formed by the separation of the two layers of the lateral ; and 
the round, a fibrous cord resulting from the obliteration of the umbilical 
vein ; this passes through a fissure in its under surface from the um- 
bilicus to the inferior cava. 

Its under surface is marked by five fissures ; the longitudinal, the 
lower part of which contains the remains of the ductus venosus ; the 
transverse, through which the hepatic artery, portal vein, and hepatic 
ducts enter the liver, the fissure for the gall-bladder, and the fissure 
for the vena cava. 

These fissures divide the liver into five lobes ; the -ight, five or six 


times larger than the left; the left, the lobus quadratus, on the under 
surface of the right lobe ; the lobus spigelii, a triangular portion, also 
on the under surface of the right lobe ; and the lobus caudalus, a small 
appendage of the former. 

The vessels and lymphatics of the liver have been described ; its 
nerves from the animal system proceed from the right phrenic and 
pneumogastric ; those from the organic system are derived from tho 
hepatic plexus. 

Minute Anatomt of the Liver. — The liver is composed of 
lobules, a connecting medium called Glisson's capsule, of the ramifica- 
tions of the portal vein, hepatic duct, hepatic artery, hepatic veins, 
lymphatics, and nerves, and is enclosed by the peritoneum and retained 
in position by its folds. 

The lobules are small granular bodies, irregular in form, about the 
size of millet seeds, and, when divided longitudinally, have a foliated 
appearance. Each lobule is composed of a plexus of biliary ducts, of a 
venous plexus c ormed by branches of the portal vein, of a hepatic vein, 
and of minute arteries; nerves and absorbents are also supposed to 
enter into their formation, but have not been traced into them. To 
microscopic examination a lobule presents numerous minute bodies of 
a yellowish color and various forms, connected with each other by ves- 
sels ; these minute bodies are the acini of Malpighi. 

The branches of the portal vein are distributed through canals chan- 
neled in every part of the organ. This vein brings the returning blood 
from the chylopoietic viscera, and also conducts the venous blood from 
the ultimate ramifications of the hepatic artery ; its branches in the 
canals are called vaginal, and' form a venous vaginal plexus : these 
give off interlobular branches, and the latter enter the lobules and form 
lobular venous plexuses ; from the blood circulating in these plexuses 
the bile is secreted. 

The bile in the lobule is received by a network of minute ducts, the 
lobular biliary j>lexus ; from the lobule it is conveyed into interlobular 
ducts ; and these proceed into the biliary vaginal plexus of the portal 
canals, and thence into the excreting ducts, by which it is carried into 
the duodenum and gall-bladder, after being mingled in its course with 
the mucous secretion from the numberless muciparous follicles in the 
walls of the ducts. 

The hepatic artery distributes branches through nil the portal canals, 
gives off vaginal branches, which form a vaginal hepatic plexus, from 
which the interlobular branches arise, and these latter terminate ult; 
Hiately in tho lobular venous plexuses of the portal vein. The arterj 



ramifies abundantly in the coats of the hepatic ducts, supplying mate- 
rials for their mucous secretion, and for the nutrient vessels of the 
entire organ. 

The hepatic veins commence in the centre of each lobule by minute 
radicles, which collect the impure blood from the lobular venous 
plexus, and convey it into the interlobular veins ; these open into veins 
called sublobular, and the sublobular unite to form the large hepatic 
trunks by which the blood is conveyed into the vena cava. 

An important physiological 

deduction from the anatomi- 
cal structure of the liver is, 
that bile is wholly secreted 
from venous blood, and not 
from a mixture of venous and 
arterial blood, as stated by 
Muller; and an equally im- 
portant pathological inference 
is, that bile is wholly an ex- 
crementitious fluid, and not 
" auxiliary to digestion," as 
many physiologists suppose. 

Fig. 116 is a horizontal section of 
three superficial lobules, showing 
the two principal systems of blood- 

Fig. 116. 


The Gall-Bladder. — The gall-bladder is a pyriform sac, which 
serves as a reservoir for the bile. It is situated on the under surface 
of the right lobe of the liver, and composed of serous, fibrous, and mu- 
cous coats. Its mucous coat is raised into minute rugae, which form a 
spiral valve at the neck of the sac. 

The biliary ducts are three : the ductus communis choledochus, which 
is the common excretory duct of the liver and gall-bladder, about three 
inches long, and about the size of a crow-quill, commences at the mid- 
dle of the duodenum, and before reaching the liver divides into the 
cystic, which is about an inch in length, and enters the neck of the 
gall-bladder, and the hepatic, which continues onward to the transverse 
fissure, where it divides into two branches, which ramify through the 
portal canals to all parts of the liver. 


The pancreas (sweet-bread) is a long, flat, conglomerate gland, in 

222 AN AT C MY. 

structure and function analogous to the salivary glands. It is about 
six inches long, weighs about four ounces, situated transversely across 
the abdomen behind the stomach, opposite the first and second lumbar 
vertebrae. Its greater end, or head, is placed toward the right, sur- 
rounded by the curve of the duodenum; the lesser end extends to the 
left as far as the spleen. Upon the posterior part of its head is a lobular 
fold, called the lesser panc-eas. 

In structure the pancreas is composed of reddish-yellow polyhedral 
lobules, these consisting of smaller lobules, and these again composed 
of the ramifications of minute ducts, terminating in crecal pouches. The 
pancreatic duct commences at the papilla? on the inner surface of the 
duodenum by a small dilatation common to it and the ductus communis 
choledochus, and passes obliquely through the middle of the gland, 
giving off numerous branches to be distributed through its substance. 
A smaller duct, the ductus pancreaticus minus, receives the secretion 
of the lesser pancreas ; it generally opens into the principal duct near 
the duodenum, but sometimes passes into that intestine separately. 

Its arteries are branches of the splenic, hepatic, and superior mesen- 
teric ; its veins open into the splenic ; its lymphatics terminate in the 
lumbar glands ; its nerves are filaments of the splenic plexus. 


The spleen is an oblong flattened viscus, of a dark, bluish-red color, 
situated in the left hypochondrium. Its size and weight are variable ; 
its texture is exceedingly spongy, vascular, and friable. Its internal 
surface is marked with several large irregular openings for the entrance 
and exit of vessels ; this « the hilus lienis. A second spleen is some- 
times found appended to one of the branches of the splenic artery, 
about the size of a hazel nut, and occasionally two and three of these 
bodies have been found. 

The spleen is profusely supplied with blood ; the splenic artery is 
very large in >roportion to the bulk of the organ, and its branches are 
distributed to distinct sections, sparingly anastomosing with each other. 
The veins, by their numerous dilatations, form most of its bulk ; their 
blood is poured into the splenic vein, which is one of the trunks that 
form the portal. The lymphatics are remarkable for their number 
and large size, and terminate in the lymphatic glands. Its nerves are 
tho splenic plexus, derived from the solar. 

The function of the spleen is unknown. Most physiologists have 
conjectured that it was in some way auxiliary to digestion ; others, with 
more probability, have regarded it as a sort of brain-appendage to the 
organic nervous system. This hypothesis is strengthened by its pecu- 


liar structure, which has many points of resemblance both to secernent 
glands and the cerebro-spinal substance ; and by the absence of an 
excretory duct. 


The supra-renal capsules are two small, yellowish, flattened bodies, 
surmounting the kidneys, and inclining toward the vertebral column. 
The right is triangular in shape, the left semilunar; they are connected 
to the kidneys by the common cellular tissue and a fissure on the an- 
terior surface divides each capsule into two lobes. Both capsules rest 
against the curve of the diaphragm on a level with the tenth dorsal 
vertebra. They are larger in the foetus than in the adult, and are sup- 
posed to perform some function connected with embryonic life. 

Their structure is composed of cortical and medullary substances. 
Their arteries, derived from the aorta, renal and phrenic arteries, aro 
remarkable for the innumerable minute twigs into which they divide 
before entering the capsule. The supra-renal vein, whose large trunk 
in its centre gives the capsule the appearance of a central cavity, col- 
lects the blood from the medullary venous plexus, and receiving several 
branches which pierce the cortical layer, opens directly into the vena 
cava on the right side, and into the renal vein on the left. Their 
lymphatics are large and numerous, and terminate in lumbar glands. 
The nerves are derived from the phrenic plexus. 


The secreting organs of the urine are situated in the lumbar regions, 
behind the peritoneum, and on each side of the vertebral column, which 
their upper extremities approach. Each kidney is between four and 
five inches long, two and a half broad, about an inch thick, weighing 
from three to five ounces. The right kidney is somewhat lower than 
the left, from the position of the liver ; the left is covered in front by 
the great end of the stomach and the spleen. 

The structure of the kidney is dense and fragile, and when divided 
presents an external, vascular, or cortical, and an internal, tubular, or 
medullary substance. The tubular portion is formed of ]«le -reddish 
conical masses, and the vascular portion of blood-vessels and plexiform 
convolutions of uriniferous tubuli, which not only constitute the surface, 
but dip between the cones and surround them nearly to their apices. 

The cones, or pyramids, are composed of minute straight tubuli 
uriniferi, of a diameter not exceeding that of a fine hair, which com- 
mence at the apices of the cones, and bifurcate from point *o point 
toward the circumference oi the kidney. 




Fig 117. Fig. 117 is a section of the kidney surmounted by the 

supra-renal capsule ; the swellings on the surface mark 
its original constitution in distinct lobes. 1. Suprarenal 
capsule. 2. Vascular portion. 3, 3. Tubular portion, 
consisting of cones. 4, 4. Two of the papillae project- 
ing into their corresponding calices. 5, 5, 5. The three 
infundibula; the middle 5 is situated in the mouth of a 
calyx. 6. Pelvis. 7. Ureter. 

In the cortical portion are contained a 
multitude of very small, jed, globular bodies, 
called glomeruli, or corpora Malpighiana, 
each of which is composed of a plexus of 
capillary vessels, and a coil of uriniferous tu- 
bule, both enclosed in a thin membranous 
capsule. The cones of the interior are in- 
vested by mucous membrane, which is con- 
tinuous at their apices with the uriniferous 
tubuli, and is reflected from their sides so as 
to form around each a cup-like pouch, or calyx. The calices commu- 
nicate with a common cavity of large size at each extremity and in the 
middle, and three cavities, called the infundibula, unite and form a 
membranous sac, which occupies the hilus renalis, the pelvis of the 

The excretory duct of the kidney is called ureter ; it is a membranous 
tube about as large as a goose-quill, and nearly eighteen inches long ; 
it is situated behind the peritoneum, crossed by the spermatic vessels, 
and in its course downward crosses the common iliac artery and vein, 
and then the external iliac vessels ; within the pelvis it crosses the 
umbilical artery and vas deferens in the male, and the upper part of 
the vagina in the female, and terminates upon the internal surface of 
the bladder. Sometimes there are two ureters to one kidney. 

Mr. Bowman, who has investigated the intimate structure of the 
kidneys, thinks there are two distinct systems of capillary vessels, 
through both of which the blood passes in its course from the arteries 
into the veins, and that certain saline substances and morbid products, 
as sugar and albumen, which escape from the system through the 
urine, and also the principal constituents of urine, such as urea, lithic 
acid, etc., are, like the bile in the liver, derived from venous blood. 


The cavity of the pelvis is the lower portion of the abdominal cavity; 
it is included within the bonis of the pelvis, below the level of the 
linea-ilio-pectinea and the pre lontory of the sacrum. The male pel- 


?ic viscera are the urinary bladder, prostate gland, vesicula seminales, 
and rectum. 

The bladder is an ovoid-oblong membranous sac, situated behind the 
ossa pubis and in front of the rectum. Its middle portion is called the 
body ; its upper segment the fundus ; its broad surface resting on the 
rectum, the bzse; and the nam w constricted portion against the 
prostate gland, the neck. 

It is composed of serous, muscular, and mucous coats ; the muscular 
coat is composed of longitudinal fibres externally, and an internal layer 
of transverse and oblique fibres, so arranged as to diminish the diame- 
ter of the viscus in all directions in the expulsion of its contents ; a 
ring of elastic tissue surrounds the urethra within the prostate gland, 
to which the longitudinal fibres are attached, whose contraction en- 
larges the passage from the bladder into the urethra. Upon the inter- 
nal surface of its base is a pale triangular plane, called trigonum vesi- 
cale, the most sensitive portion of the bladder, and occasioning great 
suffering when pressed upon by calculi. At the entrance of the 
urethra there is a slight elevation of the mucous membrane, called 
uvula vesica. It is retained in its place by seven true ligaments ; two 
anterior, formed by the pelvic fascia; two lateral, formed by a reflec- 
tion of the pelvic fascia and >evatores ani muscles upon the sides of its 
base ; two umbilical, the fibrous cords resulting from the obliteration of 
the umbilical arteries of the foetus; the urachus, a small fibrous cord, 
forme 1 by the obliteration of a tubular canal existing in embryo, at- 
tache' I to the apex of the bladder, and thence ascending to the umbili- 
cus; and four false ligaments, which are folds of peritoneum, the two 
lateral corresponding with the passage of the vasa deferentia from the 
sides of the bladder to the internal abdominal rings, and the two poste- 
rior with the course of the umbilical arteries to its fundus. 

The external surface of the bladder corresponding with the trigonum 
is triangular, and separated from the rectum merely by a thin layer of 
fibrous membrane, the recto-vesical fascia. It is through this space, 
bounded behind by the recto-vesical fold of peritoneum, and on each 
side by the vas deferens and vesicula seminalis, which converge al- 
most to a point at the base of the prostate gland, that the opening is 
made in the recto-vesical operation for punc'uring the bladder. 

The prostate gland is situated in front oi the neck of the bladder, 
and upon the rectum, through which it may be felt with the finger, 
surrounding the commencement of the urethra for a little more than 
an inch of its extent, in size and form resembling a Spanish chestnut. 
[t consists of two lateral lobes, ai 1 a middle lobe or isthmus, and ita 
structure is compose! of ramified lucts, terminating in lobules of fol- 



Fig. 118. 

licular pouches. Its secretion is poured into the prostatic portion of the 
urethra by fifteen or twenty excretory ducts. 

Fig. 118 is a side 
view of viscera of 
the male pelvis. 1. 
Divided surface of 
the os pubis. 2. 
Divided surface of 
the sacrum. 3. Bo- 
dy of the bladder. 
4. Its fundus ; the 
urachus is seen 
f~/HL~~ \ passing upward 

( w! \%!' > *^ s / W fl??JP*!>' J mm| ;; Hw tiom t ' ie a P ex - 5. 

(IK ,"'' ) ''Cl$>&-k\ ^Hlf }}E$lnWt 7™k * ts ^ a3P - 6. Ureter 

7. Neck of the blad- 
der. 8, 8. Pelvic 
fascia ; the fibres 
above 7 are given 
off from the pelvic 
fascia, and repre- 
sent the anterior 
ligaments of the 
bladder. 9. Pros- 
tate gland. 10. 
Membranous por- 
tion of the urethra, between the two layers of the deep perineal fascia. 11. The deep 
perineal fascia, formed of two layers. 12. One of Cowper's glands, between the layers 
and beneath the membranous portion of the urethra. 13. Bulb of the corpus spongi- 
osum. 14. Body of the corpus spongiosum. 15. Eight crus penis. 16. Upper part ot 
the first portion of the rectum. 17. Rectovesical fold of peritoneum. 18. Second por- 
tion of the rectum. 19. Right vcsicula eeminalis. 20. Vas deferens. 21. The rectum 
covered by the descending layer of the pelvic fascia, just as it is malting its bend back- 
ward *o constitute the third portion. 22. Part of the levator ani muscle investing the 
lower part of the rectum. 23. External sphincter ani. 24. Interval between the deep 
and superficial perineal fascia; they are seen to be continuous beneath the number. 


The vesicula seminales are lobulated bodies, about two inches in 
length, situated on the under surface of the base of the bladder, and 
separated from the rectum only by the recto-vesical fascia. Each 
vesicula is formed by convolutions of a single tube, which gives off 
several irregular ceecal branches ; it is enclosed in a dense fibrous 
membrane, derived from the pelvic fascia, and is constricted beneath 
the isthmus of the prostate gland into a small excretory duct. The 
vas deferens of the testis, somewhat enlarged and convoluted, lies along 
the inner border of each vesicula, and is included in its fibrous invest- 
ment. It communicates with the duct of the vesicula, beneath the 
isthmus of the prostate, and forms the cjaculaury duct, which is about 
three fourths of an inch in lengfca, and opens or. 'Jie mucous membrane 
of the urethra. 


The penis and testes, witli their appendages, constitute the male 
organs of generation. The penis is divided into a head, the anterior 
extremity of which is the glans, a root which is strongly adherent to 
the pelvis, and an intervening body, consisting of two structures, called 
corpus cavernosum and corpus spongiosum. The integument of the 
penis is thin, and destitute of adipose matter. Surrounding the glans 
is a loose doubling, called the prepuce ; this is connected to the orifice 
of the urethra by a process called freenum ; the edge around the base 
of the glans is called corona glandis ; the glands of Tyson are small 
papillary elevations around the base of the glans ; their secretion ia 
called smegma ; the fascia is situated beneath the skin, and is but a 
modification of the superficial abdominal fasc'a ; a portion connecting 
the penis with the pubis is called ligamentum suspensorium. 

The largest part of its body is formed by the corpus cavernosum, 
which in shape resembles a double cylinder ; these cylinders, separated 
and pointed at the root, are there called the crura, each crus being 
firmly attached to the ramus of the pubis and ischium. Externally this 
structure is covered by a thick fibro-elastic coat, and internally of erec- 
tile tissue. The partial separation of the two cylinders is called septum 
pectiniforme. The corpus spongiosum is situated along the under surface 
and in the inferior groove of the corpus cavernosum. Its posterior ex- 
tremity is enlarged into the bulb, and its anterior is expanded into the 
glans. It is compo'sed of erectile tissue, a peculiar cellulo-vascular 
structure entering largely into the composition of the organs of 
generation, and contains in its interior the spongy portion of the 

The urethra is the urinary canal from the bladder through the 
penis. Its structure is membranous, composed of mucous and elas- 
tic-fibrous coats. Its diameter varies in different parts of its course, 
which is somewhat curved. The first portion is called the prostatic 
urethra; this is about an inch in length; on its lower surface is a 
longitudinal fold of mucous membrane, called veru montanum, or caput 
gallinaginis ; on each side of this a depression called prostatic sinus, into 
which the prostatic ducts open ; at the anterior extremity of the veru 
rnontanum are the openings of the ejaculatory ducts. The next portion 
in membranous ; this is eight or ten lines in length, and very narrow, 
surrounded by loose tissue and a few muscular fibres. The rest is the 
spongy portion, six or seven inches in length ; it is narrowest in the 
body of the organ ; posteriorly it is dilated into the bulb, forming the 
bulbous urethra, and anteriorly in the glans it enlarges into the fossa 
navicularis. The externa! opening, meatus urinarus, is the most con- 
stricted portion of tho canal, so that a catheter which will entej 


that opening will pass freely through the whole extent of a healthy 

Cowper's glands are two small tabulated bodies, about the size of 
peas, situated beneath the membranous portion ; their excretory ducts 
open into the bulbous portion. The whole internal surface of the 
spongy portion of the urethra is marked with lacuna, or openings of 
mucous glands situated in the submucous cellular tissue. These open- 
ings are directed forward, and sometimes obstruct the point of a small 
catheter in its passage to the bladder. 

The testes are glandular organs suspended from the abdomen by the 
spermatic cord, and enclosed in an integument called the scrotum. The 
scrotum is composed of a tegumentary layer, extremely thin, transparent, 
and corrugated, and beset with hairs having very prominent roots, and 
a proper covering called darlos, a fibro-muscular tissue, which sends 
inward a partition, septum scroti, which divides it into two cavities for 
the two testes. 

The spermatic cord, composed of arteries, veins, nerves, lymphatics, 
the excretory duct of the testicle, and investing tunics, is the medium 
of communication between the testes and interior of the abdomen. It 
commences at the internal abdominal ring, where the vessels composing 
it converge, and passes obliquely along the spermatic canal, escaping at 
the external abdominal ring, and descending thipugh the scrotum to 
the posterior border of the testicle. The excretory duet of the testicle 
is called vas deferens ; its coats are thick and tough, and it may be dis- 
tinguished along the posterior border of the spermatic cord by the hard 
and cordy sensation it communicates to the fingers, 

Each testis is an oblong rounded gland suspended in the cavity of 
the scrotum by the spermatic cord ; its function is to secrete the sem- 
inal fluid. Encircling its posterior edges is a soft flattened body, called 
epididymis ; it is formed by the convolutions of the excretory seminal 
ducts; its upper extremity is called globus major, and the lower globus 
minor ; this extremity curves upward and becomes continuous with the 
vas deferens. The testis has three coverings, a serous coat called 
tunica vaginalis ; a thick, middle, fibrous membrane, called tunica 
albuginea, which surrounds the testis, and is reflected into its interior, 
forming the mediastinum testis, from which numerous fibrous cords, 
trabcculre septula, are given off"; and an internal nutrient membrane 
called tunica vasculosa, which, analogous to the disposition of the pia 
mater in the brain, sends processes inward between the lobules of the 

The substance of the testis consists of numerous flattened lobules, 
with thoir bases toward the surface. Kinuse counted between four 



and five hundred of them. Each lobule is invested in a distinct sheath, 
formed of two layers, one from the tunica vasculosa, and the other from 
the tunica albuginea, and composed of several minute tubuli, tubuli 
seminiferi, exceedingly convoluted, frequently anastomosing near their 
extremities, and terminating in loops or csecal ends of about — of an 
inch in diameter. The tubuli seminiferi are of a bright yellow color, 
become less convoluted in the apices of the lobules, and terminate by 
forming from twenty to thirty small straight ducts of about twice the 
diameter of the tubuli seminifera; these ducts are the vasa recta. 

Fig. 119 represents the minute structure of the testis. 1, 
1. Tunica albuginea. 2, 2. Mediastinum testis. 3, 3. The 
lobuli. 4,4. Vasa recta. 5. Rete testis. 6. Vasa efferentia ; 
six of them only are shown in the diagram. 7. Cervi vascu- 
losi, constituting the globus major of the epididymis. 8. 
Body of the epididymis. 9. Its globus minor. 10. Vas de- 
ferens. 11. Vasculum aberrans. 

The vasa recta enter the mediastinum, and 
terminate in from seven to thirteen smaller 
ducts, which pursue a waving course from below 
upward, through the fibrous tissue of the medi- 
astinum, and communicate freely with each 
other, constituting the rete testis. The ducts of 
the rete testis terminate at the upper extremity 
of the mediastinum in small ducts called vasa 
efferentia ; these vary in number from nine to 
thirty, and form, by their convolutions, numerous 
conical masses, the coni vasculosi ; from the 
bases of these cones larger-sized tubes proceed, 
whose complex convolutions form the body of 
the epididymis. 

Fig. 119. 



The viscera of the female pelvis are the bladder, vagina, uterus and 
its appendages, the rectum, and some portion of the small intestines, 
which occupy the upper part of the cavity. 

The bladder is situated behind the ossa pubis and in front of the 
uterus ; it is broader than in the male, corresponding with the broader 

The urethra is about an inch and a half in length, and is lodged in 
the upper wall of the vagina, in its course downward and forward be- 
neath the arch of the os pubis, to the meatus urinarius. It is sur- 
rounded by a proper coat of elastic tissue, to which the muscles of the 



deT^usor urince are attached, and to which the remarkable dilatability 
of the female urethra is owing. 

Fig. 120. 


Fig. 120 is a side view 
of the viscera of the 
female pelvis. 1. Sym- 
physis pubis, to the up- 
per part of which the 
tendon of the rectus 
muscle is attached. 2. 
Abdominal parieties. 3. 
Collection of fat, form- 
ing the prominence of 
the mons Veneris. 4. 
Bladder. 5. Entrance 
of the left ureter. 6. 
Canal of the urethra, 
converted into a mere 
fissure by the contrac- 
tion of its walls. 7. 
Meatus urinarius. 8. 
Clitoris, with its praspu- 
tium, divided through 
the middle. 9. Left 
nympha. 10. Left la 
bium majus. 11. Meat 
us of the vagina, nar 
rowed by the contrac 
tion of its sphincter, 
12, 22. Canal of the 

gina, upon which the transverse ruga3 are apparent. 13. The thick wall of separation 
between the vagina and rectum. 15. The perineum. 16. Os uteri. 17. Its cervix. 18. 
Its fundus ; the cavitas uteri is seen along its centre. 19. Rectum, showing the disposi- 
tion of its mucous membrane. 20. Anus. 21. Upper part of the rectum, invested by 
the peritoneum. 23. Utero-vesical fold of peritoneum ; the recto-uterine fold is seen be- 
tween the rectum and the posterior wall of the vagina. 24. The reflexion of the peri- 
toneum, from the apex of the bladder upon the urachus to the internal surface of the 
abdominal parieties. 25. Last lumbar vertebra. 26. Sacrum. . 27. Coccyx. 


The vagina is a membranous canal leading from the vulva to the 
uterus ; its structure is composed of mucous, erectile, and contractile 
fibrous tissues. The mucous membrane is marked by a number of 
transverse papillae, or ruga, and is covered by a thin cuticular epithe- 
lium, which is continued from the labia to the middle of the cervix 

The uterus is a flattened, pear-shaped organ, occupying the upper 
part of the pelvic cavity between the bladder and rectum. Its fundus 
and body are enclosed in a duplicature of peritoneum, which forms a 
transverse septum between the bladder and rectum, the folds of which, 
on either side of the uterus, are its broad ligaments. Its lower por- 
tion is the cervix; around the cir rimference the upper end of the 


vagina is attached ; its opening into the vagina is the os uteri. Its 
structure consists of an external serous coat, derived from the perito- 
neum, a middle muscular coat, and an internal coat of mucous mem- 
brane. The muscular coat gives it density and bulk, and in the unim- 
pregnated state is exceedingly firm in texture, appearing to be composed 
of whitish fibres, inextricably interlaced and mingled with blood-vessels. 
During pregnancy the fibres become large and distinct, and disposed in 
two layers. The superficial layer consists of vertical fibres, some of 
which are longitudinal and others oblique. The deep layer consists of 
two hollow cones of circular fibres, having their apex at the openings 
of the Fallopian tubes, and intermingling by their bases on the body of 
the organ. Around the cervix they assume a circular form, and inter- 
lace at right angles. 

Its arteries are the uterine from the internal iliac, and the spermatic 
from the aorta. Its veins are large, and in the unimpregnated state 
are called sinuses, being canals channeled through the substance of the 
ergan, and lined by the mucous membrane. They terminate in the 
uterine plexuses on each side. The lymphatics terminate in the lum- 
bar glands. The nerves are derived from the hypogastric, spermatic, 
and sacral plexuses. Dr. Robert Lee, after making the nervous struc- 
ture of the uterus a subject of special investigation, concludes that 
" The human uterus possesses a great system of nerves, which en- 
larges with the coats, blood-vessels, and absorben/s, during pregnancy, 
and which returns after parturition to its original condition before con- 
ception takes place." 

The appendages of the uterus are the Fallopian tubes and ovaries, 
enclosed by the lateral duplicatures of the peritoneum, which consti- 
tute the broad ligaments. 

The Fallopian tubes are the oviducts by which the impregnated 
ovum is conveyed to the uterus. Each tube is four or five inches in 
length ; its canal is exceeding small ;• its opening into the uterus is 
called ostium uterinum, and that of its outer or free extremity, ostium 
abdominale ; this end has a fringed-like appendage, called fimbria, ^a, 
and is connected with the ovary by a short ligamentous cord, by which 
i! is conducted to the surface of the ovary during sexual excitement. 
The noats of the tubes are peritoneal, muscular., and mucous. 

The ovaries are oval, flattened, whitish bodies, situated in the poste- 
rior layer of peritoneum of the broad ligament, and connected to the 
upper angles of the uterus by a rounded cord, called the ovarian liga- 
ment. In structure each ovary is composed of cellulo-fibrous parenchy- 
ma or stroma, traversed by blood-vessels, and enclosed in a capsule 
consisting of vascular, fibrous, an.d serous layers In the cells of rh« 


stroma the small vesicles or ovisacs of the future ova, the Graafian 
vesicles, are developed. Each ovary contains about fifteen fully formed 
vesicles, although innumerable microscopic ovisacs exist in the paren- 
chyma. A yellow spot or cicatrix, called corpus luteum, is found in 
one or both ovaries after conception. A false corpus luteum is some- 
times met with in the ovaries of virgins ; it is of a similar appearance, 
oat smaller in size and without a central cavity. 

The external organs of generation in the female are the mons 
Veneris, labia majora, labia minora, and clitoris ; the internal being the 
vagina, uterus, ovaries, and Fallopian tubes, which have- been de- 

The mons Veneris is the prominent integument upon the front, of the 
ossa pubis ; its cellular tissue is loaded with adipose substance, and the 
surface covered with hair. The labia majora are longitudinal folds of 
adipose cellular tissue and integument, which form the common urino- 
sexual opening, or vulva. The labia minora, or nymphee, are smallei 
folds, situated within the former. The clitoris is a small elongated 
body, situated in front of the ossa pubis, analogous to the corpus cav- 
ernosum of the penis, and, like it, arises by crura from the pelvis ; its 
extremity is called its glans. The entrance of the vagina is about an 
inch behind the clitoris ; it is closed in virgins by a partial membrane 
stretched across the opening ; this is called the hymen ; it is extremely 
variable in its form and appearance, and not unfrequently is entirely 
wanting. Sometimes it is imperforate, and occasionally it is so firm as 
to require a surgical trans-section. Frequently there is the appear- 
ance of a fringe of papillae, carunculee myrtiformes, around the opening 
of the vagina, which are the remains of a rudimentary or ruptured 
hymen. The meatus urinarius is situated behind the clitoris, and im- 
mediately in front of, and surrounded by, a tubercle at the upper angle 
of the vagina, and formed by the prominence of its upper wall. 


The mamma exist in a rudimentary state in the male, and form a 
part of the reproductive system of the female. They are situated in 
the pectoral region, and only separated from the pectoralis major mus- 
cle by a thin fascia. The base of each mamma is somewhat elliptical ; 
the anterior aspect is convex, having a central prominence of integu- 
ment, called the nipple, surrounded by a colored areola. In structure 
it is a conglomerate gland, consisting of lobes held together by firm 
cellular tissue; the lobes are composed of lobules, and those of minute 
caacal vesicles, which are the ultimate termination of the excretory 
ducts. The excretory ducts, tubuli lactifci, are ten to fifl?pri in 


number, commencing by small openings at the apex of the nipple, and 
passing inward parallel with each other to the central part of the 
organ, where they form dilatations, ampulla, and give off numerous 
branches to ramify through the gland to their ultimate termination in 
Lho minute lobules. The ducts and caecal vesicles, in common with ail 
others in the body, are lined by mucous membrane. 


The medium weight of a child of the full period is about seven 
pounds, and its length seventeen inches. The head is disproportionately 
large, and greatly lengthened from before backward, while the face i9 
small. The chest is fully expanded, and the upper extremities well 
developed. The great size of the liver renders the upper part of the 
abdomen large and prominent; the lower part is small and conical, and 
the lower extremities very small comparatively. 

The osseous system is to a great extent soft and cartilaginous. The 
bones of the head are separated by spaces where the ossification has 
not yet taken place, allowing them to move upon and even overlap 
each other. 

The muscular system is well developed at birth, the muscles being 
generally large and fully formed. Their color is lighter, and their 
texture softer than in the adult. On the fibres of animal life the trans- 
verse stria? are not distinguishable until the sixth month of foetal life. 

The vascular system presents many peculiarities. The two auricles 
of the heart communicate by means of the foramen ovale. There is a 
communication between the pulmonary artery and descending aorta 
by means of a large trunk, the ductus arteriosus. The internal iliac 
arteries are continued to the placenta, by which the foetal blood is re- 
turned to the placenta for revivification. There is also a communica- 
tion between the umbilical vein and the inferior vena cava, the ductus 

In the nervous system the brain is very soft, almost pulpy, but the 
nerves are firm and well developed. 

The eye and ear of the organs of sense are large and fully developed, 
while the internal structure of the nose is very imperfectly developed. 

Ths lungs are dense and solid in structure until inflated by the act 
of inspiration. The lung is proportionately large, and early developed, 
at first appearing like a simple vessel, but gradually becoming more 
complicated until perfected at birth. The two auricles communicate 
with each other until the laomcnt of birth. There is also a commu- 
nication between the pulmonary artery and aorta, called ducliis arte- 


Jn the foetal circulation the pure blood is brought from the placenta 
by the umbilical vein, which passes through the umbilicus and enters 
the liver, dividing these into numerous branches. 

Of the abdominal viscera, the liver is first formed ; the stomach and 
spleen are comparatively small, the pancreas large ; the large intestines 
are filled with a greenish viscous secretion, called meconium. 

Note. — The particular anatomy anc' physiology of the foetus will be 
given in Part VIII. 



Definitions. — Physiology is the doctrine of the functions. It ex- 
plains the actions and uses of the various organs and parts of the living 
body in its healthy or normal condition. Its abnormal or diseased 
Btates belong to the department of pathology. The functions have 
been divided into various classes, and each class admits of numerous 
subdivisions. The ancient physiologists divided them into vital, animal, 
and natural, corresponding to nutritive, mental, and excretory processes. 
Some modern authors have adopted Bichat's arrangement into individ- 
ual and social, the former being subdivided into animal and organic. 
In general terms, innervation, circulation, and respiration are called 
vital functions ; while these with digestion, absorption, assimilation, 
secretion, aDd calorification, are regarded as nutritive functions.; sensa- 
tion, voice, muscular motion, and mental manifestation constitute the ani- 
mal or relative functions ; and generation is the reproductive function. 



General Characters of the Tissues. — Though the bodily 
structures admit of many divisions, according to form, color, consistency, 
and arrangement, the phenomena of life may be more clearly pre- 
sented by considering them in the relations of primary and secondary. 
The primary tissues are the cellular or areolar, muscular, and nervous. 
The vital property of the cellular substance is elasticity, of the muscu- 
lar contractility, and of the nervous sensibility. Distinguished chemi- 
cally, gelatin is the prevailing quality of the cellular tissue, fibrin of 
the muscular, and albumen of the nervous. The cellular structuro 


supplies the body with materials of form, the muscular furnishes the 
agents of action, and the nervous provides the instruments of feeling. 
The secondary tissues are membranes, ligaments, cartilages, find a 
portion of the bones, hair, and nails, being various forms of cellular or 
gelatinous substance in different degrees of density. 

The varied forms of all animal and even vegetable tissues are consti- 
tuted of aggregations of two kinds of cells, variously modified. The 
cells are called formative and secreting; the only difference between 
them is, the former secretes a solid or semi-solid substance, which re- 
mains in the body with the debris of the cell for an appreciable time, 
and the latter secretes a fluid which escapes from the body with the 
remains of the cell which produced it. Each of these little cell-bodies 
has' been compared to a laboratory, which receives from the surround- 
ing matter the elements which it requires, and combines them so as to 
accomplish a desired result. 

Development of Cells. — A cell originates in a mass of soft or 
liquid matter which is formed of a combination of elements capable of 
being fitted into an organized structure. The matter is called blastema. 
In this blastema a minute point arises, which gradually increases in 
size, while a transparent wall springs up from one side of the point or 
granule, and continues to swell until the granule is seen to exist in and 
adhere to one side of the cell wall. Thus is formed the cell wall, with 
its fluid contents, and the granule or nucleus which, in a further stage 
of development, exhibits in its interior several new granules or nucleoli. 

Fig. 121. The development and mul- 

1 tiplication of cells are repre- 

sented in fig 131. I. Devel- 
opment of cell from the blas- 
tema. On the left is seen the 
corpuscle which becomes the 
nucleus ; on the right the 
complete nucleated cell. 2. 
Development of new cells 
within the parent cell. 3. 
Development of new cells 
from the outer wall of pre- 
existing cells. 

The cells undergo 
various transformations in the production of the different structures. 
They may lose their fluid contents, and their walls, by collapsing and 
adhering together, form simple, membranous, transparent disks. 
They also elongate, so as to form tubes or solid rods ; in the former 
case they adhere by their ends to neighboring cells, and their cavities 



mutually open into each other, forming a vessel ; in the lattei case the 
contained fluid is lost, and a solid rod or fibre is the result. The cavi- 
ties of cells may be obliterated by solid deposits within them, as in the 
formation of cartilage. 

The Cellular Tissue. — The cellular or areolar tissue is the sim- 
plest form of annualized matter. It is flexible and adhesive, yet these 
properties seem to be included in the general term, elasticity. It per- 
vades and connects together every part, of the system, and being com- 
posed of membranous layers irregularly joined, so as to form numerous 
interstices of various capacities, air introduced under the skin may dif- 
fuse itself all over the surface of the body, a circumstance often result- 
ing from wounds of the lungs. 

The cellular tissue is not composed 
of a congeries of distinct, isolated 
cells, but of cavit'^s and interstices 
freely communicaiiig with each 
other; hence the term areolar is 
generally applied to this structure by 
late authors. There are two kinds 
of this tissue, called reticular and adi- 
pose. The former is dispersed 
throughout the entire body, except 
the brain, the bones, and humors of 
the eye. It is scarcely perceptible 
in the tendons of muscles, but plenti- 
ful in their fleshy parts. The adipose 
portion is a connection of fibres run- 
ning in various directions so as to 
form cavities, which have been called 
cells ; into these cavities the fatty or 
oily matters are deposited. In some parts of the body it is merely a 
network of slender fibres, which give pliability and looseness. In other 
places it is more or less loaded with oil. 

The uses of the areolar structure are, to give form and symmetrical 
smoothness to the body by filling up the interstices, defend the various 
organs and parts against pressure, connect different, parts so as to admit 
of some degree of sliding motion between them, and serve as a bed for 
more tender organs, as the eye. It also relieves the body, to some 
extent, of the immediate bad effects of excessive alimentation, by afford- 
ing a reservoir for surplus mima) fat. It is a common error to 'suppose 




that persons who increase in bulk after having attained maturity of 
growth, acquire more flesh. They are merely burdened with a useless 
load which should have been expelled as waste matter. The areolar 
structure is veiy readily regenerated when destroyed. 

The Muscular Tissue. — The muscular or fibrinous tissue is of a 
higher grade of organization. Physiologists ascribe to it the vital 
properties of contractility., irritability or excitability, and tonicity ; but 
to my mind, one term includes all the others. They are all merely 
expressions of the power of the muscular fibre to act, move, contract, 
upon the application of exciting causes. Muscles are said to be im- 
pressible to stimuli, and to contract when so impressed, by which mo- 
tion or action is produced. The term contractility seems to imply 
impressibility — the susceptibility to be acted on and the action itself. 
Irritability and excitability are but different names for this susceptibil- 
ity. Tonicity, by which physiologists mean the ability to maintain per- 
manently a certain degree of contractility, is certainly nothing but a 
greater or less degree of contractile energy. 

All the actions or motions of the various parts and organs are pro- 
duced by the contraction or shortening of these muscular fibres, of 
rather, their alternate contraction and expansion. 

Muscular contraction is accompanied with the production of souna 
and heat ; the sound is probably owing to the movement of the adja- 
cent fibres on each other, and the elevation of temperature is doubtless 
to be attributed to those chemical changes by which the disintegration 
and renewal of the tissue is effected. 

Fig. 123. 


great regularity in the direction of its action, 

may be separated into fibrilla; by the splitting o r its contents in a longi- 

In Fig. 123 are represented 
fragments of striped element- 
ary fibres, and showing a 
cleavage in opposite direc- 
tions. 1. Longitudinal cleav- 
age. 2, 3, 4. Transverse 
cleavage forming disks. 5. 
A detached disk, showing the 
primitive particles, called 
sarcous elements. 7, 8. Sep- 
arated fibrillar, showing the 
beaded enlargements. 

An ordinary muscle 
consists of bundles of 
fibres, arranged with 
Each individual fibre 


tudina direction ; these fibrilla? then present a banded appearance, 
caused by the arrangement of the contents of \he tube. 

In structure muscular tissue is divided into striated (striped) and 
non-striated (unstriped) — the former being mainly appropriated to the 
voluntary functions, and the latter to the organic or involuntary. Func- 
tionally muscles are divided into voluntary and involuntary. The former 
contract in obedience to the will, and are the instruments by which the 
mind acts on external objects. Their fibres are arranged in parallel 
lines, and are connected together by areolar substance. Those of in- 
voluntary motion are more simple in their structure and arrangement 
than those under the influence of the will. Their fibres are disposed 
in layers, generally transverse or diagonal, with distinct parallel lines 
continually interlacing. In this way they form circular rings around 
the cavities of the circulating vessels, as the arteries, veins, absorbents, 
excretory ducts, and hollow viscera, as the stomach, bowels, uterus, 
and bladder, constituting one of their coats or coverings, which, by 
contracting, diminishes the calibre or cavity in length and diameter; 
and thus their contents are moved forward or expelled. The muscular 
tissue is not reproduced when once destroyed, but the loss is supplied 
by areolar substance, which is wholly insensible. 

The Nervous Tissue. — The nervous is the highest order of organ- 
ized matter. Though sensibility, or feeling, is its only property we 
can call vital, its immediate relation to mind causes it to manifest varied 
and wonderful powers. The nervous substance is the medium through 
which all impressions are received from the external world, and through 
which the mind conveys its mandates to the voluntary muscles. All 
motions, changes, or functional actions which are performed by the 
muscles, depend on the power, energy, or influence transmitted to the 
muscular tissue from the nerres. 

The nervous structure is composed cf a white or fibrous matter, 
which in the nervous trunks is tubular, with a secondary deposit within 
the cavity of the tube ; and a gray or vesicular substance found in the 
ganglions. Wherever these two kinds of nervous matter are united 
together they constitute a nervous ".entre. 

The ultimate nerve-fibre is tubular, consisting of an external thin 
and delicate membrane, which forms a sheath, and isolates the contain- 
ed matter in its whole course from its central to its peripheral extrem- 
ity. This has been called the tubular membrane, within which is con- 
tained a more opake substance, called the white substance of Schwann ; 
aud within this white substance is a transparent material, called the 



axis cylinder. The whole of this contained substance is very soft, and 
,ney be made to move along in the cavity of the tube. 

Fig. 124 is a diagram of tubular 
fibre of a spinal nerve, a Axis 
cylinder, b. Inner border of white 
substance, c, c. Outer border of 
white substance, d, d. Tubular 
membrane. B. Tubular fibres ; e, 
in a natural state, showing the 
parts as in A. /. The white sub- 
stance and axis cylinder interrupt- 
ed by pressure, while the tubular 
membrane remains, g. The same 
with varicosities, h. Various ap 
pearances of the white substance 
and axis cylinder forced out of the 
tubular membrane by pressure. 
i. Broken end of tubular fibre, 
with the white substance closed 
over it. K. Lateral bulging of 
white substance and axis cylinder, 
from pressure. I. The same, more 
complete, g. Varicose fibres of 
various sizes, from the cerebellum. 
C. Gelatinous fibres from the solar 
plexus, treafed with acetic acid, tc 
exhibit their cell nuclei. B and C 
are magnified 320 diameters. 

Physiologists are not 
agreed respecting the com- 
plete regeneration of ner- 
vous tissue after it has been 
once destroyed. Of its partial restoration there can be no doubt. 

The nerve-fibres, which originate in the brain, and are distributed 
to the muscles, have no proper termination, but form loops, which 
either return into themselves or join others formed by the ultimate 
ramifications of the main trunks. 

The vesicular matter, wherever found, is regarded as a generator of 
nervous influence ; and the white or tubular as the carrier of that in- 
fluence to the various parts of the system. The former portion is 
supplied with much the largest proportion of blood. 

The general nervous system is susceptible of a division into five 
subordinate systems: 1. The nutritive system, or nerves of organic 
life. 2. The motory system, or nerves of voluntary motion. 3. The 
sentient system, or nerves of sei.sation. 4. Tlis mental system, or 
brain. 5. The reflex system. 



The Nutritive Nervous System. — This system includes all the 
organic or involuntary nerves. In the order of development it pre- 
cedes the others, as it relates to, and, in fact, presides over, all the 
processes of organic or vegetative life. All the functions belonging to 
the growth, development, and transformation of the bodily structures 
are controlled by these nerves. They have no sensibility of which the 
brain takes cognizance ; yet they have an impressibibty or a feeling of 
their own. To illustrate : the brain does not feel food in the stomach, 
nor blood in the heart, nor air in the lungs, nor bile in the liver, yet 
their presence is recognized or felt by the organic nerves. These 
nerves, too, have their little brains, or special centres, which serve to 
supply the nervo-electric influence to particular parts and organs, and 
connect the whole together in close sympathetic functional relations. 
The semilunar ganglion may be considered as the presiding centre, or 
great brain, and the other ganglia the central points, or little brains of 
the nutritive system. 

In the lowest orders of animals the nutritive or organic system is 
concentered in a single straight nervous cord, which performs all the 
functions of those animals, as the brain, which belongs to a higher grade 
of being, does not exist. It is stated as a remarkable circumstance, 
that those animals which have no brain are also destitute of a spleen or 
melt. This fact strongly favors the hypothesis that the principal func- 
tion of the spleen is to supply the organic nerves with an additional 
laboratory of their peculiar electrical or other power or influence. 
The organic nerves evidently derive their nourishment and support, as 
well as the principle or element by which they operate to control and 
regulate the organic functions, in a great measure directly from the 
arteries, for which purpose their filaments penetrate the arterial coats, 
and spread out on their internal surfaces. The superaddition of a brain 
in the higher animals seems to demand an additional source or organic 
nervous power, for the special purpose of its development and support. 
And for this purpose the spleen, by its large provision of arterial bloo^., 
and absence of an excretory duct, seems well adapted. 

The organic nerves are connected with the cerebral by frequent 
anastomoses, which circumstance accounts for the reciprocal influence 
between mental impressions and bodily affections. 

The Motory Nervous System. — All the nerves of voluntary 
motion originate from the brain and spinal marrow. In a perfectly 
healthy state of the whole organism, they are completely under the con- 
trol of the will. In various spasmodic and convulsive diseases, this rela- 
tion is for a time nearly or quite destroyed. The motor nerves are 

242 pet:::. :-i-:-5j 

distributed to every muscular fibre in the body, and are the instruments 
through which the mental impulse is communicated to the muscles. 
All voluntary action is the motion produced by the contraction of the 
muscular fibres in obedience to the volition or decision of the min 1, 
conveyed to the muscles by the motory system of nerves. 

The Sentient Nervous System. — The nerves of sensation, like 
those of voluntary motion, are said to originate from the brain and 
spinal marrow. They are the instruments of communication from the 
external world to the brain, being the media of the external senses — 
seeing, hearing, tasting, smelling, and feeling. Thus the optic nerve 
conveys to the brain impressions of light; the auditory, of sound; the 
gustatory, of savors ; the olfactory, of o-Ws ; and the nerves, of touch, 
distributed to all parts of the body whic 1 are endowed with sensibility, 
convey impressions of the chemical or mechanical properties of bodies, 
as heat, cold, form, size, density, pressure, etc. 

Each nerve of a special sense is endowed with a modification of the 
general sense of feeling peculiar to and inherent in itself; for under 
no circumstances can the ear feel the impression of light, the eye of 
sound, or the skin of odors. 

The Reflex Nervous System. — The spinal cord is regarded as 
a conveyer of nervous influence to and from the brain, and also as an 
originator of nervous influence. When the spinal cord is divided or 
severely injured, the motor nerves given off" below the injured point do 
not -respond to the volition transmitted from the brain, while all the 
nerves above that point are under the influence of the brain. The im- 
pressions on the sensitive nerves are not propagated to the sensorium 
from below, but are from above the injured point. 

The spinal cord is divided into two lateral halves, and each of these 
into an anterior, middle, and posterior column, corresponding probably 
to the sensory, motor, and organic nerves. The anterior root of the 
spinal nerves is the motor or efferent root, which conveys impressions 
from the brain; the posterior is the sensory or afferent root, which con- 
veys impressions to the brain. A part of the <ibres of both roots are 
unconnected with the brain, having their origin in the gray matter of 
the spinal cord. These fibres are supposed to forhi a distinct nervous 
circle, and they constitute the system to which those actions are due, 
called reflex. All spasmodic or convulsive movements of the body are 
considered examples of extreme reflex action ; the producing causes 
of them may be seated in the spiual cord itself, then railed centric irri- 
tation, or at a distance, the irritation of which is transmitted to tho 



cord, called concentric irritation. Reflex motions are those muscular 
actions or contractions which take place in consequence of .impressions 
conveyed to the spinal*cord by the afferent nerves, and reflected fronx 
them by the efferent nerves. 

A spinal nerve contains a bundle of sensory fibres passing upward to 
the brain; a motor set, conveying the influence of volition from the 
brain ; an excitor set, or centripetal fibres, terminating in the true 
spinal cord, or ganglion, and conveying impressions to it ; and a motor 
set, or centrifugal fibres, arising from the true spinal cord, and convey- 
ing the motor influence reflected from it to the muscles. The last two 
named sets of fibres, with the gray matter in the centre of the cord, 
constitute the reflex system. 

Fig. 125 is a diagram of the origins and 
terminations of the different groups of 
nervous fibres, a, a. Vesicular substance 
of the spinal cord, b, b. Vesicular sub- 
stance of the brain, e. Vesicular substance 
at the commencement of the aiferent, 
which consists of c 1, the sensory nerve 
passing to the brain, and s 1, Ice spinal 
division, or excitor nerve, which termi- 
nates in the vesicular substance of the 
spinal cord. On the other side is the 
efferent or motor nerve, consisting of two 
divisions, c 2, the cerebral portion convey- 
ing voluntary motion, and s 2, the spinal 
division conveying reflex motion. 

The medulla oblongata has the 
general properties of the spinal 
cord, and associates the cord and brain in functiona. qualities. Ita 
power of reflexion is considered higher than that of any other part of 
the nervous system, irritation of it exciting convulsions in the whole 
trunk of the body. Respiration, deglutition, and those rhythmical 
actions of the respiratory system, laughing, yawning, sighing, etc., de- 
pend upon it. It is supposed also to be the seat, in whole or in part, 
of the power of voluntary motion. 


The Mental Nervous System. — The surface of the brain is 
arranged in various convolutions, which constitute the phrenological 
organs of the prevailing system of mental philosophy. These convolu- 
tions bear a close relation to the general mental capacity, being more 
numerous and prominent in persons whose minds have been well- 
developed by exercise, while in those whose brains have been exer- 
cised but little they are much less complex, and in idiots exceedingly 


limited. The object of these convolutions is to afford an extensive 
surface for the gray or vesicular matter which generates the nervous 
power, and a more free communication between the blood-vessels on 
one side, which supply the materials of nervous influence, and the 
numerous fibres on the other side, which propagate then- influence to 
the muscles. 

The brain and spinal cord are divided by a mesial line into equal 
right and left halves or hemispheres ; hence all the mental organs are 
double, as are also the sentient and motor nerves, which convey impres- 
sions to and from them. 

AU physiologists agree that the cerebrum is the seat of intelligence. 
This part of the brain composes about six sevenths of the whole ence- 
phalon, and usually weighs from thirty-six to forty-six ounces. Phre- 
nologians regard it as the seat of all the mental powers, except ama- 
tiveness, whose organ is the cerebellum, which constitutes about one 
seventh part of the brain. It has been objected to the cerebellum 
being the organ of sexual impulse, that its development in the scale of 
animals bears no relation to the energy of the sexual propensity. But 
animals are created with reference to the circumstances in which they 
are to be placed ; and, although size is a measure of power, other 
things being equal, there is, doubtless, as much in quality as in bulk of 
organization ; and in those cases where the passion of amativeness has 
existed in connection with a partial or total absence of the organ — the 
force of habit, the exercise of the organ, or transmitted organic sus- 
ceptibility, may explain the apparent exceptions to general experience. 

That the cerebellum is also a generator of nervous influence to the 
muscles of locomotion, seems to be established from experiments on 
animals. When the organ was removed, although sensibility in any 
part was never destroyed, the animals lost the power of standing, 
walking, springing, flying, etc. 

The whole brain, though the seat of sensibility, is itself wholly in- 
sensible. Any part of it may be cut, pricked, torn, or removed; with- 
out exciting pain. 

Animals from whom the cerebrum was removed always lost the 
senses of sight, hearing, taste, and smell, and appeared as if in a deep 
sleep, without the power of dreaming ; they could, however, be 
aroused to unconscious motions by irritations operating through the 
sense of feeling. These facts prove that it is not only the seat of most 
of the mental functions, but possesses the power of directing the mind 
to particular sensorial impressions. 

Philosophy cf Mind. — The brain is the presiding centre of sensa- 


tion, voluntary motion, the intellectua faculties, and the passions or 
propensities. The mind is the aggregate of all the functions of the 
brain. A mental power is the function of a particular organ or portion 
of the brain. All the mental powers may be distinguished into facul- 
ties and propensities. 

The faculties together constitute the intellect. They are the pow- 
ers concerned in thought the formation of ideas, the acquisition of 
knowledge, the thinking and knowing part of the mind. The faculties 
are divided into perceptive and reflective. The perceptives take cog- 
nizance of individual things and their mechanical properties. The 
reflectives arrange, compare, and analyze subjects, and trace out their 
relations of cause and effect. The perceptive faculties are the func- 
tions of the observing organs ; the reflective faculties are the powers 
■)f the reasoning organs. 

. The propensities are the feeling organs ; they are the impulses, 
emotions, or passions which impel to action. To gratify these feel- 
ings or propensities the intellectual faculties devise means, seek out ob- 
jects, study methods. The external or special senses, seeing, hearing, 
smelling, tasting, and feeling, are the media through which the faculties 
operate in their natural or normal condition. But they are capable of 
acting independently of the external senses in certain abnormal states, 
as in somnambulism, dreaming, mesmerism, and clairvoyance. When 
the faculties have discerned the object, or ascertained the manner of 
satisfying the impulse or propensity, the will determines its instru- 
mentalities — the bodily structures, to act in relation to its possession or 
enjoyment. The propensities which relate merely to individual pres- 
ervation are called selfish, or self-relative ; those which pertain to the 
family circle, domestic ; those which connect us in mutual interests 
and sympathetic relations with our fellow-creatures, social ; the higher 
plane of propensities, which relate to rules of action, conscience, and a 
Supreme Being, are termed moral qualities or sentiments ; and those 
propensities most nearly allied in location and association with the fac- 
ulties are called semi-intellectual. 

Mind then appears to us as ''duality in unity," consisting essentially 
of faculties and feelings — in other words, affections and thoughts. It 
is not difficult to imagine that the affectuous mind is the primitive 
mental property ; first in order, highest or most interior in existence, 
and, to extend the idea poetically, more nearly 

To angels on our better side." 

All true happiness consists in r\ o-ht feeling ; (hin iing is but a means 


to it. The healthful exercise of all the mental powers is the perfect 
condition of right feeling ; and the normal play of all the bodily func- 
tions is indispensable to this healthful exercise of the mental powers. 
It is, therefore, literally true that health of body and health of mind is 

The mind, however, must not be confounded with the soul. Mind 
may be denned as the manifestation of the soul or spirit through the 
material organism. 

The Nervous Influence. — The essential nature of that power, 
principle, or influence, which endows the nervous tissue with its pecu- 
liar properties has always been a theme of interesting speculation. 
The most ancient doctrine was that of the circulation of a fluid through 
the tubes of the nervous fibres; but at length the tubes were found 
not to be hollow. The next theory was that of vibration : it was sup- 
posed that the nerves conveyed impressions from one extremity to the 
other by a vibratory motion analogous to a stringed instrument; but 
this doctrine was abandoned on discovering that the nerves, instead of 
being attached firmly at their extremities, are diffused into a soft, 
pulpy mass. The prevalent opinion now is, that the source of nervous 
power is some modification of electricity. The identity, however, of 
the nervous influence with electricity, galvanism, or magnetism, as 
manifested by any structure or material other than the nervous tissue, 
is positively disproved. It has been ascertained that if a ligature bo 
placed upon a nerve, its power of conducting the true nervous or func- 
tional influence is lost, while its ability to transmit electrical currents 

In the present state of physiological science, therefore, we can only 
say that the nervous influence, the sensibility of the nervous tissue, 
the contractility of the muscular, and the elasticity of the areolar, are 
each vital properties peculiar to, and developed in, the organization of 
the structures to which they appertain ; and there is not much proba- 
bility that we shall ever arrive at any better explanation. What they 
are exactly and essentially we can no more demonstrate than we can 
the essential nature of oxygen, electricity, magnetism, or any other ele- 
mentary substance or principle ; nor would we be benefited if we could. 

Rationale or Muscular Action. — The voluntary muscles are 
disposed in sets, which are said to antagonize each other ; these sets 
are called flexors, extensors, adductors, abductors, etc., as they draw 
the part to which they are attached forward, backward, inward, out- 
ward, etc. Thus, where the flexors contract they close the fingers, 


draw up the arms, bend the legs, etc. ; and the extensors, by contract- 
ing, open the fingers, extend the arm, straighten the leg, etc. The 
common opinion has long been, that when the nervous energy, or 
influence of the brain, is transmitted to one set of muscular fibres — 
the flexors, for example — they contract, while the other, or antag- 
onizing muscles, remain passive, by which flexion is produced; and 
that when the nervous influence is directed to the opposing, or exten- 
sor muscles, these contract, and the flexors remain passive, by which 
means the contrary motion, extension, results. 

But such cannot be the correct theory of muscular motion. Experi- 
ments seem to have demonstrated that when the nerves which supply 
either the flexor or extensor muscles are divided, neither will act or 
contract at all. From this it appears that neither set can act independ- 
ently, and that the antagonizing muscles, as they are called, do really 
act in correspondence ; the same nervous influence which produces 
contraction in one set, producing relaxation or expansion in the other. 
We must, then, regard muscular action, which is performed by the 
alternate contraction and expansion of the muscular fibres — analogous 
to electrical attraction and repulsion in inorganic matter — not as de- 
pending on two principles of influence, or on one principle alternately 
bestowed and withdrawn, but as resulting from two properties of one 
principle operating simultaneously. 

The same law of motions appears to prevail with regard to the in- 
voluntary muscles ; but their structure and arrangement are so different 
that its operation is more difficultly traced. Instead of running in straight 
lines, their fibres extend in parallel, transverse, diagonal, and circular 
directions, thereby embracing the part, organ, or vessel, so as to produce 
a complicated series of motions at the same time, as in the stomach, 
bowels, bladder, and uterus, where a kind of universal compression on 
the contents of their cavities results from the varied directions and 
motions of their fibres. 

The strength and rapidity of muscular action are well illustrated in 
the feats performed by tumblers, jugglers, and dancers, and the articu- 
lations of spoken language. Some persons can pronounce 1500 letters 
in a minute, each requiring a separate contraction of muscular fibres, 
followed by a relaxation of equal length ; so that each contraction must 
have occurred in one tenth of a second. 

Mesmeric Phenomena. — Those manifestations of peculiar abnormal 
states and operations of the mental nervous system, known as dreams, 
somnambulism, second sight, mesmerism, clairvoyance, etc., deserve a 
passing notice. The sum total of these phenomena has been called 


mesmerism, pathetism, electrical psychology, or electro-biology, etc. 
The fact that the mind can and does take cognizance of things — some- 
times real and sometimes imaginary — while in the state or condition 
termed mesmeric, which it cannot and does not in its ordinary state or 
condition, is unquestionable. The explanation is not so apparent. 

It is a self-evident proposition that the human mind is created with 
constitutional relations to all objects in external nature — in the universe. 
All surrounding objects, without regard to direction or distance, may 
and do hold a specific relation to the mind, in other words, act upon, or 
impress, or hold communication with it. The special senses — seeing, 
hearing, tasting, smelling, and feeling — -are the media of the correspond- 
ence between mind and surrounding objects, in the usual, ordinary, or 
normal state. But if the brain and nervous system are functionally 
exalted, rendered peculiarly impressible, while the special senses are 
in the ordinary functional condition, the mind will have a larger field 
of perceptions, a greater capacity to form ideas, whether correctly or 
incorrectly. If the brain and nervous system maintain, by any unusual 
internal or external exciting cause, the normally active condition, while 
the external or special senses are at rest — inactive or insusceptible — the 
same increased mental capacity to feel the impressions of distant objects, 
form ideas, etc., results. And if the brain and nervous system are 
under the abnormal influence which preternaturally augments their 
functions, while the external senses are not merely in a state of normal 
repose, but of profound and preternatural rest — abnormally insuscepti- 
ble — then the objects at a very great distance, or in a direction which 
could not be seen, felt, heard, etc., in the normal state, or through the 
external senses, impress the mind, and are distinctly recognized. In 
this state, too, the mind takes greater or less cognizance of the thoughts 
of other minds with which it is brought into close sympathetic relations, 
and echoes veiy accurately the thoughts or opinions of such minds. 
In this way clairvoyants answer with surprising correctness many 
questions, their answers :eing simply the reflection of the minds, 
thoughts, or opinions of the operator, or manipulator, or of the person 
placed in communication. 

But many times the attention of the mesmerizee or clairvoyant is 
directed to places, objects, and persons at great distances, hundreds or 
thousands of miles, when they discover and describe many things as 
they really exist, and others which have no reality at all. These phe- 
nomena prove that the mental field of vision may be vastly extended, 
but that its abnormal or preternatural state does not render its impres- 
sions reliable as exclusive sources of information ; the ever-varying 
states of the nervous susceptibility may render the cognizance of 


objects in the abnormal state just as variable in regard to reality or 

Some persons have an organization peculiarly favorable to the mani- 
festation of the phenomena in question, and others are capable of ac- 
quiring a great degree of mesmeric susceptibility, so much so as to pass 
into the clairvoyant state at will, and then survey with interior vision 
many things in heaven and earth as they really exist, or revel in dream- 
land, as imagination leads off in the mental operations. 

The phenomena more strictly physiological, and those effects on the 
nervous influence which have been made available as remedial pro- 
cesses in disease, may all be accounted for on the principles of mental 
sympathy and electrical or magnetic innervation. A strongly magnetic, 
powerfully electric, or in other words, vigorously healthy person, may 
rapidly manufacture nervous influence, and readily impart it to another 
of more susceptible temperament, or in feeble health. The hand and 
fingers are exquisitely organized for receiving and transmitting a large 
amount of nervous influence, and gentle manipulations are the best 
ways of imparting it. The exercise of weak, torpid, and rigid muscles, 
-iy rubbing, kneading, thumping, etc., is remedial, or innervating, or 
magnetically medicinal, very much in the ratio of the capacity of the 
vital organism, and the development of the organic or nutritive nerves 
and ganglia of the operator. 

Order of Structural Development. — From minute vesicles 
or cells, having as a nucleus a small round body of matter, surrounded 
by a granular fluid, and enclosed in a thin membrane, all the structures 
are developed. The ovum and the embryo are originally composed 
of such nucleated cells. Some cells are independent of and isolated 
from each other, as the corpuscles of the blood, chyle, and lymph ; 
others cohere by their surfaces and borders, as in the epidermis, or 
scarf-skin ; others are connected by an intermediate substance, as bono 
and cartilage ; and others are united in rows, forming hollow tubes, 
capillary vessels, and the tubuli of nerves and muscles. 

The first distinct structure developed in the human body is that of 
the nerves of organic life. The necessity of this is appnreut, as they 
constitute the presiding centre and controlling instruments over all the 
functions of nutrition and growth. They form not only a general centre 
to the whole organic system, but by means of their ganglia supply each 
particular part, organ, and function with a special presiding centre. 
These ganglia appear like mere enlargements of the nervous cord, 
and are numerously distributed throughout the body, according to the 
importance and complexity of the functions to which they specially 


appertain. They serve undoubtedly to collect, direct, ir odify, regulate, 
and adapt the nervous influence to the functional condition of the 
various organs, and constitute, in one sense, so many points of polarity 
to its attractive and repellent properties. 

Next in order, as second in functional importance, the heart and 
muscular system are produced, followed by blood-vessels gng.dually ex- 
tending, and enlarging till the vascular system is completed. The 
nutritive or organic nerves intimately accompany the arteries from 
their ganglia, and send oft' branches to aid in the development and 
preside over the nourishment of particular organs, to which they hold 
the same relation that the brain does to the voluntary muscles. The 
ganglia which form the subordinate centres to the alimentary canal 
are the first ones produced from the increasing development of the 
organic nerves. Soon on each side of the central mass of the nutri- 
tive nervous substance numerous ganglia, or little brains, arise, in the 
shape of two connected nervous cords, and eventually form, on each 
side of the spinal column, a series of ganglia extending the whole length 
of the spine. These ganglia send out branches of nerves to the several 
special centres, to unite them in associated action ; to the muscles, and 
to those branches of the other ganglia which are sent to the viscera, 
and contribute to the development of the spine, trunk, and extremities. 

The great centre of the organic system, the semilunar ganglion, con- 
sists of the two semicircular bodies behind the pit of the stomach; they 
are closely connected by branches passing from one to the other, which 
form the solar plexus. To this general centre the numerous special 
centres are united by nSrvous cords and plexuses. Death takes place 
\f the functions of this system of nerves be suspended but for a moment. 

"With the increasing formation of the ganglionic centre the alimentary 
organs are developed ; the stomach, intestines, pancreas, etc., followed 
by the excretory organs, the liver, kidneys, and skin. Lastly are de- 
veloped the lungs, spleen, brain, and spinal marrow, the membranes, 
bones, ligaments, and cartilages, terminating in the hair, nails, and 



Sensation is the recognition Ly the mind of an impression. That 
part of the brain, or rather quality, which perceives impressions is often 


caIL.<d the sensorium. Sensations are distinguished into external and 
internal. External sensations arise from impressions made upon the 
outer surface of the body, as the eye, nose, mouth, ear, and skin, 
which are the organs of the external or special senses. Internal 
sensations have their causes within the body, and arise from functional 
conditions, as hunger, thirst, suffocation. An active capillary circulation 
is essential to the normal sensibility of a part. If the blood is excluded 
from the capillary vessels by severe co.d, the sensibility is deadened ; 
and if the vessels are over-distended, as in inflammation, the sensibility 
becomes painful. General sensibility is distributed over the entire 
body, enabling us to feel those impressions of surrounding objects 
which produce the various modifications of pain and pleasure. Special 
sensibility pertains to those organs which connect the mind with the 
physical world, and by which the mind is educated. The nerves 
of special sensation have no general sensibility except what is derived 
from nerves of general sensibility distributed to them. 

Sense of Touch. — The nerves of feeling are the posterior roots 
of the spinal nerves, and some fibres of the fifth and eighth pairs r 
cerebral nerves. They are disti'ibuted to the Fig i 26 

papilliE of the skin, which are small eleva- 
tions enclosing loops of blood-vessels and 
branches of sensory nerves, situated on the 
external surface of the cutis vera. 

Fig. 126 is a representation of the papillae of the palm < vgfev£ . ^<"tf^ftq£j£ 
of the hand, the cuticle being removed. CUTANEOUS PAPILLiE. 

When a body to be touched comes in contact with the sensory sur- 
face, the only idea communicated to the mind is that of resistance. 
The degree of resistance affords a knowledge of the hardness or soft- 
ness of the body. When the body touched and the sensory surface 
are moved upon each other, a motion is conceived of extension or 
space, roughness, smoothness, and other mechanical properties. 

The knowledge of form and weight some late physiologists have 
been unable to account for by the ordinary sense of touch, and have 
got out of the difficulty by supposing a sixth sense, which they call the 
muscular sense, to exist for that particular purpose. The sense of tem- 
perature has also been attributed to a distinct set of nerves, because 
the recognition of it occurred without the actual contact of the hot or 
cold body with the sensory surface. I do not see that either supposition 
makes the matter any clearer. Form and weight are but degrees of 
extension and resistance, and temperature, whether its essential nature 


is caloric, light, or electricity, is but the perception of rays or particles 
coming in contact with the sensory surface, and expanding or contract- 
ing, that is to say, moving the contractile tissues so as to impress the 
nervous papillae. 

The sense of touch is developed in different parts in proportion to 
the supply of sensory nerves. In man the acuteness of the sense 
varies in different regions of the body. The lips, tip of the tongue, 
and inside of the last joints of the fingers are exquisitely sensitive, in 
consequence of the nerves being very numerous and superficially dis- 
tributed. The epidermis is also very thin in those parts, and the 
innumerable lines and furrows afford the papillae a greater degree of 
isolation. The development of the sense corresponds with the number 
and extent of these lines and furrows. The sense of touch, like all 
the special senses, may be educated to a surprising degree of acuteness 
and accuracy, as with the blind, who have been taught to read and even 
distinguish colors by it. 

Sense of Taste. — The various papillae on the surface of the tongue, 
when excited by contact with savory substances become turgid and 
erect, so as to produce considerable roughness of the organ. Some of 
the papillae, the filiform particularly, are supposed to be concerned in 
the common sensibility or feeling of the tongue, and the remainder are 
regarded as exclusively pertaining to the sense of taste. 

Solubility of the matter brought in contact with the tongue is a 
necessary condition of taste. The sense may also be excited by me- 
chanical or chemical irritation of the nerves. A smart blow by the 
finger, or a galvanic shock, will often excite the taste, which is then 
sometimes acid and sometimes alkaline. As sapid substances impress 
the olfactory as well as the gustatory nerves, the sense of taste is gen- 
erally materially diminished when the nose is obstructed. 

Taste, like all the special senses, is highly educable, but in civilized 
life is generally deeply depraved and perverted. Its object in the ani- 
mal economy is to dire ft us in the selection of alimentary substances, 
and assists us in judginj of their adaptation to the wants of the nutritive 
apparatus. The ability to appreciate and enjoy the gustatory property 
of natural and heaWiful food is exactly proportioned to the integrity 
of the sense ; and those persons who cannot realize any agreeable 
savor in any article of nutriment until the papillae of the tongue are 
stung into action by salt, pepper, mustard, vinegar, or other pungents, 
know but little of the bountiful and luxurious repast nature has pro- 
vided for her unsophisticated children, or of the real pleasures of eat- 
ing. Like the drunkard, whc svvfllows the burning poison of nlcoho' 


not for the mere pleasure of drinking, but ti drown or appease a mad- 
dening and insatiable craving, the epicure or riotous liver eats net to 
enjoy or live, so much as to silence the goadings of a morbid appetite. 

Sense of Smell. — Olfaction enables us to distinguish flavor, and 
thereby judge of the odorous particles floating in the atmosphere. Its 
use is to co-operate with taste in determining the qualities of food, and 
protect the respiratory passages by detecting injurious effluvia or othor 
deleterious matters. Its seat is the mucous membrane of the nose, 
though the whole of the mucous surface is not endowed with the sense 
of smell. The upper portion of the membrane, expanded over the 
superior and part of the middle spongy bones, is the olfiictoiy region, 
to which the olfactory nerve is distributed. Sneezing, which is called 
a reflex action, is supposed to depend on the fifth pair of nerves, from 
which is derived the general sensibility of the mucous membrane. 

The conditions requisite for the perfect exercise of this sense are, 
integrity of the nervous apparatus, and a normal degree of special 
sensibility. The odorous particles must also be soluble. Colds, in- 
flammation of the mucous surface, strong irritants and narcotics, as 
cephalic or tobacco snuff, always weaken or paralyze, and sometimes 
utterly destroy all perception of odors. Smelling-bottles of ammonia 
and camphor, and all strong and pungent perfumery, not only injure 
the sense, but injuriously affect the whole brain through the medium 
of this sense. 

Sense or Hearing. — No part of the human organization exhibits a 
greater complexity of structure than the hearing apparatus. Nor will 
it excite wonder that it is so, when we consider how extensively hu- 
man beings are related to the external world and to each other, in their 
duties, their interests, and their pleasures, by this function. The ex- 
ternal ear is fashioned into various elevations, depressions, and curva- 
tures, peculiarly fitted to catch the sonorous waves from all directions. 
The external meatus conveys them, strengthened by reflection from the 
walls of the canal, and modified by the resonance of the mass it encloses, 
to the membrana tympani. This membrane is not essential to sound, 
for its perforation or destruction is not followed by a loss of the sense ; 
but it serves to modify the sonorous vibrations which are to be commu- 
nicated to the chain of bones, in such a manner as to be thrown into 
reciprocal vibration, though it cannot reciprocate any sound lower than 
its own fundamental note. 

The chain of bones, moved by their muscles, conducts the vibrations 
jicross the tympanum to the internal ear. The tensor tympani, in the 


function of hearing, performs an office analogous to that of the iris in 
seeing. Its contraction draws down the handle of the malleus, render- 
ing the membrana tympani tense. When very tense it cannot recipro- 
cate low sounds, and by very loud sounds it may be excited to reflection, 
ih which state the membrane is too tense to reciprocate them. Its 
natural condition is rather lax, the state in which it can reciprocate the 
greatest variety of sounds. The tensor tympani muscle contracts more 
powerfully as the sound is louder, as the iris does upon the application 
of the stimulus o'* light. 

The tympanum isolates the chain of bones, and allows free motion to 
the membrane at each of its extremities, while its contained air rever- 
berates the, sound, which is still further strengthened and modified by 
reflection from the neighboring walls, cells, spaces, and cavities, par- 
ticularly by the reflection from the membrane of the fenestra ovalis 
and fenestra rotunda. The Eustachian lube serves principally to 
maintain an equilibrium between the external air and that enclosed in 
the tympanum, by which undue tension of the membrana tympani is 

The uses of the different parts of the labyrinth are not well under- 
Btood. It is supposed that the semicircular canals regulate the per- 
ception of the direction of sounds, while the cochlea determines the 
pitch of tho notes. The fluid contained in the membranous portion 
of tin- labyrinth, and the ear-stones, oloconites, which float in it, doubt- 
less increase the impression on the sentient nerves by being thrown 
in^o vibratory motions, while this part of the labyrinth itself affords a 
mate extended surface for the expansion of the auditory nerve. 

Philosophy of Sound. — The whole complex structure of the au- 
ditory apparatus has reference to two principles : the propagation, of 
6onorous vibrations, and their multiplication by resonance. In some of 
the lower animals the perception of sound takes place by means of a 
very simple contrivance, consisting essentially of a sac containing a 
fluid, and having a nerve spread out upon it; the membrana tympani, 
ossicula, cochlea, and semicircular canals being absent. 

Sounds are said to be propagated by reciprocation, by resonance, and 
by conduction. An example of the first method is found in two strings 
of equal tension, placed side by side ; if the one be thrown into vibra- 
tion, the other will reciprocate by making corresponding vibrations. 
Resonance occurs when a sounding body is placed in connection with 
any other, of which one or more parts may be thrown into reciprocal 
vibrations, although the tone of the whole be different, or if the medium 
be incapable of producing any tone at all. Thus, if a tuning-fork, while 
vibrating, be placed in contact with a sounding-board, the latter will di- 


vide itself, as it were, into a number of parts, each of which will recip- 
rocate the original sound so as greatly to increase its intensity. Sounds 
of conduction are, propagated through all bodies, solids being better 
conductors than fluids, and fluids more conductive than gases. If the 
ear be placed at one extremity of a log or a long board, and the other 
end be struck, the sound will extend along or through the whole length 
of the material, and be perceived by the organ. 

A more definite idea of sound may be obtained from the familial 
illustration of the common church bell. 

When the tongue, a, strikes the side at I, it F 'g- W. 

springs out to c, changing entirely the form of the 
bell, which is represented by the dotted line. 
When the bell springs back to its original form, its 
sides retract and expand in an opposite direction, 
as a vibrating string rebounds beyond its centre, or 
starting point; and so alternately, making a succes- 
sion of sonorous waves of air, as a stone thrown 
into a pool causes circular rings to expand in all 
directions. When these movements of the air become sensible to the 
ear, we have the pu^eption of sound. 

The primitive sounds of the musical scale are derived from the 
different forces or kinds of vibration. Thus, when a bell is struck, 
the first full, loud sound is the fundamental or key note. When the 
force of the blow is partially spent, there is a different degree of mo- 
tion, producing a different force of atmospheric vibration, and occasion- 
ing a modified perception of sound ; and when the vibrations have 
decreased still further in intensity, a third primitive sound is rec- 

A musical chord is the combined sound of several sounds produced 
simultaneously. When the effort is pleasant to the ear, these chords 
are called concords ; and when unpleasant, discords. The most pleas- 
ing concords are produced when the greatest number of vibrations in a 
given time occur together ; and the most disagreeable discords, when 
the fewest vibrations take place simultaneously. 

A good idea of concord may be gathered from the following illus- 
tration : 

On counting the waved lines, it will be F - 12g 

found that every third vibration of the sound 

represented by the upper line, and every sec- / JVVjV\/J\AAA/?\ 
ond vibration of the sound represented by the ^vWjVWyWjVW^ 
under line, come together, the conjunction 
being denoted by the dotted cross-lines According to the greater or 


less frequency of these coincident vibrations, are the sounds concord- 
ant or discordant. The most agreeable concord is, of course, that 
where every vibration of one sound and every other vibration of an- 
other sound come together. 

The Sense of Sight. — Vision makes us acquainted with the exist- 
ence of light, by which medium the mind recognizes the form, size, 
color, position, etc., of bodies that transmit or reflect it. 

The roots of the optic nerves unite, before entering the orbits, into 
intimate junctions, called chiasms , from ihese chiasms they diverge 
and enter the orbit through the optic foiamina, part of the fibres of 
each passing to the opposite eye, a part being connecting or commisu- 
ral, and the remainder passing to the eye of the same side. This 
arrangement seems to associate the two eyes in a single act of vision, 
although most physiologists regard tho single vision with two eyes as a 
result of the rays of light from a luminous object falling upon parts of 

the retina? accustomed to 
F'B- 129. act together. 

Fig. 129 is a representation ot 
the course of the fibres of the 
optid^erve in the chiasm, a. 
Anterior fibres, commisural be- 
tween the two retinse. p. Pos- 
terior fibres, commisural between 
the thalami, or origin of the optic 
nerves, a.' p.' Diagram of the 

The essential parts of the eye are, the expansion of the optic nerve, 
called retina, which feels the impressions of light, and the transparent 
refracting media, or humors of the eye, which transmit the light so as 
to bring it to a focus upon the retina. The sclerotic forms a firm sun- 
port to the globe, and is opake, except in front, where it becorr s 
transparent for the admission of the rays of light, and is called cornt t. 
The dark pigment called choroid, between the sclerotic and retina, Ab- 
sorbs the rays of light after they have impressed the retina. The 
choroid becomes gradually lighter in many people as they advance in 
life, and in the Albino it is entirely wanting. The iris is a vertical 
curtain-like process of the choroid, hanging across the cavity of the 
aqueous humor, and its central perforation is the 2>iqnl. The contrac- 
tion and relaxation of the circular fibres surrounding the orifice of the 
pupil, as the rays of light are stronger or weaker, regulate the impres- 
sion on the nervous expansion. When the iris becomes insensible or 
weakened, the pupil remains permanently dilated and vision dull, as 

'.. a / 

f 1 



/ . 

/ /s 

' P'"" 





in affections of the optic nerve, compression of the brain, etc. The iris 
is also weakened and the pupil dilated by being continued too long in 
dark or deeply shaded situations. The pure narcotics, belladona, hen- 
bane, etc., cause a dilatation of the pupil by paralyzing the nervous in- 
fluence. Under exposure to very strong light, and in acute inflamma- 
tory affections of the brain the pupil is re^-urkably contracted ; and 
also during the stage of excitement, when the brain is laboring under 
the influence of the stimulating narcotics, as opium, camphor, and 

The adaptation of the eye to distances is a phenomenon not yet very 
well explained. Some physiologists consider it as entirely the result 
of habit or education, while others s'ippose the perception of a distinct 
image, whether the object be far or near, is owing to an altered posi- 
tion of the crystalline lens by muscular agency — an opinion strength- 
ened by the fact, that the adjusting power of the eye is impaired or 
lost by the extraction of the lens, or by paralyzing the muscles of the 
ciliary processes and iris with belladona. • 

The question has been much discussed, why objects appear erect to 
us, when it is known that the rays of light from the opposite points of 
a luminous object cross one another by the successive refractions they 
experience, and thus make the image on the retina actually inverted ? 
But no satisfactory solution has yet been offered, and many regard the 
phenomenon as the result of education and experience. 



Voice is formed in the larynx, and is produced by the simple expul- 
sion of air from the lungs, when the vocal ligaments or cords are held 
in a certain degree of tension. Nearly all animals possess the power 
of making voice-sounds. Singing, crying, and yelling are examples. 
Speech is the modification of voice-sounds in the cavity of the mouth, 
constituting articulation. The articulating organs are the tongue, palate, 
lips, and teeth. The fauces and cavities of the nose modify and intensify 
both voice and articulate sounds by affording a resonant surface. Speech 
in perfection is a faculty peculiarly human, although many animals — 
the parrot and jackdaw, for examples — are ospable of uttering words 
and sentences very distinctly. 


All the vowels are voice-sounds, being made without any change in 
the shape or position of the vocal organs during their continuance. 
Short vowel sounds are distinguished from those termed long, broad, 
grave, and close, by the impossibility of prolonging them for any appre- 
ciable length of time. The others can be prolonged as long !is expira- 
tion can be maintained. The consonants are articulate, sounds, formed 
by interruptions in the vowel sounds produced by changes in the posi- 
tion of the vocal organs. 

The English language may be reduced by analysis to forty-four rudi- 
meutal sounds, or elements, sixteen of which are vowels and twenty- 
eight consonants. The vowel elements are : the long, short, broad, 
and grave sounds of a, as in ail, at, all, ah ; the long and short sounds 
of e, as in ease, end ; the long and short sounds of i, as in isle, ill ; the 
long, short, and close sounds of o, as in old, on, move ; the long, short, 
and broad sounds of u, as in turn, tub, full ; and the double vowel 
sounds of oi or oy, in oil, coy, and ou or ow, in our, how. 

Diphthongs are two vowel sounds in one syllable ; the only ones in 
our language are long i, as in mile, and long u, as in lure, and the 
sounds of oi or oy, and ou or ow. Triphthongs have no existence. 
They are said to be the union of three vowel sounds in one syllable ; 
but though these vowels are often written in one syllable, one or more 
of them is always silent in the pronunciation, as in adieu, which is pro- 
nounced as if written adw. 

The consonant elements are : the name sound of b, as in bite ; the 
soft or hissing sound of c, or name sound of s, as in cent ; the hard 
sound of c, or name sound of k, as in came ; the name sound of z, as 
in suffice ; the sound of sh, as in ocean ; the name sound of d, as in 
dust ; the name sound of t, as in correct ; the name sound of f as in 
brief; the name sound of v, as in of; the soft sound of g, or name 
sound of j, as in germ ; the hard or guttural sound of g, as in gull ; 
the sound of g represented by zh, as in rouge ; the aspirate or name 
sound of h, as in hale ; the name sound of I, as in late ; the name 
sound of m, as in man ; the name sound of n, as in nun ; the sound of 
n represented by ng, as in link ; the name sound of p, as in page ; 
the smooth sound of r, as in far ; the trilled sound of r, as in rough ; 
the name sound of w, as in wool; the sound of x, represented by les, as 
in flax; the sound of x, represented by gz, as in exist; the sound o{y, 
represented by ye, as in youth ; the aspirate sound of th, as in thin ; 
the vocal sound of th, as in this ; the sound of wh, as in ivhale ; and 
the sound of ch, as in church. 

In a strictly philosophically written language, each distinct element- 
ary sound should be represented by a distinct character, making as many 



letters as there are vocal and articulate elements. But in the English 
language there are only twenty-six letters to nearly twice as many 
sounds ; and while some of the letters represent but one elementary 
sound, others, as a and c, represent four. The phonographic reform, 
therefore, is clearly founded in nature and in physiology. 

The vocal apparatus has been compared to various musical instru- 
ments, in which strings, tubes, and reeds are the agencies in the pro- 
duction of sound, as the violin, flute, and clarionet. The analogy is not 
very close in relation to either separately, but the vocal machinery 
combines many properties of them all. 

The lower vocal cords are mainly concerned in the production of 
sound; if the upper cords are removed voice continues, but is rendered 
feeble ; if the lower are destroyed, it is entirely lost. 

The tones of voice depend on the varying tension of the vocal cords. 
In the production of tones, the ligaments of opposite sides are brought 
into approaching parallelism with each other by the approximation of 
the points of the arytenoid cartilages ; in the intervals they are again 
separated, and the opening between them, rima glottidis, assumes the 
form of the letter V. 

Fig. 130 exhibits the vocal ligaments Fig. 130. 

as seen superiorly. G, E, H. Thyroid 
cartilage. N, F. Arytenoid cartilages. 
S, V, S, V. Vocal cords or ligaments. 
N, X. Crico-arytenoidens lateralis. V. 
k, f. Right thyro-arytenoideus. N, 1, N, 
1. Crico-arytenoidei postici. B. B. Crico- 
arytenoid ligament. 

The muscles which stretch or 
relax the vocal ligaments are 
alone concerned in the voice. 
The muscles which open and 
close the glottis regulate the 
amount of the air inspired and 
expired, and belong to respira- ^ 

tion. These muscles are the larynx from above. 

seat of spasmodic affections producing suffocation. 

The pitch of the tones is regulated by the tension of the vocal cords. 
Its volume or intensity depends on the capacity of the lungs, length of 
the trachea, and the force with which the air is expelled, and the flex- 
ibility of the vocal cords. In the male the vocal cords are longer than 
in the female, in the proportion of three to two, which renders the 
male voice usually an octave lower 


The natural compass of voice in most persons is two octaves, or 
twenty-four semitones. Singers are capable of producing ten distinct 
intervals between each semitone, makiig in all 240 intervals, requiring 
as many different states of tension of tae vocal cords, all of which are 
producible at pleasure, and without a greater variation of the length 
of the cords than one fifth of an inch. One of the most wonderful 
phenomena of vitality is the facilitj with which the will determines the 
exact degree of tension necessary to produce a given note, when the 
mind has formed a distinct conception of the tone required. 

A musical note is a prolonged vowel sound, and may be regarded as 
the natural language of emotion, or the expression of the affectuous 
mind. Speech is the natural expression of ideas or thoughts. These 
two kinds of natural language are intimately associated in the human 
being, so that there is music in well-spoken thoughts. 

Ventriloquism is simply the power of imitating the voices of others, 
the cries of animals, and the sounds of inanimate matter so closely as to 
produce a complete vocal illusion, making them seem to come from any 
distance or direction, or through any kind of media. Those who have 
this imitative power well developed, must possess an extraordinary 
flexibility of the whole vocal apparatus. 



Those functions which relate exclusively to the growth, develop- 
ment, and preservation of the individual organism are, digestion, circu- 
lation, respiration, absorption, nutrition, secretion, and calorification. 
Some physiologists regard innervation, or the production of nervous 
influence, and that property of the tissues called endosmose and exos- 
innse, by which fluids and gases are interchanged through the structures, 
ns distinct functions. 

I think, however, the term function is not properly applied to those 
properties or processes of the organism. Innervation literally means 
the existence of nervous power; its production must depend on the 
other functions. Endosmosis and exosmosis are rather mechanical 
than vital processes, as they take place in unorganized as well as 
organized structures. 



Fig. 131 is an ideal represent- 
ation of the organs of digestion, 
opened nearly the whole length. 
1. Upper jaw. 2. Lower jaw. 
3. Tongue. 4. Roof of the 
mouth. 5. (Esophagus. 6. 
Trachea. 7 and 8. The paro- 
tid and sublinguinal glands- 
two of the salivary glands. 9. 
Stomach. 10, 10. Liver. 11. 
Gall-cyst. 12. The duct con- 
veying the bile to the duode- 
num (13, 13). 14. Pancreas. 

15, 15, 15, 15. Small intestine. 

16. Opening of the small into 
the large intestine. 17, 18, 19, 
20. Large intestine. 21. Spleen. 
22. Upper part of the spinal 

Digestion. — The first 
of the organic functions 
is the conversion of ali- 
mentary matter into 
chyle, which in its turn 
is converted into blood. 
The first process of the 
digestive function is mas- 
tication, by which the 
food is divided into fine 
particles by the cutting 
and grinding action of tho 
teeth. The presence of 
aliment and the act if 
mastication excite the 
function of' the salivary 
glands to secrete the sol- 
vent fluid called saliva, 
which is intimately min- 
gled with the particles of alimentary matter, completing the process of 
insalivation. The alimentary substances, comminuted and softened 
are then conveyed into the stomach by the act of swallowing, called 
deglutition. The presence of food in the stomach excites the flow of 
gastric juice, which is secreted from its mucous membrane. The 
vessels of the stomach then receive a greater supply of blood, and 
there is a slight increase of temperature. The solvent property of the 
gastric juice was generally conjee, ired, but sometimes denied, until 



clearly demonstrated by the experiments of Dr. Beaumont, in 1833. 
In consequence of a gun-shot wound in the person of Alexis St. Martin 
healing in such a manner as to leave an artificial opening into the stom- 
ach, Dr. Beaumont was enabled to introduce various aliments directly 
into the stomach, and ascertain the chemical or solvent property of the 
gastric juice. 

The gastric juice usually manifests an acid reaction to chemical tests, 
but chemists do not agree very well as to its actual chemical properties. 
According to the analysis of Professor Dunglison, it contains free muri- 
atic and acetic acids, phosphates and muriates of potassa, soda, magnesia, 
and lime. Blondlot imputes its acidity to super-phosphate of lime, 
while Professor Thornton and MM. Bernard and Barseswil attribute it 
to the presence of lactic acid ; an acid which Liebig positively denies 
the existence of in a healthy stomach. These diversities in the results 
of analyses are probably due, in some measure, to the different methods 
of conducting them, in part to the different proportions or kinds of saline, 
alkaline, and earthy matters taken into the system with the food and 
drink, and in some degree to differences in the qualities or kinds of the 
aliments themselves. 

The active principle of the gastric juice is called pepsine ; its action 
is analogous to that of a ferment, which has the power of exciting 
chemical changes in the particles of other substances without under- 
going decomposition itself. The quantity of gastric juice secreted is 
regulated by the wants of the system, and not by the quantit}' of food 
taken. Hence all excess of ingestion is a source of injurious irritation. 

Chymification is that part of the digestive process in which the nutri- 
tious portion of the aliment is reduced to a pultaceous, homogeneous 
mass, called chyme. In addition to the solvent action of the gastric 
juice, chymification is aided materially by the contraction of the mus- 
cular coat of the stomach, whose fibres are so arranged as to diminish 
its diameter in all directions, and keep the food in constant motion until 
it is thoroughly permeated by the gastric juice, the pyloric orifice of 
the stomach being closed at the same time by the circular fibres acting 
there as a sphincter. 

As fast as the alimentary mass becomes chymified, it is passed along 
into the duod-mum. The most innutritious particles of the ingesta 
are not rendered chymous, but are reduced to a condition enabling 
them to pass through the alimentary canal with facility, to be expelled 
as excrementitious matter. Hence the fallacy of the doctrine lately 
advanced by Dr. Edward Johnson in his works on Hydrbpathy, and 
by some other European authors, that the faeces were tvholly a secre- 
tion, an error which must have originated from observations made on 


persons whose diet consisted almost wholly of animal and concentrated 
vegetable food. 

In the duodenum the alimentary substance receives the pancreatic 
juice from the pancreas, and is there also mixed with the bile from 
the liver. The pancreatic juice is analogous in qualities to the saliva, 
and assists further to attenuate and resolve the particles of chyme into 
the condition best adapted for conversion into chyle. 

Various opinions are entertained concerning the nature and uses of 
the bile. Some physiologists regard it as in part a vital secretion, and 
in some way auxiliary to digestion. The common notion that it is found 
in the stomach in a healthy state is erroneous. The stomach cannot en- 
dure and will not tolerate it. When accidentally forced there by reversed 
peristaltic action, the operation of emetics, or other morbid conditions, 
it produces violent tremblings, spasms, and vomitings, and sometimes 
convulsions. Others regard the bile as a mere chemical agent in sep- 
arating the chyle, or nutritious part of the aliment, from the general 
mass of chyme ; and others still look upon it as wholly an effete or 
excrementitious matter. 

The fact that the bile is secreted from venous or impure blood, with 
which the liver is supplied, unlike any other organ in the body, seems 
to indicate that the office of the liver is to filter some of the accumu- 
lated impurities from the blood, before it returns to the heart, and the 
analyses of the bile pretty conclusively show that the liver is the 
depurating organ for certain combinations of effete carbon and hydrogen. 
Foreign substances have actually been found in the liver very soon after 
their reception into the stomach; substances which can never be found 
in the general circulation^; a circumstance strongly corroborative of the 
opinion that the bile is, at least primarily, an excrementitious fluid. It 
may be, however, secondarily subservient to the economy of the di- 
gestive function, by mixing with the innutritious portion of the aliment, 
and lucubrating its passage, and by mingling with the oily matters, and 
favoring their solution by resolving them into a saponaceous mass ; and 
also by its alkaline properties, neutralizing any surplus acid matter. 

Fluids taken into the stomach are mostly absorbed from it without pass- 
ing into the intestinal tube. When digestible solid and liquid aliments 
are taken into the stomach together, the aqueous portion is absorbed 
before the digestion of the solid matter commences ; but indigestible 
substances must either be violently expelled by vomiting or purging, 
or more quietly thrown off by the excretories. When, therefore, 
their impression on the stomach is not strong enough to produce violent 
resistance, or the organic instincts are palsied in a measure by habit, 
they must necessarily be absorbed, and pass unchanged into the circu- 


lation. This is the case with metallic, mineral, and many earthy, alka 
line, and saline matters, with all medical drugs, with alcohol in all its 
forms, tobacco, and with many articles employed as seasonings or con- 

Cnylification does not take place in the duodenum, for chyle itself is 
never found there. A still further process is required to elaborate a 
fluid which is to replenish the blood and supply all the structures. 
Another change is therefore effected by the lacteal absorbent vessels. 
The lacteals, or chyle-ducts, do not take up or absorb chyle from the 
alimentary tube, but form or manufacture it from the chymous mass ; 
nor does the functional action of these vessels perfect or complete the 
process of chylification. The finishing elaboration takes place in the 
mesenteric glands, numerously distributed along the course of the lacteals, 
and formed by their enlargement and convolutions. On receiving the 
final action of the mesenteric glands, the chyle, fitted for nutrition, 
passes into the thoracic duct, and thence into the general mass of blood. 

The innutritious portion of the food, mingled with and lucubrated by 
excrementitious matters in the form of bile, and such foecal matters as 
are secreted by the mucous surface of the intestinal canal, are carried 
off by the peristaltic action of the bowels. The peristaltic motion oi 
the whole alimentary canal is produced by the regular, gradual con- 
traction of the circular muscular fibres from above downward, which 
motion is assisted and invigorated by the general compression on the 
whole surface of the abdomen produced by the free and energetic 
action of the external abdominal muscles. 

Vomiting is effected by the reversed action of the muscular fibres, 
aided by the sympathetic and powerful contraction of the abdominal 

Hunger and thirst, the sensations of which are referred to the stom- 
ach and throat, are indications of the wants of the general system. 
The rather ancient doctrines that hunger was produced by gastric juice 
in the stomach, and thirst by a dry condition of the mucous surface of 
the fauces, are clearly erroneous. Both sensations are organic instincts 
which communicate the need of the body for solid and liquid aliment 
to the common sensorium. 

Circulation. — The circulating system -".omprises the heart as its 
grand central organ ; the arteries, which convey the blood to all parts 
of the body ; the capillaries, which connect the arteries and veins ; 
and the veins, which return the blood to the heart. 

Commencing at the central point, the blood is received from all 
parts of the venous system into the right, auricle of the heart; the auri- 


cle contracts, and the blood is forced into the right ventricle ; the right 
ventricle, contracting, sends it into the pulmonary artery ; this artery 
divides into branches, which are ramified through the substance of the 
lungs, and bring the blood in contact with their innumerable air cells, 
where it throws oft" its surplus carbon, and probably receives oxygen 
or electricity, becomes changed from dark or venous to fluid or arterial, 
and is returned through the pulmonary veins to the left auricle of the 
heart ; from the left auricle it passes into the left ventricle, and from 
thence it passes through the arteries to all parts of the body; the valves 
of the veins and of the different cavities of the heart preventing the cur- 
rent from receding. 

The whole quantity of blood is estimated at about one fifth of the 
entire weight of the body, which is thirty pounds in a person weighing 
150 pounds. The cavities of the heart hold about two ounces, three 
fourths of which is discharged at each contraction, and, counting sev- 
enty pulsations in each minute, a little more than six pounds of blood 
will pass through it in this time, or nearly 10,000 pounds in twenty-four 
hours. The whole quantity of blood probably passes through the 
heart once in four or five minutes. 

The frequency of the heart's contractions — in other words, the beats 
of the pulse — gradually diminish from the commencement to the end 
of life. Immediately after birth the pulsations are 100 to 130; in mid- 
dle life, 65 to 75 ; and in old age, 65 to 50. 

The two auricles of the heart contract simultaneously, as also do the 
two ventricles, the auricles and ventricles alternating with each other. 
The contraction of each cavity is called its systole ; the relaxation 
which follows, its diastole. The systole of the ventricles corresponds 
with the projection of blood into the arteries, causing the pulse. The 
apex of the heart, being near the walls of the chest, in the neighbor- 
hood of the fifth and sixth ribs of the left side, communicates, by the 
motions of the organ, a decided shock or jairing sensation, which is 
called the impulse of the heart. 

The sounds produced by the heart's action can be readily detected. 
By placing the ear on the front part of the chest, two sounds will be. 
distinctly heard, following each other in rapid succession at each beat 
of the heart. These sounds are alternated with short intervals of re- 
pose. The first sound is the longest, and corresponds with the systole 
of the ventricles, the pulse in the arteries, and the impulse' against the 
walls of the chest ; the second, which is but half as long, corresponds 
with the diastole of the ventricles. The first sound is dull and pro- 
longed • the second is short and sharp. The first sound is produced by 
the rush of blood through the comparatively narrow outlets of the 



aorta and pulmonary artery, and its passage over the rough internal 
surface of the heart, aided by the muscular contraction of the ventri- 
cles and the heart's impulse. The sevond sound is evidently occa- 
sioned by the sudden shutting down of the semilunar valves at the 
orifices of the aorta and pulmonary artery. 

The capillary vessels are a network of extremely minute vessel? 
intermediate between the arteries and veins. This structure exists is 
all organic textures. The size of the capillaries is proportioned to that of 
the red particles of the blood, their diameters varying from — to ^ of 
an inch. They are not a distinct system terminating in open mouths, 
but merely fine tubes by which the arteries are continued into tVo 

Fig. 132. 


Fig. 132 represents the anastomoses of the blood-vessels, which form the capillaries, 
as seen in the web of a frog's foot by the aid of the microscope. 1, 1. The veins. 2, 3, 
2. The arteries. 

In the capillary vessels all the oi ganic functions take place. Their 
circulation is to a great degree independent of the heart's action, and 
is, no doubt, influenced and regulated by the organic nerves, which 
preside over the functional process, and distribute the blood to the va- 
rious parts and organs, according to the necessities of the vital economy. 
The sum of the diameters of all the capillary vessels greatly exceeds 


that of the arteries and veins, which enables the blood in them to move 
Blowly, and even sometimes take a retrograde direction to some ex- 
tent, circumstances favorable to the perfect nutrition of the structures, 
the separation of worn-out material, and the consolidation of new. 

In its passage through the capillary vessels the blood loses the vivify- 
ing properties and fluid color it received in the lungs, and becomes 
dark, impure, and charged with effete matter, resulting from the disin- 
tegration of the tissues. All the excrementitious or waste ir.atters not 
collected into the excretory apparatuses of the several depurating or- 
gans, are carried along by the capillaries into the veins, to be purified 
in passing through the liver and lungs. 

Respiration. — Respiration is the function by which the blood is 
aerated or purified. It consists of the alternate inspiration and expiration 
of atmospheric air. The process of breathing lias a two-fold relation 
to the animal economy. 1. The lungs, as depurating organs, eliminate 
from the blood a large proportion of the impurities and waste matters 
which it acquires in the capillaries, particularly its excess of carbon. 2. 
The lungs, as auxiliary nutritive organs, digest the inspired air, and 
separate, or rather form from it a principle convertible into the sub- 
stance of the blood. Doubtless, too, they receive and transmit to the 
nervous system, through the medium of the blood, a constancy replen- 
ishing stream of that electric, magnetic, or other vital property on which 
the nervous influence depends. 

The air which we ordinarily breathe, uniformly consists of about 
twenty-two parts of oxygen, seventy-seven of nitrogen, and one of 
carbonic acid gas, in one hundred. Other gaseous matters frequently 
exist, to a greater or less extent, in the atmosphere, from local causes, 
not as constituents, but as accidental admixtures, if we except ammonia, 
a compound of nitrogen and carbon, which appears to be ordinarily 
present in the proportion of one fourth of a grain to about 20,800 cubic 
feet. The constituent proportions of the atmosphere are found not to 
vary perceptibly in different latitudes, nor in low or mountainous 

The air expired from the lungs is found to have lost about sixteen 
parts of its oxygen, and gained about fourteen per cent, of carbon. As 
carbonic acid contains precisely its own volume of oxygen, fourteen 
of the sixteen parts of oxygen lost in the lungs may he employed in 
converting the effete carbon into carbonic acid gas, in which state it is 
expelled, and the remaining two parts of oxygen may serve as nutrient 
material. But as carbonic acid is found to exist already formed in 
the veins, and as animals placed in hydrogen or nitrogen still continue 


to evolve carbonic acid, it appears clear enough that the greater part, if 
not all, of the carbonic acid gas expelled from the lungs is formed in 
the tissues, thus leaving the greater part or all of the oxygen absorbed 
from the inspired air to be used for other purposes than " burning up 
the carbon" in the lungs. This decarbonization and oxygenation of the 
blood changes it from a dark purple to a bright florid color. The 
oxygenation of the blood does not consist of the circulation of oxygen 
in the blood as oxygen, but is rather a process of aeriform digestion, by 
which oxygen is converted into electricity, analogous to the process of 
alimentary digestion, by which food is converted into chyle. 

The nitrogen, which forms so large a proportion of the air we 
breathe, is sometimes increased, sometimes diminished, and at other 
times unchanged in quantity bj respiration, which seems to prove that 
its absorption in or expulsion from the lungs depends on the wants of the 
organic economy, and probably is regulated by the sufficient, excessive, 
or deficient supply of the nitrogenous principle of the food. 

The precise chemical process by which the change of the color of 
the blood is effected in the lungs, is still an unsolved problem. It has 
generally been imputed to the presence of iron. Liebig supposes iron 
to exist in the form of a carbonate of the protoxide in venous blood ; 
and that in the lungs the carbonic acid is given off, leaving the protoxide, 
which, by union with half an equivalent of oxygen, is converted into 
the peroxide, and that this peroxide changes the venous blood into ar- 
terial. Liebig's theory, however ingenious it may be, has been dis- 
proved by Mulder, who has shown that the color is retained when all 
the iron is removed. 

Respiration occurs in aquatic animals which do not breathe air. In 
them the respiratory organs are membranes prolonged externally into 
tufts or fringes, called gills, each one of which is supplied with arteries 
and veins, during the circulation of blood through which aeration is 

In air-breathing animals the membrane is or aeratiiig surface is re- 
flected internally, forming passages or chambers \n which the air is re- 
ceived, and on which the capillary vessels are distributed. Insects have 
a series of tubes ramifying through the whole body, and carrying air to 
every part. 

In the human lungs the sides or walls of the air cells are formed of 
a thin transparent membrane, and the capillary vessels are placed be- 
tween the walls of two adjacent cells, so as to be exposed to the action 
of the air on both sicLjs. The number of the air cells of the whole 
lung3 is immense. M. Rochoux has estimated them at six hundred 



Fig. 133. 


Pig. 133 represents the 
bronchial tube, and its di- 
vision into air cells, as 
much magnified. 1. A 
bronchial tube. 2, 2, 2. 
Air cells, or vesicles. 3. 
A bronchial tube and vest 
ties laid open. 

The capacity of the 
lungs varies greatly 
in different individ- 
uals. M. Bourgery 
concludes from his 
inquiries that the development of the air cells continues up to the age 
of thirty, at which time the respiratory capacity is greatest. Accord- 
ing to the experiments of Mr. Coathupe, about 266£ cubic feet of air 
pass through the lungs of a middle-sized man in twenty-four hours. 
At the average number of sixteen inspirations per minute, the amount 
of air received at each inspiration would be twenty cubic inches. Mr 
Hutchinson judges the capacity of the lungs by " the quantity of air 
which an individual can force out of the chest by the grjatest voluntary 
expiration after the greatest voluntary inspiration." Dr. Southwood 
Smith, from a series of experiments, estimates the vo!uir« of air re- 
ceived at an ordinary inspiration at one pint, the volume ordinarily 
present in the lungs at about twelve pints, and the volume expelled at 
an ordinary expiration at a little less than a pint. He also concludes 
that in the mutual action which takes place between the air and blood, 
the air loses thirty-seven ounces of oxygen and the blood fourteen 
ounces of carbon every twenty-four hours. The lightness of the lungs 
depends on the residuary air they contain, and when the lungs have 
been once inflated by a full inspiration, no force or mechanical power 
can again dislodge the air sufficiently to make them sink in water. It 
is this residuary air which supports life a few minutes in cases of suf- 
focation, immersion, etc. 

The movements of the respiratory apparatus are partly voluntary, 
for the purposes of being subservient to voice and speech, and partly 
involuntary, for the purposes of aeration. The lungs themselves are 
entirely passive in respiration. When the walls of the chest are 
drawn asunder, and the thorax dilated, the external air rushes in to the 
air cells, distending them in proportion to the dilatation of the thorax, 
and keeping the surface of the lungs all the while accurately in contact 
with the walls of the chest in all their movements. But if air be ad- 
mitted into the cavity of the pleura outside of the tings, as by a pene 



trating wound of the thorax, the lungs cannot be fully distended by in- 
spiration, but will remain partially collapsed, although the thorax ex- 
pands, because the pressure of air from without the air cells balances 
that within. 

The diaphragm, by extending the ribs, and pressing down the ab- 
dominal viscera, is the principal agent in inspiration ; in a deep inspira- 
tion the intercostal muscles assist in the expansion of the chest by 
spreading the ribs, aided also, to some extent, by the muscles of the 
thorax generally. Expiration is mainly accomplished by the abdominal 
muscles, whose contraction draws down the ribs and compresses the 
viscera up against the relaxed diaphragm, thus diminishing the cavity 
of the thorax from below. 

Fie. 134. Fig. 134 is a side view of the chest and abdo- 

men in respiration. 1. Cnvity of the chest. 2. 
Cavity of the abdomen. 3. Line of direction for 
the diaphragm when relaxed in expiration. 4. 
Line of direction when contracted in inspiration. 
5, 6. Position of the front walls of the chest and 
abdomen in inspiration. 7, 8. Their position in 

The connection of the respiratory 
function with sensibility, or the sense 
of feeling, is an interesting and as yet 
almost unoccupied field of inquiry. 
According to the experience of drown- 
ing persons — those who have remained 
from one to several minutes under 
water without breathing, and afterward 
been resuscitated — there is no pain 
after the complete suspension of res- 
piration. Although intellectual con- 
sciousness remains, and mental con- 
ceptions are greatly exalted and intens- 
ified, all sensations of mere bodily suf- 
fering are absent. The anesthetic 
effects of ether and chloroform appear 
to bear a close relation to the extent to which the breathing is sus- 
pended. A complete unconsciousness to pain is attended with an ex- 
tremely feeble and sometimes almost imperceptible respiration. 


Absorption. — The absorbent system proper comprises two sets of 
vessels, with their glandular enlargements and convolutions — the lac- 



teats and the lymphatics. The lacteals convey nutritive or new matter 
into the mass of blood, to replenish the tissues ; the lymphatics tak6 
up and return to the blood the surplus nutrient materials, and also old 
or waste particles, in order that they may be used in the secretions, or 
got rid of at the excretory outlets. The function of the lacteals is 
called external absorption, or the absorption of composition ; that of the 
lymphatics is called internal absorption, or the absorption of decomposi- 
tion. External absorption also includes the absorption which takes 
place from the surface of the body and mucous membrane of the res- 
piratory passages, as well as that performed by the proper lacteal ves- 
sels from the mucous surface of the alimentary canal. Internal ab- 
sorption, sometimes called interstitial, also comprehends that which 
takes place from the component tissues of the organs, and the interior 
of short sacs, as well as that performed in the capillary vessels. 

The veins belonging to the external division also act the part of ab- 
sorbent vessels, but in a very different manner from the lacteals or 
lymphatics ; these vessels exercise a selecting and transmuting power 
over the elements subjected to their action; hence the chyle and 
lymph are always found to possess nearly the same general properties. 
On the contrary, the veins imbibe and carry along unaltered all fluids 
or substances possessing the proper degree of tenuity to move in the 
current of circulation. It is well known that many poisons, alcohol, 
tobacco, the virus of venomous reptiles, etc., exert a much more del- 
eterious effect when injected into the areolar tissue under the skin, 
than when taken into the stomach. In the former case they pass 
.directly, unchanged, into the circulation; in the latter event they are 
modified, and more or less decomposed by the action of the absorbent 
vessels before entering the general system. 

Alimentary absorption is effected mostly 
in the small intestines. The lacteals com- 
mence by villi in the mucous surface, each 
tube beginning in a single villus by a closed 
extremity ; the trunk arising from each villus 
is formed by the confluence of a number of 
smaller branches, which anastomose freely 
with each other in the form of loops, as in 
fig. 135, never commencing in open extremi- 

These loops are embedded in a mass of 
cells at the extremity of each villus ; these 
cells exercise the selecting or transmuting 
power over the nutritive elements ; when full their contents are %'ielded 

Fig. 135. 




to the absorbent vessels, either by a process of deliquescence or burst- 
ing, their place being supplied by fresh cells, and so the process is con- 
tinued till the nutritive material is exhausted; after which the villi, 
previously turgid, becomes flaccid, and the epithelium, which was re- 
moved during the process of absorption, is renewed ; the lacteal vessels 
then become the interstitial absorbent vessels of the intestinal canal 
and act the part of lymphatics. 

Fig. 136. 

Fig. 137. 



Fig. 136 is a diagram of the mucous membrane during digestion and the preparation 
of chyle, o. A villus, turgid and erect ; its protective epithelium cast off from its free 
extremity ; its absorbent vessels, lacteals, and blood-vessels turgid. 4. A follicle dis- 
charging its epithelial cells. 

Fig. 137 is a representation of the same mucous membrane when chylification is not 
going on. a. Protective epithelium of a villus, b. Secreting epithelium of a follicle. 
c, c, c. Primary membrane, with its germinal spots, or nuclei, d, d. e. Germs of absorb- 
ent vesicles. /. Vessels and lacteals of villus. 

The chyle in the lacteals is almost invariably of the same chemical 
composition, however diversified the character of the food from which 
it is formed. It is not, however, alv\ ays of the same vital quality ; for 
that which is made of animal food, when taken from the body, under- 
goes putrefaction much sooner — in three or four days — while that which 
is selected from vegetable food resists decomposition out of the living 
organs for several weeks. Its milky color depends on the presence of 
minute corpuscles, called chyle globules. Usually it contains fatty, 
albuminous, fibrinous, and saline matters, in varying quantities, accord- 
ing to the ingesta. 

The lymphatics exhibit no essential anatomical difference in origin, 
structure, or arrangement from the lacteals. They are distributed 


throughout almost every part of the body, and very numerously upon 
the skin. 

The lymph, an almost colorless fluid, which the lymphatics convey 
to the thoracic duct, very closely resembles the chyle, the main differ- 
ence consisting in the color of the latter. Its source is a matter of 
conjecture. Dr. Carpenter supposes the matters absorbed by the 
lymphatics to consist of the residual fluid, which, having escaped from 
the blood-vessels into the tissues for their nutrition, is now returned to 
the former. Probably they also contain a portion of the decayed and 
worn-out particles of the structures. The lymph, like the chyle, con- 
tains peculiar self-coagulating corpuscles, and both fluids contain the 
same ingredients, though in different proportions, for the organic ele- 
ments are much more abundant in the chyle. 

The glandular laboratories, through which the lacteals pass, are the 
ganglia of the mesenteiy ; and those of the lymph-vessels are the 
lymphatic glands. In these ganglia both fluids are doubtless still fur- 
ther changed, elaborated, and fitted for circulation, nutrition, or expul- 
sion. That these ganglia exercise a supervisory function over the 
economy of nutrition, acting as sentinels to prevent the introduction of 
an enemy into the vital domain, is evinced by the fact that when any 
foreign, injurious, or poisonous element gains admission into the ab- 
sorbent vessels, whose presence in the general circulation would be 
immediately dangerous to life, these glands, in the language of some 
physiologists, "take on inflammation" to arrest its progress. In less 
ambiguous phrase, the glandular follicles contract their diameters, ob- 
struct the passage, attract an additional supply of blood, and thus hold 
the aggressor in check until the reinforcement of vital power can so 
change, modify, or destroy the invading foe, that its elements may 
pass along with impunity or with greatly diminished danger to the 

The extremities of the veins are the principal absorbents for taking up 
the really effete and decomposed matters of the decaying tissues, as 
well as the accidental impurities of the body ; although the lymphatics 
sometimes take up excrementitious matters, as bile, pus, venereal and 
other virus brought in contact with them. 

Absorption from the skin has been called accidental, because the fluids 
pass in by simple imbibition. The rapidity of this absorption is mainly 
influenced by the condition of the blood-vessels, being most active when 
they are most empty, and least so when they are full. When the 
epidermis is removed, as by a blister, the external integument absorbs 
with great rapidity. Frequent bathing, followed by friction, increases 
its absorbing powers. 

274 r II Y S 1 L CI x*. 

Absorption, by imbibition is effected by both veins and lymphatics. 
In the mucous membrane of the lungs and stomach, the thin fluids are 
taken up by the veins, and it may be stated as a general law of the ab- 
sorbent system, that wherever a thin fluid is placed in contact with an 
extended surface, it will be taken up by those vessels which present 
the largest surface and the thinnest walls. It is difficult, however, to 
explain the absorption of fluids from serous cavities on the principle of 
imbibition alone. 

Probably the most clear and correct general view of the function of 
absorption may be pvRsented in the following summary : The venous 
extremities, acting as absorbent vessels, take up the greater portion of 
useless, injurious, or worn-out matters ; the lymphatic vessels return 
die unused or surplus recrementitious matters, and also serve as auxil- 
iaiy vessels, or special provisions to guard against obstructions when 
the functions of the veins are overtasked or imperfectly performed. 
The elements of the blood in the capillary system are exhaled through 
the coats of the vessels, and there undergo certain cheinico-vita' 
changes. Such elements as are needed to repair the waste, and buiL 
up the structures of the body, are assimilated and become a component 
part of the body ; other elements are separated, and so re-combined as 
to form the secretions, and waste particles are carried back into the cir- 
culation to be changed or thrown off. 

If the processes of alimentation and exhalation overdo those of ab- 
sorption and depuration, accumulation takes place in the cellular mem- 
brane or serous cavities, of adipose or watery matter, and obstruction 
exists in the form of corpulency or dropsy. Hence obesity is as truly 
an abnormal or diseased state as dropsy. 

Nutrition.— Nutrition, more properly termed assimilation, is the 
actual accretion or the alimentary matter to the organism — the comple- 
tion of the class of nutritive functions. The food, masticated and insal- 
ivated in the mouth, acted upon by the gastric juice in the stomach, 
and the pancreatic juice in the duodenum, still further elaborated in its 
passage through the lacteals and mesenteric glands, and finally oxygen- 
ated in the lungs, is not yet fitted for nutrition. The nutrient process 
is not accomplished until the alimentary matter is subjected to the 
finishing action of the capillary vessels. It is here converted into the 
congenial elements of" the several structures, becoming a component 
part of their substance. 

Though the arterial blood supplies the nutrient material to every 
part and structure of the body, yet this blood does not contain all the 
proximate elements of the body as su:h. For example, gelatin, which 


enters so largely into the composition of the animal structures, is never 
found in the blood in the state of gelatin. This shows again the power 
of the living organism not only to decompose and recompose the ele- 
ments of sustenance, but even to transmute one substance, which 
chemistry regards as a simple element, into another. 

The processes by which the various changes of matter take place in 
the capillary system have been the subject of much chemical research 
and speculation in modern times. But here, as in all cases where the 
operations of a living principle are approached, chemistry is and must 
of necessity be at fault. Chemistry may reduce and refine, divide and 
subdivide all the forms of organic matter to their ultimate elements, v or 
ft) a certa ; n set of ultimate results 01 substances, by a process of de- 
structive nalysis. It may readily destroy the evidence of the life prin- 
ciple, but the chemist's skill can never recombine the elements so as 
to restore or reproduce the manifestation of vitality. All attempts, 
therefore, to explain the phenomena of life by the demonstration of 
chemical problems, are to be regarded only in the sense of analogies. 
Experiments have shown that saline ingredients, dissolved in water 
may be decomposed by an electric stream. If a solution of salts be 
placed in ;i glass tube having a membranous covering at its extremities, 
an electric current will not only separate their constituent elements, but 
deposit some of them on the outside of the membrane. Reasoning 
analogically, we may suppose that the organic nerves transmit the 
electric principle, which, like the continuous operation of a galvanic 
battery, separates the materials of the blood into their simplest forms, 
enabling the play of organic affinities to attach each particle of matter 
to a congenial particle, and thus replenish or augment the structures. 
Each atom of matter is evidently polarized, that is, possessed of points 
or properties of attraction and repulsion toward all surrounding 
atoms, which enable it to assume determinate relations of aggregation 
or separation toward all other atoms of the same or of different 

To this view, that the organic nerves are necessary to the nutritive 
process, it may be objected that nutrition is just as perfect in vegetables, 
which have nothing analogous to a nervous system. But animal nu- 
trition, unlike vegetable, requires sensation, locomotion, and mind to 
appreciate, move after, and judge of the materials of nutrition ; and 
the office of a distinct nutritive nervous structure is to associate the 
operations of mind and the special senses with the voluntary muscles, 
as well as to energize the involuntary muscles, in the performance of 
this fundi' m. Were animals, like vegetables, "fixed to one peculiar 
spot," and then snly fur ?tional economy "to draw nutrition, propagate, 


and rot," there would be no necessity for either a motory, or sensoiy, 
or mental nervous system. 

Mere increase of bulk is not nutrition. Morbid depositions of matter 
which is not assimilated may take place, as in tubercles, wens, encysted 
dropsy, etc., and the embonpoint of persons who are called "high 
livers," though indicative of excessive alimentation, denotes defective 
rather than excessive nutrition. When the whole body is loaded with 
fatty accumulations, assimilation is never as perfect, nor the structures 
as firm, round, and elastic, nor the body as powerful and enduring, nor 
as capable of sustaining depletion and prolonged fasting, as in a moder- 
ately lean condition of the system. 

In those abnormal growths called hypertrophy, there is an actual in- 
crease of substance identical with the hypertrophed tissue or organ ; 
while in the opposite state, atrophy, there is an absolute deficiency of 
assimilated matter. In the former case the nourishment of the struc- 
ture is greater than the waste ; in the latter the waste is greater than 
the replacement. 

Cancerous and fungous growths proceed by a similar process of cell- 
development to that of the original structures, but from some disturbing 
cause, the nutrient particles are arranged according to a new and ab- 
normal scale of chemical affinities. 

Many speculations have been indulged respecting the time in which 
the whole body is renewed, the extremes of the calculations having 
generally been four and seven years. The period must vary greatly, 
according to habits of life, amount of exertion, kind of food, etc. 
Probably many bodies are renewed in a much less time than four 

The coagulation of blood out of the body affords a good illustration 
of the law by which the primary atoms are arranged in the building 
up of the tissues, as represented in the cut. 

Fig. 13a 


In Fig. 138, A represents the blood- 
corpuscles as seen on their flat sur- 
face and edge. B. Congeries of blood- 
corpuscles in columns. In coagulat- 
ing, the corpuscles apply themselves 
to each other, so as to resemble piles 
of money. 

Though the blood is the im- 
mediate source of all nutrition, 
many structures, as the ten- 
docs and ligaments, do not re- 
ceive red blood. The coloring 


matter which surrounds the corpuscles, therefore, is not essential to 
the nutritive quality of blood. Many fishes, reptiles, and insects have 
no red blood. Dr. Carpenter has made the following convenient table, 
showing the distribution of the constituents of human blood in living 
and in dead bodies. 

] Fibrin, -\ 

, . . _, , Albumen, > In solution, forming Liquor Sanguinis. 
Livmg Blood. ga]tS) j 

J Corpuscles, — Suspended in Liquor Sanguinis. 

1 Fibrin, ) 

r, , ( Crassamentum, or clot. 

I Corpuscles, > ' 

Dead Blood. } » , u -> 

Albumen, ) T ... - 

-, , > In solution, formi 

J Salts, S 

ing serum. 

Secretion. — Secretion literally means separation ; but the process 
by which a new substance is produced by a re-arrangement of the 
elementary matters contained in the blood is one of formation. Secre- 
tion, therefore, is not the separation but the production of a proximate 
element from the blood. Each organ or structure secretes or forms 
its own peculiar fluid, serving some special purpose in the animal 
economy. The mucus and serous fluids poured out on the surfaces 
of mucous and serous membranes, are regarded as exhalations, mere 
exudations by the process of exosmose, rather than secretions. 

All the cavities of the body which open externally, as those of the 
noso, mouth, alimentary canal, trachea, bladder, and uterus, are lined 
with a mucous membrane, which secretes or exhales a bland, slimy 
fluid, called mucus. This mucus serves to moisten and lubricate their 
surfaces, facilitate the passage of crude malters, and protect them 
e ;ainst the action of acrid and irritating agents. 

All the internal surfaces of cavities not opening externally, as those 
of the abdomen, chest, heart, brain, and joints, are lined with a serous 
membrane, from which secretes or exhales a thin watery fluid, called 
serum, whose office is to facilitate the motions of their surfaces. 

Some of the secretions are wholly recrementitious, being for the use 
of the animal economy, as tho saliva, chyle, gastric juice, and synovia; 
others are wholly exc-ementitious, being mere waste material, as sweat, 
urine, bile, and feces. Some of the excrementitious secretions are 
made subservient to organic purposes, as the bile and ear-wax ; and 
some of the organs secrete a nutrient and expel an effete material at 
Ike same time, as the lungs and skin. 


F; „ 139 There are three forms of secreting organs. The 

simplest form is that of the animal membrane, which 
is abundantly supplied with blood-vessels, and cov- 
ered with an epithelium, as the serous and synovial 
membranes ; the next form is the inversion or de- 
pression of the membrane, constituting the follicle ; 
and the last is the gland, an aggregation of fol 

Fig. 139 represents the follicles, multiplied and clustered to- 
gether upon efferent ducts common to several of them, the duct 
GfLANDXJLAR converging to form the main excretory duct, the whole constitut- 

SECR.ETION. ing a secreting gland. 

The important agents in secretion, as well as in nutrition, are cells, 
which are developed upon the lining membrane of the follicles and 
tubes, and which elaborate the matter of secretion from the blood, and 
pour it into the excretory duct. The cells, as in the case of nutrition, 
are constantly being cast off and reproduced. 

The follicular secretions are divided into the mucous and cutaneous. 
Of the former character are the ordinary follicles of mucous mem- 
branes, and the numerous glandulas of the intestinal canal; the simple 
and the compound gastric follicles of the stomach, which secrete the 
gastric juice ; the glands of Brunner in the duodenum; the glands of 
Peyer in the jejunum and ilium, which are supposed to secrete the 
putrescent elements of the feces ; the follicles of Lieberkilhn, distrib- 
uted through the whole intestines, but especially numerous in the small 
intestines, and which secrete a thick, tenacious mucus ; the large fol- 
licles in the citcum and rectum, producing slight elevations on their 
surfaces ; the glands of Duvergny and Nabothi, in the vagina and 
cervix of the uterus in the female ; and the glands of Cowper and the 
prostate, in the male, The tonsils ilso are considered as a collection 
of lubricating mucous follicles- 

The cutaneous division includes the meibomian follicles, which are 
seated in the tarsal cartilages, and secretes the gummy fluid that lubri- 
cates the edges of the eyelids ; the ceruminous, which secretes the 
thick resinous substance called ear-wax; the sebaceous, which pour 
out an adipose matter upon the skin ; and the sudoriferous, which se- 
crete the proper perspirable matter. 

The sweat gland-s have been estimated by Mr. E. Wilson at about 
stven millions. As their secretion is usually evaporated as fast as 
formed, most of the perspirable matter passes off in the form of in- 
sensible perspiration. Perspiration is sensible only when excessive, or 


when it accumulates upon the skin by a moist state of the atmosphere. 
In the armpit is a peculiar description of glandules, called odoi ifcrous 
or miliary, which secrete an odorous matter characteristic of that part 
of the body. This odorous principle is said to differ in animals suf- 
ficiently to afford a test by which their blood can be distinguished. A 
few months ago I had a patient under treatment in whom the odor 
from the axillary glands was so strong and fetid as to make his presence 
disagreeable, especially in a warm room. It has been alleged that the 
blood of the female can be distinguished from that of the male by the 
peculiar odor from this source ; an opinion which I am inclined to 
think lias more fancy than fact about it. 

The glandular secretions are the lachrymal, or tears, from the lach- 
rymal gland, which lubricates and cleanses the conjunctiva; the sali- 
vary, formed by the parotid, submaxillary, sublingual, and pancreatic 
glands ; the bile, found in the liver ; the urine, found in the kidneys ; 
the spermatic secretion of the Ustes, and the mammary secretion of the 
breasts. The milk is more affected by the food and drink of the 
mother than any other secretion, and also by strong passions or emo- 
tions of the mind. Instances have been known in which a single violent 
fit of passion, or other paroxysm of excitement, has so changed the 
quality of the milk as to destroy the life of the nursing child in an hour. 

The spleen, svpra-renal capsules, thymus and thyroid glands, have 
been called vascular glands, or glandiform ganglia, although they 
form or secrete no peculiar fluid, and have no excretory duct. Phys- 
iologists generally regard them as reservoirs for an excess of blood in 
neighboring organs, the spleen being the diverticulum for the stomach 
and liver, or the portal circulation ; the thymus to the lungs in fcetai 
life, the thyroid to the brain, and the supra-renal capsules to the 

The Excretory Organs. — Those organs which perform the ex- 
cretory part of the secretory function are the lungs, skin, liver, bowels, 
and kidneys. All the excretory organs are capable of vicarious func- 
tion, doing the work of each other to a great extent, though the lungs 
and liver, skin and kidneys, most intimately reciprocate in functional 
duty. The lungs and liver are the special depurating organs for the 
surplus carbon and hydrogen; the skin and kidneys for the nitrogenous 
products of decomposition ; and the bowels throw off the more complex 
proximate elements of waste matters and f(Ecal secretions. 

The depurating as well as nutrient function of the lungs has already 
been considei'ed. 

The skin is not only a cleansing organ, but, like the lungs, a breathing 


organ ; for it really absorbs oxygen, and throws off carbonic acid gas. 
Next to the lungs the skin is the most extensive as well as important 
detergent structure of the body. The amount of solid matter eliminated 
from the body through this emunctory is, on the average, about 100 
grains per day. The amount of fluid thrown off is more viiriable, de- 
pending on external temperature, quantity of drink, activity of the 
kidneys, etc. The estimates of the transpiration from the cutaneous 
and pulmonary surface in twenty-four hours are from If lb. to 5 lbs., 
nearly three fourths of this amount passing from the skin. 

The liver secretes the matter of bile from the venous blood. The 
object of the biliary secretion evidently is to eliminate certain impurities 
from the body in the form of compounds of carbon, hydrogen, and ni- 
trogen, and also to deterge the blood of a portion of any excess of alkali 
that may be absorbed by the venous extremities. 

Liebig has fabricated a singularly inconsistent hypothesis, which has 
satisfied himself and all others Avho are satisfied to echo his arguments 
without taking the trouble to examine th *m, that the bile is a nutritive 
product, and that, consequently, whatever will tend to the formation 
of bile, or any of the proximate elements usually found in bile, is a 
useful and nutritive substance. Liebig reasons in this wise. The bile 
is composed of several certain proximate elements. One of these is 
called taurine. This taurine is the only compound or proximate ele- 
ment found in the bile which contains nitrogen. Now iheine and 
caffeine, the active principles of tea and coffee, are found, on chemical 
analysis, also to contain a veiy small quantity of nitrogen ; ergo, tea 
and coffee, though injurious stimulants to the nerves, may be useful to 
the liver by furnishing the nitrogenous element of the taurine, of the 
bile ! Such reasoning is extremely absurd, and the error is a most 
palpable one. It consists in mistaking a waste material for an aliment ; 
a depurating process for a nutritive one. As well might one mistake 
putrid flesh for wholesome food, because it contains carburetted hydro- 
gen, which is also found in the faeces, or excrementitious matters of 
the bowels. 

The kidneys eliminate from the system a large proportion of effete 
saline, alkaline, and earthy particles, and the greatest portion of the 
surplus nitrogen. The average amount of urine excreted in twenty- 
four hours has been estimated at from thirty to forty ounces. Of course 
it depends greatly on the activity of the skin, amount of fluid taken into 
the stomach, moist or dry, hot or cold state of the atmosphere, etc. 
The amount of solid organic matter expelled daily by this emunctory 
has a close relation to the activity and corresponding waste of the mus- 
cular tissue, and this is determined \vi:h considerable accuracy by the 


amount of urea in the urine ; a test, however, of no practical value in 
treating diseases. 

The "brick dust" sediment, "chalky deposits," and "albuminous" 
appearance of urine, are dependent to a very great extent on the char- 
acter and purity of the food and drink. The long-continued employ- 
ment of what are very absurdly called "medicated waters," containing 
carbonates of lime, soda, iron, and magnesia, chloride of soda, sulphates 
of lime and magnesia, muriate of lime, sulphur, sulphuretted hydrogen, 
iodine, hydriodates of soda and potash, etc., as well as all very hard 
and impure water, is a common cause of gravel, stone, calculous con- 
cretions, etc., and a prolific source of diseases of the kidneys and 

The total suspension of the urinary secretion is attended with rapidly 
fatal results, the patient manifesting symptoms like those produced by 
narcotic poisons. 

The bowels are the emunctories for such innutritious portions of the 
food as do not pass into the circulation, and are not taken up by tho 
lymphatics or venous extremities, and carried to other depurating 
organs ; and also such waste and worn out particles as are secreted in 
the form of foeces. The quantity and character of the dejections de- 
pend much on the nature of the ingesta. As the contents of the ali- 
mentary canal pass along, their fluid portion is gradually withdrawn, 
and they acquire a firmer consistence ; they also become more fcecal in 
character as the putrescent elements of the blood are secreted by the 
various glandules along the intestinal tract. 

Calorification. — Many speculations have been indulged by chem- 
ists and physiologists, in relation to the production of animal heat. 
Since the publication of Liebig's elaborate work on Organic Chemistry, 
the notion has become generally prevalent among the scientific circles, 
and from them it has been promulgated among the non-scientific 
people, that the production of animal heat is a mere chemical process, 
the lungs serving as a stove or fire-place, and the carbonaceous sub- 
stances of the food serving as fuel "to be burned in the lungs." Accord- 
ing to this theory, fatty substances, animal oils, and other matters con- 
taining a large proportion of carbon, are not only useful but absolutely 
necessary to keep up the requisite degree of animal temperature. 
The position seems to me as almost self-evidently absurd, and it has 
certainly led many persons into the most egregious blunders practically, 
and at the expense, too, of their own common sense and common ob- 

AH the organic functions of tbs body — t '. ; vital processes — are in 


one sense chemical. They are not, however, such chemical decom- 
positions and re-combinations as are performed in a chemical laboratory. 
They are not such as the chemist can ever demonstrate or imitate. 
They not only change the relative proportion of elementary matters, 
but absolutely transmute elements into each other, reduce several of 
what we call elements to one, and separate one into several. All the 
chemico-vital processes— respiration, digestion, circulation, secretion, 
etc. — are attended with the elimination of heat; in other words, latent 
caloric becomes sensible by these changes of matter. But all the 
organs, by virtue of their own specially presiding centres of nervous 
influence, are, to some extent, self-regulating in their temperature, 
while the entire body possesses a general self-regulating power. The 
principal organ whose function serves as a universal regulator and 
equalizer of animal temperature, is the skin. When in vigorous and 
healthy condition it throws off the surplus heat, or retains the deficient, 
according to the necessities of the organism. There is no need of a 
fire and boilers to warm up the blood, as the water is heated by the 
machinery of a steam-engine, and for this simple reason I think nature 
has not provided them. 

The error lies here. Liebig and his followers have mistaken an 
excrementitious or cleansing process for a nutritive or supplying one. 
They have misconceived the function by which the body rids itself of 
waste matter's, and called it a useful and indispensable condition of 
vitality. They have supposed the chemical process by which nature 
throws off the effete carbon through the lungs to be a method of fur- 
nishing animal heat. This, I think, can easily be made manifest. 

According to the theory of animal heat I am controverting, fat, suet, 
tallow, lard, marrow, grease, butter, blubber, and fixed oils, should con- 
stitute healthful food ; and such is, indeed, the conclusion of Liebig's 
followers. But ihe common experience of all mankind is against it. 
Common observation says that these articles, though to some extent 
sufferable, are not strictly wholesome ; and further, medical men gen- 
erally disallow these articles to their patients when they are very much 
reduced with disease, at the same that the animal temperature is very 
low, and requires such food, if ever. Again, corpulent persons, who 
are surcharged with carbon, do not bear cold better than lean persons, 
who have little ; in fact they are, other circumstances being equal, 
more sensitive to it. 

But if fate and oils are useful as fuel for the pulmonary warming- 
pan, because of their larger proportion of carbon, alcohol would be 
useful in the same way, on exactly the same principle. Accordingly, 
Strange as it may seem, we find Pereira, in his able chemical work on 


Food and Diet, adopting alcohol as an alimentary principle ! Alcohol 
an aliment, a food, a nutritive material! Can any thing be more 
ridiculous ? 

Now alcohol contains more carbon than most kinds of animal or veg- 
etable food, except animal oils or fats ; and, in the chemical theory we 
are considering, ought to be just as useful as an "element of respira- 
tion ;" and so by a single vagary of modern science we are thrown 
back to the errors of four thousand years ago. Pereira says : " Alco- 
hol, therefore, is a fuel in the animal economy, and by its oxidation in 
the lungs, must evolve caloric, and serve to support the temperature 
of the body." Now let us hear his argument: "Alcohol is an element 
of respiration. Common experience favors this view. Coachmen 
and others take it in cold weather to keep them warm, and it is fami- 
liarly used to prevent what is commonly called ' catching cold.' In 
cases of extreme suffering and exhaustion from excessive exertion 
and privation of food, the cautious and moderate dietetical use of spirit 
has, on many occasions, proved invaluable. In Captain Bligh's account 
of the sufferings of himself and companions, in consequence of tho 
mutiny of tho crew of the Bounty (in the South Seas, in 1787-9), hti 
observes: 'The little rum we had was of great service; when our 
nights were particularly distressing, I generally served a teaspoonful or 
two to each person, and it was joyful tidings when they heard of my 
intentions.' " 

Here the pernicious effects of a positive poison are mistaken far the 
useful results of natural aliment ! As long ago#as 1787, the opinion 
was generally entertained that "a little rum" was a sort of elixir vita;, 
warming the body when cold, cooling it when hot, drying it when wet, 
and wetting it when dry, as well as sustaining it when famished, and 
regulating it when full. More enlightened observation has discarded 
these absurdities, and it is to be regretted that they should be revived 
again by medical philosophers. 

Though Pereira asserts and tries to prove the utility of alcohol in 
the animal economy, he allows it is injurious iit the same time, thus 
involving his theory in still greater confusion. He says : " Though 
alcohol evolves heat in burning [in the lungs], it is an obnoxious fuel." 
Does not this admission prove that the heat evolved by the use of 
alcohol is simply the result of the effort of the organism to get rid of it ? 
This would be the heat of fever or inflammation ; a heat much more 
calculated to wear out and prematurely exhaust the animal economy 
than to support it. And this view, I venture to say, is confirmed by 
all human experience. 

Moreover, against Pereira's far-brought testimony in favor of tho 


dietetic use of rum, we can quote any amount of controverting evidence. 
Liebig himself admits that "the development of heat in the body, after 
the use of wine, increases without the manifestation of a correspond- 
ing amount of mechanical force. A moderate quantity of wine in 
women and children unaccustomed to its use, produces a diminution 
of the force necessary for voluntary motions. Weariness, feebleness 
in the limbs, and drowsiness, plainly show that the force available for 
mechanical purposes, in other words, the change of matter, has been 
diminished." Rev. Mr. Scoresby testified before a committee of the 
British House of Commons, in 1834 : " My principal experience has 
been in severely cold climates, and there it is observable that there is a 
very pernicious effect in the reaction after the use of ardent spirits. 
In the case of a storm, or other sudden difficulty, I should most deci- 
dedly prefer the water- drinkers to those who were under the influence 
of any stimulant.''' Sir John .Ross testifies that: "Having in the 
Arctic regions, in his own person, experienced the beneficial effects 
of abstaining wholly from spirituous drinks, he proposed to his men 
that they should try the same experiment, which was done with the 
most gratifying results. When men under hard and steady labor are 
given their usual allowance of grog, they become languid and faint, 
losing their strength in reality, while they attribute that to the contin- 
uance of their fatiguing exertions. He who will make the correspond- 
ing experiments on two equal boat's crews, running in a heavy sea, 
will soon be convinced that the water-drinkers will far outdo the 
others." Dr. Rush «ays : " The temporary warmth produced by 
spiritous liquors is always succeeded by increased chilliness, rendering 
the body still more liable to be affected and injured by cold." These 
authorities could be extended, but we have already enough for our 
purpose. All the facts we can find which bear at all on this subject, go 
to prove most indubitably that alcohol is in every sense exactly the 
opposite of an " element of respiration." It is indeed a " fuel in the 
animal economy," in the same sense in which any accidental combusti- 
ble substance creates a flame which burns our dwelling-house to the 

The whole argument, pro and con, will apply equally to animal fats 
and oils, with this qualification. Greasy matters, though composed 
mostly of waste, useless, and excrementitious materials, which havo 
accumulated in the cellular repository, because the process of aliment- 
ation was increased beyond that of elimination, are not strictly -poisonous. 
They contain doubtless a very small quantity, yet very impure quality, 
of substances convertible into nutriment. But, as food, they are to be 
regarded as next to venous blood in grossness and impurity. 


They contain about eighty per cent, of carbon; hence, when freely 
taken into the system, the lungs, as the principal excretory organ for 
effete carbon, has an additional duty to perform in throwing it off. 
This increased labor is, as a matter of course, attended with an in- 
creased temperature of the body, simply because there is a greater 
amount of matter than is natural or necessary to be disposed of. But this, 
as in the case of alcohol, is an extraneous, useless, exhausting labor, 
which wears out the machinery of life with inordinate rapidity. If 
the excessive quantity of carbon is constantly supplied in the diet, the 
organism must prematurely wear out, or break down with disordered 
action. If fatty matters are only occasionally eaten, the temporary in- 
crease of temperature will be followed by depression and debility, 
precisely as with alcohol, though much less in degree. The lungs, 
however, do not " burn up" — oxidate — all the surplus carbon of grease, 
oils, gravies, etc., for we see in most persons addicted to their free use, 
pimples, blotches, eruptions, swellings, boils, and cancerous ulcerations, 
with evidences of bad blood, torpid brains, and glandular obstructions, 
clearly traceable to this habit, and curable by its discontinuance. The 
principal injurious effect, therefore, of animal oils and fats is not from 
their large quantity of carbon, but from their intrinsically impure char- 
acter. In all pure, nealthful, and natural alimentary substances, the 
system can appropriate what carbon it requires, and dispose of the 
remainder without injury, obstruction, or excitement, be the quantity 
contained in the alimentary article more or less. All the grains, escu- 
lent roots, and fruits, as well as the flesh-meat of animals, contain 
exactly the right proportions of carbon in their composition for perfect 
nutrition, respiration, and animal heat, however much their respective 
quantities of carbon may vary. They are also universally allowed to 
be " easily digestible," and innocuous to the stomach in all normal con- 
ditions of the digestive powers. Not so with greasy matters. 

Pereira himself says, directly in the face of his argument in favor 
of the use of grease for the benefit of the lungs : "Fixed oil or fat is 
more difficult of digestion, nnd more obnoxious to the stomach, than 
any other alimentary principle." Can any body tell why an alimentary 
article which is so necessary to the ungs should be so obnoxious to the 
stomach, unless nature has made a very great blunder? The whole 
theory of a respiratory alimentary principle seems to me preposterous 
in the extreme. 

It is further urged, in favor of this wild conclusion from a false start- 
ing point, that people in very cold climates, the Esquimaux, for example, 
consume immense quantities of blubber oil. tallow candles when they 
can get them, fatty makers of all kinds that they are able to procure, ns 


well as enormous quantities of flesh or fish, as they can catch it; and 
simply because they do these things, and live in a cold climate where 
they can get little else, the inference is drawn that it is necessary 
they should so eat to get carbon in the body, to be " burned in the 
lungs" to support the animal temperature. It is very true that a cold, 
rigorous climate enables the digestive organs to bear what would de- 
stroy life very soon in a warm climate. It is also true that theso 
blubber-oil eaters, and all the tribes of men whose dietetic habits are 
similar, are a very inferior race, and in them nothing is developed 
scarcely, save the mere animal nature ; hence their stomachs have all 
the nervous power almost of their whole constitutions. More than 
this, their animal nature is itself actually inferior in muscular power 
to that of those tribes and races of men whose general regimen is 
comparatively tree from fats and animal oils. 

From all the arguments and facts I am able to gather, the conclusion 
is unavoidable, that this notion of pouring carbon into the stomach to 
support respiration and manufacture animal heat, is just as absurd as 
the common fallacy of heating, peppering, and stimulating the stomach 
with spices, pills, and spirits, to aid digestion. Moreover, the theory 
of the combustion of carbon in the lungs sufficiently to heat up the 
body is positively disproved by the fact that most of the carbonic acid 
expelled from the lungs is really formed in the tissues distant from the 

There s no doubt that the oxygenation of the tissues throughout 
the system, and the combination of oxygen with carbon, are sources 
of animal heat, in common with all the organic functions and chemical 
changes which take place in the body. All the conditions requisite to 
the due regulation of the animal temperature are good digestion, free 
respiration, vigorous circulation, proper assimilation, and perfect depu- 
ration, in two words — good health. 

The ordinary temperature of the human body ranges from 98° to 
100° Fahr., varying but very few degrees above or below when the 
surrounding atmosphere is greatly elevated or depressed, nor under 
the most violent fevers or extreme states of debility and emaciation. 
That cutaneous respiration is subservient to the maintenance of the 
equal temperature of the body, is evident from the fact that if the hair 
of animals be shaved off, and the bare skin covered with varnish, the 
temperature instantly falls. 

Endosmose and Exosmose. — Dutrochet discovered and Liebig 
has demonstrated certain facts in re'ation to the interchange of dissim- 
ilar fluids in dilfereit parts of the unima. structures which facts to- 


gether have been called the laws of endosmosis and exosmosis. Accord- 
ing to a principle of these laws, whenever any animal membrane has 
one of its surfaces in contact with a different fluid, an interchange 
takes place ; a part of the fluid on the outside passes to the inner sur- 
face, while a portion of the fluid on the inside passes through and 
mixes with that on the outer surface, the interchange continuing until 
both fluids become similar. The term endosmose means imbibition, 
and is applied to the current passing from without to within; exosmose 
means transudation, and is applied to the passage of the fluid from 
within to without. 

If a solution of any salt, or of suga^ - , is poured into a glass tube 
closed below by a piece of bladder, the particles of the solution per- 
meate the pores of the bladder, but do not pass through it. If the 
tube thus filled is placed in a vessel containing distilled water, the fluid 
gradually rises within the tube, and sometimes to the extent of sevei'al 
inches, while at the same time it is found that a portion of the solution 
has passed from the interior of the tube to the water external to it. 

It is said that in order to have these phenomena manifest, the fluids 
must be of different densities, and that there must also be an affinity 
between the membrane and the fluid, or no current will take place. 
Gases, as well as fluids, are diffused among each other, even through 
the compound textures. 

These properties of the tissues, which are also possessed by some in- 
organic substances, as thin plates of slate or of baked clay, are ex- 
tremely important in relation Jo the treatment of diseases, especially in 
cleansing the body from drug-medicines and other impurities, circum- 
stances which will be noticed more particularly in the therapeutic 
department of this work. 

Note. — The reproductive function will be considered in Part 



Temperaments are peculiarities of organization. Marked differ- 
ences in individuals, occasioned by the disproportionate development 
of some one or more of the systems or tissues, have been noticed 
Bince the earliest times. Galen distinguished these differences into the 
sanguine, phlegmatic, lymphatic, and melancholic temperaments, a dis- 
tinction based on the ? apposed preponderance of some one of the four 


elements — air, water, fire, and earth. Various divisions of the temper- 
aments have been proposed by modern physiologists. Dr. Caldwell 
jases the three principal temperaments on the three principal cavities 
of the body; the cerebral or mental temperament, existing when the 
cranium is most capacious, the sanguine who" 1 , the chest is large, and 
the lymphatic when the abdomen p-edominates. 

The temperaments usually recognized, and which are as satisfactory 
as any other classification for practical purposes, are the nervous, san- 
guine, bilious, and lymphatic. The nervous and sanguine are the irri- 
table or active temperaments ; the bilious and lymphatic are the inirri- 
table or torpid temperaments. The former dispose to more rapid 
motion and greater activity, with less power of endurance ; the latter 
are less easily excited to action, but more powerful and enduring. The 
former enjoy or suffer with the greatest intensity ; the latter are inca- 
pable of the same extremes of feeling. When all the systems and 
parts of the body are equally developed, the temperament is called 

Fig. 140. 

Fig. 141. 



The Nervous Temperament. — This temperament is dependent 
on a large development of the Uain and nervous system, and when 
strong or pure, is marked by angular points in the body and sharpness 
of features, large head, small bones anj muscles, and generally delicato 
features, as represented in fig. 140. 

The Sanguine Temperament. — The sanguine, or arteiial tem- 



perament of some authors, depends on a large development of the cir- 
culating system, more especially the lungs and arteries. Its signs are 
broad shoulders, an animated, lively countenance, florid complexion, 
blue eyes, sandy, yellowish, or brown hair, and a smooth, harmonious 
combination of the general form and features, as seen in fig. 141. 

Tig. 142. 



Bilious Tkmpkramknt. — The bilious, sometimes called nervous 
temperament, is produced by the structural preponderance of the 
bones, muscles, and veins. It is known by large, full muscles, promi- 
nent, swelling veins, dark hair and eyes, dark, brown, or yellow com- 
plexion, as in fig. 142. 

Lymphatic Temperament. — The lymphatic, or digestive tem- 
perament, is occasioned by the large development of the abdominal 
viscera, particularly the digestive organs. It is denoted by a general 
rotundity or fullness of the body, dull, pale appearance of the skin, 
and a disposition somewhat inclining to indolence. It is represented in 
fig. 143. 

The several temperaments are combined in all conceivable propor- 
tions, but are seldom so perfectly balanced that one or two will not 
prevail over the others, and give a manifest direction to the individual 
character. Black hair and eyes, red cheeks, and a yellowish neck, in- 
dicate an equal combination of the sanguine and bilious; sharp featuro" 



rod cheeks, thin flesh, light hail - , and blue eyes, ind.jate a balance be- 
tween the sanguine and nervous ; sharp features, with a lean body and 
a dark complexion, indicate a balance between the nervous and bilious ; 
and heavy, round form and features, with a dark complexion, denote a 
combination nearly equal between the bilious and lymphatic. 



The division of the human family into races or classes, each dis- 
tinguished by certain striking peculiarities in the shape of the head, 
and in the structure, color, and arrangement of the skin, hair, and 
eyes, though strictly belonging to the science of ethnology, is a subject 
constantly becoming more interesting to the physiologist, from its inti- 
mate connection with the development of men, and the improvement 
and advancement of humanity. 

A classification of mankind into leading classes must of course involve 
distinctions purely arbitrary ; for the races may be distinguished into 
two or twenty, or any number between, as the marks of difference are 
more or less prominent. 

The division of Blumenbach, who makes five principal races, is as 
useful and satisfactory as any other can be. These are named the 
Caucasian, Mongolian, Eth'opic, American, and Malay. 

Fig. 144. 


The Caucasian Race. — The 

Caucasian race is remarkable for 
the highest physiological develop- 
ment, personal symmetry and beau- 
ty, and intellectual attainments. The 
ihief families of this race are the 
Caucasians proper, and the German- 
ic, Celtic, Arabian, Libyan, Nilotic, 
and Hindostanic branches. 

In this race the skin is generally 
fair, the hair fine and long, and of 
various colors, the skull large, round- 
ed, and oval, and the forehead broad 
or prominent, large and elevated. 


The face is relatively small and well-proportioned, the nose arched, 
the chin full, and the teeth vertical. 

In this variety or race of men we find the farthest remove from 
the animal in brain, features, and hair, with a superiority of intellectual 
and moral power, love of the arts, science, and poatry. The progress 
of the human family seems to be made wholly through this race. 

The Mongolian Race.— The Mongolian F* !«• 

variety includes the Mongol Tartars, Turks, 
and the Chinese and Polar tribes, which in- 
habit a vast extent of the earth's surface, and 
constitute about half of the population of the 
globe. In physiological characteristics the 
Mongolians manifest considerable variety. 
The hair is black, long, and straight, the 
beard scanty, the skin commonly of an olive 
tint, the eyes black, the nose broad and short, ^^ 
the cheek-bones broad and flat, the skull ob- * 
long, but flattened so as to give it a square 
appearance, and the forehead low. 

In moral development this race is decidedly mongolian race. 
inferior ; their intellectual powers are more imitative than inventive, 
and they possess but little strength and originality of mind. 

The Ethiopic Race.— The Negroes of Central Africa, the Caffres 
and Hottentots of South Africa, the Natives of Australia, and tho 
Islanders of the Indian Archipelago and the Pacific Ocean, constitute 
the principal families of the Ethiopic or black race. 

The black variety of mankind have 
complexions of jetty hue, black, woolly 
hair, eyes large, black, and prominent, 
nose broad and flat, thick lips, and wide 
mouth. The head is long from the 
ears back, and narrow; the forehead 
is low, narrow, and retreating; the 
cheek-bones prominent, the jaws and 
teeth projecting, and the chin small. 
A long, protruding heel, and a flat 
shin-bone, often distinguish this variety. 

In disposition they are easy, indo- 
lent, cheerful, fond of sensual pleasure, 
and lovers of children, fond of gaudy 

Fig. 146. 




show, but very improvident. In intellect the race varies much, but the 
majority of its tribes are low in this respect. There are, however, 
many instances in which individuals of this race have exhibited respect 
able talent. 

Fig. 147. 

The American Race. — The Indian tribes, or "Red 7iicn," who 
once occupied originally nearly the whole of North and South America, 
south of the sixtieth degree of north latitude, constitute this variety. 

The people of this race vary consider- 
ably in complexion, but are mostly of a 
reddish-brown color. The hair is long, 
straight, and black, the beard deficient, 
the eyes black and deep set, brows 
prominent, forehead receding, promi- 
nent aquiline nose, high cheek-bones, 
small skull, rising high at the crown, 
and the back part flat, large mouth, 
hard, rough features, with fine, straight, 
symmetrical frames. They are averse 
to cultivation, and slow in acquiring 
knowledge, sedate, proud, restless, sly, 
revengeful, fond of war, and wholly 
destitute of maritime adventure, and are rapidly disappearing from the 
earth before the nil-conquering march of the Caucasian. 


The Malay Race. — This variety of the human family inhabit 
Borneo, Java, the Phillijnne Islands, New Zealand, the Polynesian 
Islands, and a part of Madagascar. 

The Malays have tawny or dark brown 
skins, coarse, black hair, large mouth, 
broad, short noses, seeming as if broken 
at the root, projecting upper jaws, and 
protruding teeth. The forehead is broad 
and low, the crown of the head high. The 
moral character of the Malays is of an in- 
ferior order. They are active, ingenious, 
and fond of maritime pursuits, and exhibit 
considerable intellectual capacity. Yet this 
race is constantly giving way before Euro- 
pean civilization, and has already disap- 
peared from New Holland and Van Dio 
Malay race men's Land 


If the opinion is correct that the stronger race continually overgrows 
all the rest, and gradually obliterates them from the earth, the Cauca- 
sians are surely destined eventually to "possess the land." The his- 
tory of the whole human race thus far indicates that such is the order 
of nature. 

Origin of the Races. — Whether ,_ie various races of men have 
each had separate origins, or whether they are descendants of a com- 
mon pair, modified by habits of life, climate, and external conditions, 
my limits will not permit me to discuss. Dr. Pritchard, after a labored 
investigation, came to the conclusion of the original unity of the races 
of the human family. Other authors have examined the subject appa- 
rently as critically, ana settled down upon the opinion of the original 
diversity of the races. 

Dr. Carpenter remarks: "It is a question of great scientific interest, 
as well as one that considerably affects the mode in which we treat the 
races that differ from our own, whether they are all of one species, 
that is, descended from the same or from similar parentage, or whether 
they are to be regarded as distinct species, the first parents of the sev- 
eral races having had the same differences among themselves as those 
now exhibited by their descendants." 

No doubt the question of the natural inferiority of a race or tribe of 
the family of mankind really does affect the manner in which they are 
dealt with by their superiors, and materially modifies the state of their 
consciences in relation to the use or abuse of the weaker by the 
stronger, still this might makes no right, nor does this question furnish 
any reason why the more powerful race should maltreat the more 
feeble. I admit that the process of extermination is going on, accord- 
ing to the irreversible laws of nature, from the highest human being to 
the lowest animal. I believe that the stronger animals will exterminate 
the weaker, that man will eventually run out of existence the stronger 
animals, and that the superior tribe of the human family will oblit- 
erate all traces of the existence of all the others; still I cannot see in the 
operations of this law any reason for oppressing, or even for not striving 
for the development of all men, yes, of all animals, according to their 
capacities and conditions. So long' as inferior men do exist, our duty 
to -them is plain enough. No one pretends that we, the stronger, 
have any right to rid the earth of their presence by violence, or in 
any other way except that " ordained by Heaven." So far as Nature 
is concerned, she will see that her laws on the subject are faithfully 
executed, without our special interference. As far as the feebler 
races are capable of development at- improvement, they are entitle: 


to the same consideration as those who are more- highly endowed in 

Theory or Population. — Philosophers have not yet been able to 
agree upon any satisfactory theory of population. Mr. Malthus has 
contended that population has a tendency to increase faster than the 
means of subsistence, unless some extraordinary counteracting causes 
be interposed. On thie assumption, "war, pestilence, and famine," 
may be hailed as special Godsends to keep the race down to the level 
of the means of subsistence ; but it places the Creator in an attitude 
from which our reason revolts. Mr. Doubleday, on the other hand, 
has lately met the positions of Mr. Malthus with an opposite theory. 
He has undertaken to show that poverty is the principal cause of a 
rapid increase, and that a good degree of the comforts of life "deadens 
the principle of increase." He sustains the first clause of his proposi- 
tion by adverting to the fact that poor folks have the most children, 
and the latter part by quoting the well-known historical data, that 
wealthy and luxurious families frequently run out, as have done wealthy 
and luxurious nations. The doctrines of both of these gentlemen are 
too narrow and superficial. 

Great wealth and extreme poverty are equally in violation of the 
"natural constitution of man." That God who fashioned the earth, 
made it capable of yielding sustenance enough for all the beings created 
in His own image. If men have got at variance with themselves, and 
warred upon each other; if some have usurped too much of the domain 
of our common mother, Earth, and others have not where to lay then- 
heads ; if men have deranged their proper social relations, perverted 
the laws of their own organization, and entailed upon themselves and 
society innumerable permitted evils, let us pause long before we charge 
all these results to special providences or natural tendencies. 

The actual productiveness of the earth is incredible to those who 
have never examined the subject. Under the best systems of agricul- 
ture and dietetics, Ireland, where now eight millions of human beings 
starve, could healthfully sustain one hundred millions, and the soil of 
the United States is capable of producing more than food enough for 
al! the inhabitants now existing on the globe. 



The hygienic agencies— absu.-dly called "non-naturals" in medical 
books — comprise the \vhole and ample materia medica of the time 
hydropath. They are air, light, water, food, temperature, exercise, 
sleep, clothing, and the passions. These agencies, variously modified 
and intensified, I believe, are capable of producing all the really reme- 
dial effects in all diseases which the whole pharmacopoeia of allopathy, 
with its thousand drugs and destructives, can produce, and without any 
of the evil or injurious results always attendant upon the operation of 
the latter; while to sustain the vital machinery in its most vigorous and 
enduring condition, in other words, to preserve health, we have but to 
employ or apply them according to established and invariable laws. 

In claiming for those agencies by which every part and organ 
of every living animal and vegetable in existence is nourished, built up, 
sustained, and finally changed and decomposed, by which the integrity 
of every structure and function is maintained during life, and resolved 
into its primitive elements and conditions on the cessation of the life- 
principle, a complete and perfect materia medica, I mean as far as 
regards functional derangement, which, indeed, constitutes ninety-nine- 
hundredths of the diseases of society. Mechanical injuries, displace- 
ments of parts, organic lesions, utc, coming appropriately uirder the 
management of the surgeon, may and often do require mechanical 
agencies of some sort. 

I am aware that few practicing hydropaths take this ultra ground. 
Some of them administer anodynes occasionally ; some bleed now and 
then ; some call in the aid of blue pill and cathartic potions under par- 
ticular circumstances ; others give a little brandy on emergencies, on 
the absurd notion of "keeping up the vital powers till nature has time 
to rally;" and others deal out "a little homeopathy" ever and anon. 
I am most thoroughly convinced 'hat all of these "auxiliaries" nre un- 
necessary ; most of them much worse than useless. Their apparent 


necessity, I contend, has its source in the ignorance of the practitioner. 
He does not fully understand the philosophy of vitality, the intrinsic 
character of disease, nor the scope and power of these hygienic agen- 
cies, if he regards them as at fault or insufficient. I grant that occa- 
sional dosing may be the best some hydropaths can do. I consider him 
justifiable in acting according to his understanding. It may happen, 
too, that he has not all the appliances of hydropathy at command, or 
the patient will not submit to them. Under such circumstances I do 
not say that it is not expedient to give drugs. But I do maintain that 
a full knowledge of all the remedial resources of hygiene, with the 
"possession of all the means afforded by such knowledge, enables the 
hydropath to dispense with drug medication entirely. 

I have known and carefully noted the particulars of many cases 
where the professed hydropath has resorted to drugging, or bleeding, 
or external irritants, and in every such case there was manifest igno- 
rance or error in the management of water, diet, exercise, sleep, tem- 
perature, or of the voluntary habits, or in relation to some other 
hygienic agent or condition. I have known some patients, while under 
judicious water-treatment, in their impatience to force nature a little 
faster than she was willing to go of her own accord, dose themselves 
now and then with stimulants, bitters, herb teas, nervines, or laxatives, 
and whatever seeming advantage immediately resulted, I have always 
found, as far as I have been able to "compare notes," that those who 
did nothing of the kind, other circumstances being equal, would get 
the best health in the end. 


Vital Property of Air. — The physiology of the respiratory 
function explains the relation of an abundant supply of pure fresh air 
to the maintenance of health and the attainment of longevity. Fresh 
air in the lungs is so immediately essential to life that most animals, in 
less than one minute, when deprived of it, suffocate, become uncon- 
scious, and appear to be dead, rea death occurring in a few minutes 
if air is not supplied. 

Oxygen, which has been called "vital air," is undoubtedly the vivify- 
ing principle of the atmosphere. Cn'ion. nitrogen, and Vrydrogen nrn 

AIR. 297 

generally considered poisonous in relation to the lungs, but they are 
rather negative than positive agents, being merely incapable of support- 
ing respiration. When persons or animals are confined in a close room, 
they continue to breathe until the oxygen of the enclosed air is ex- 
hausted, v hen death inevitably results. The flame of a lamp or candle 
will also expire when the oxygen is consumed, this gas being as essen- 
tial to combustion as to respiration In dry wells, deep vaults, and 
other situations where carbonic acio gas, or other irrespirable airs, are 
liable to accumulate, the introduction of a lighted taper is an important 
precaution. If the flame be extinguished, it would be dangerous to life 
to enter, for breathing cannot take place where combustion ceases. 
Carbonic acid gas, being heavier than common atmospheric air, settles 
to the bottom of a pit or room, while nitrogen and hydrogen, being 
lighter, ascend to the top; therefore in a room vitiated by a large col- 
lection of persons, or from want of ventilation, the purest air is found 
in the middle of the apartment. A dog has been suffocated by carbonic 
acid gas in a room where a man, standing erect, felt no inconvenience. 

Quantity of Respired Air. — Physiologists reckon that an ade- 
quate supply of air for an ordinary man to breathe each minute is from 
seven to ten cubic feet. A hundred persons confined in a room thirty 
feet in length, breadth, and height, containing nearly 30,000 cubic feet, 
would render the whole air unfit for respiration in about five hours. 
Imperfect ventilation, therefore, in crowded assemblies, churches, 
school-rooms, theatres, factories, and workshops, especially in the 
evening, when many lamps or gas-burners are employed, is a common 
source of debility and disease. An ordinary gas-burner consumes as 
much oxygen as four adult persons; but the loss of oxygen is not alone 
the cause of injury resulting from large gatherings of people in ill- 
ventilated places, for the irrespira.'le air thrown out from the lungs is 
rendered still more noxious by the exhalations from the skin. 

The artificial habit of lessening the breathing capacity by means of 
stays, corsets, and tight dresses, is now happily passing away, although 
the wasp-like waists which deform so many of the gentler sex still 
adorn the "fashion plates" of the magazines, and caricature the female 
form in most of the fashionable shop-windows. Could the women of 
America — I say nothing of ladies — fully appreciate the importance of 
dress as connnected with respiration, and the relation of this function 
to their own health and happiness and the welfare of their offspring, 
the monthly importation of Parisian cuts, turns, twists, fits and misfits, 
would soon be substituted by "short dresses.," ioose as well as short, or 
something in the way of clothing that w ik emancipate the lungs 



Fig. 150. 

Fig. 149. from oppression "most foul, strange, and unnat- 

ural." A reform in female dress would not only 
set free the breathing apparatus, but would confer 
an incalculable benefit on the human race in another 
respect. It would enable the wealthy classes to 
devote more attention to more useful subjects, and 
think less of the frivolities of ever-changing and 
never satisfying fashions ; and diminish the demand 
upon the kind of work — sewing by day and by 
night — which is now ruining the constitutions of 
thousands of poor and industrious females, and 
sending them rapidly to premature graves. 

Fig. 149 is a representation of the female chest 
in the natural state, unconstrained in the least by 
the clothing. The person who fails to discover the 
ease, grace, beauty, and symmetry of the figure 
as contrasted with that of a modern belle, 
must have a taste as artificial as any man- 
tua-maker could desire. It is perfectly 
certain that, just to the extent that any- 
female diminishes the circumference of 
the body around the lungs, just in that ratio 
will she lessen the number of her days, 
provided she does not die of violence or 
disease, which is a hazard she must also 

Observe the stiff, constrained, uncom- 
fortable, and uncomely appearance of a 
fashionable lady (fig. 150). It is really 
painful to look upon such a self-constituted 
burlesque on humanity. 


If there are any young ladies whose excess of approbativeness in- 
duces them to strain, and labor, and suffer, to produce " small tapering 
waists," so as to look " delicately fashionable," or " fashionably deli- 
cate," for the purpose of attracting the admiration of the other sex, 
let me assure them that they are destined to a sad failure. Notice 
they may, indeed, obtain, but admiration in that way, never. I have 
never heard a young man speak of the habit except in terms of ridi- 
cule ; and I have never heard any man speak of it except in language 
of reprobation for its manifestly injurious consequences, and contempt 
for its ridiculous appearance. 



Fig. 151. 


The contrast appears still stronger when 
the diminutive circle of the waist which 
beautifies the belle is placed by the side of 
the broad, expanded chest, which renders 
the woman vigorous and healthy, and conse- 
quently a help meet for man — fig. 151. Sucif 
was the model of female beauty ere sacre 
ligious hands had marred its fair proportions, 
and wherever, among the inhabitants of all 
parts of the earth, we find long-lived mothers 
and grandmothers, we are sure to find full, 
round chests and capacious lungs. 

Purity of Respired Air. — Equal in 
importance with the quantity of the air wo 
breathe is its purity. It is melancholy to 
reflect on the hard necessity which compels 
multitudes to live, or rather stay, in the sweltering garrets and infec- 
tious cellars of cities, or on the cupidity of landlords who provide such 
tenements, or on that dereliction of duty in municipal authorities which 
permits their existence. Much of the evil, however, may have its 
source in ignorance. 

Few sanatory circumstances are less regarded than those nuisances 
which fill the air with noxious effluvia. I know of no reason why 
Boston and Philadelphia should be more healthy than New York 
unless it is because the air of Boston is not continually filled with the 
poison of tobacco s?noke, and the Philadelphians have little or no under 
ground population. In every hygienic aspect, New York is the favored 
locality. It is true New York suffers a large influx of foreigners, the 
fatality among whom considerably swells its bill of mortality. But this 
alone, viewed in connection with its superior advantage in position, 
does not account for the difference, for according to the statistics of the 
present, year, the mortality of New York is twenty-five per cent. 
greater than that of Philadelphia, and twelve and a half per cent, 
greater than that of Boston ; equal, in fact, to New Orleans and other 
southern cities usually regarded as sickly. 

Nearly all cities — New York especially — are full of air-infecting 
nuisances, not as generally diffused as tobacco smoke, but as intensely 
poisonous in certain localities, as distilleries, cow stables, swill-milk 
factories, hog-pens, soap factories, slaughter-houses, bone-boiling estab- 
lishments, tallow-melt' ng places, gravej ards, etc., from which are con- 
stantly emanati.ig streams of ror.**gio» an 1 death, I do not believe 


there is a single city on earth, certainly not in the United States, 
where the people would endure or tolerate these pestilences, were 
they fully enlightened on the subject. 

It is utterlj impossible for the lungs to be fully expanded in a very 
impure atmosphere, because the air-passages, irritated by the extra- 
neous particles, spasmodically contract to keep them out. The conse- 
quence of this is, those persons who reside permanently in an atmos- 
phere charged with foreign ingredients or miasms, find their lungs 
continually contracting, unless this tendency is counteracted by a con- 
stant vocal or muscular exercise calculated to invigorate the whole 
respiratory apparatus and expand the chest. 

Change or Air. — The remarkable benefits frequently experienced 
when the inhabitants of crowded, dusty cities rusticate in the country 
for a few days, or when invalids exercise themselves in traveling, and 
amuse themselves with a variety of new scenery, has caused some 
physiologists, who have a reputation for considerable intelligence, to 
imagine that the advantage was in the change itself more than in the 
better quality of the country air. It is quite a prevalent notion that 
human beings require changes of food, drink, and air, merely as 
changes. Such notions have no foundation in philosophy. If the 
food, or drink, or air, or all, is physiologically the best, it can never be 
improved by any change during the whole period of life ; but if in any 
respect it is imperfect, a change to a better quality would be beneficial. 
Dr. Dunglison, who is n standard author in the profession on hygienic 
matters, thinks there is so much virtue in " modifications of different 
atmospheric influences," that a change from a belter to a worse air is 
better than no change at all. His language is (Elements of Hygiene, 
page 125) : " The change from a better to a worse air has even been 
found serviceable. In Edinburgh, the inhabitants of the most airy 
parts of the New Town frequently send their children, when laboring 
under hooping-cough, to the Cowgate, a filthy street, which runs at 
right angles under one of the mrgest thoroughfares in the Old Town, 
and in which, at a certain hour of the night, the inhabitants eject all 
the offensive accumulations from their houses, to be washed away bt 
the water of the reservoirs, let on for the purpose." It is passing 
strange that any medical man of the present day, of high rank and 
acknowledged authority in his profession, should be so blinded by false 
theories as to commend a custom so abominable, simply because some 
ignorant persons v/ere foolish enough to practii e it ! 

Positions an*. Habit affecting Respikation. — Sedentary 

AIR. 301 

habits, unless frequently alternated with vigorous and prolonged exer- 
cise, weaken the abdominal muscles, and thereby lessen the activity 
of the breathing process. 

Intense mental application, if long-continued, powerfully diminishes 
the respiratory function. No person in deep thought, with the brain 
laboring at its utmost capacity, breathes deep and free ; hence editors, 
particularly those who are closely confined to their sanctums, are 
proverbially short-lived. Many of them are worked to death in five 
or six years, who, had they attended properly to their respiratory 
functions, both pulmonary and cutaneous, could have held out, under 
the same amount of labor, three or four times as long. All very stu- 
dious persons, especially those given to abstruse investigations — the 
exercise of the reflective intellect — should never fail to exercise the 
whole body daily, and the arms, shoulders, and abdominal muscles 
several times a day. Riding on horseback, climbing mountains, run- 
ning up and down stairs, dancing the tight rope, swinging on the hand 
ladder, throwing the dumb bells or grace hoops, playing ball, bowling, 
sawing wood, planing boards, etc., are examples of appropriate exercises. 
Rotary motions, with both arms extended, making the bands simulta- 
neously describe as large a circle as possible, striking the elbows or 
backs of the hands together behind the back, or attempting so to do, 
are excellent exercises when the person is stoop-shouldered, and the 
chest contracted from malformation or by artificial means. 

All crooked or constrained bodily positions affect respiration injurious- 
ly. Reading, writing, sitting, standing, speaking, or laboring, with the 
trunk of the body bent forward, is extremely hurtful, by overstretch- 
ing »he muscles of the back, compressing the lungs, and pushing 
downward and backward the stomach, bowels, and abdominal muscles. 
In all mechanical or manual labor occupations, the body should always 
be bent, or lean, on the hip joints ; the trunk should always be kept 
"as straight as an Indian." 

Catching Cold. — The general misapprehension in regard to the 
theory of "catching cold," frequently produces the very evil that is 
most feared. More colds are taken in overheated than in too cold 
places, and still more are owing to vitiated air. '-Backwoodsmen," who 
sleep all winter long in shanties through which the snow-flakes pass 
freely, are seldom troubled with what are called "colds and coughs." 
Too close confinement to hot air in ill-ventilated rooms renders the 
body preternaturally susceptible to atmospheric chnnges. Infants and 
young children are generally badly managed in this respect in this 
wnintry. They are often made sickly, puny, peevish, nnd effeminate. 


by keeping the doors and windows too close, and the sufferer too much 
in doors, as though the breath of heaven was unfriendly to human life. 

Purifying the Air. — There is one method of purifying the air 
which is accessible to all persons in all places. In sleeping and other 
apartments, where thorough ventilation is impossible, the air may be 
rapidly changed and materially freshened by opening all the doors and 
windows, and then swinging one door violently forward and backward. 
It is a good, indeed a necessary practice in the cases of invalids who 
occupy close and secluded rooms, ana who are unable to walk out. 

Sleeping Rooms. — Sleeping rooms are generally miserably venti- 
lated. Air of a pure quality, and abundar.t in quantity, is much more 
important during our sleeping than in our waking hours; but the com- 
mon habits of the people are to provide large, spacious eating and sitting 
rooms, and small, close sleeping apartments. No one should sleep in 
a room, in summer or in winter, with all the windows and doors tightly 
closed. "Windows can at all times be opened more or less at the bottom 
or top, or the door placed a little ajar, so as to permit the ingress of fresh 
air, without admitting any injurious current. I have known invalids 
with bronchitis, consumption, and other diseases, in this city of a thou- 
sand intelligent physicians, suffer horribly, by being confined in a close, 
sultry room, in a hot July day, per advice of the doctor! 

Bed-curtains are rather worse than a useless appendage. If used 
at all, they should never be drawn tightly around the bed. The head 
should never be raised very high during sleep, as that position oppresses 
the lungs; nor should the sleeper incline toward the face, with the 
shoulders thrown forward. A late supper, by filling the stomach, pre- 
vents, in the horizontal posture, the descent of the diaphragm, hinders 
free breathing, and induces congestion of the brain, dreaming, night- 
mare, etc. 

Stoves and Fireplaces. — Grates and fireplaces secure a much 
better ventilation than stoves of any description. Stoves are regarded 
by some as constituting "the great nuisance of America;" and there 
is no question that, as usually managed, they do actually vitiate all the 
air of the room. Air-tight stoves require the most careful attention to 
ventilation, and indeed no stove should be used in any place where 
there is not resource or provision for the free admission of external air. 

Lamps, Candles, Gas-Burners, etc. — As all the means by which 
a room is lighted in the evening arc so many methods of consuming 

A 1 R. 308 

the oxygen, and rendering the air irrespirable, it is well to bear in 
mind that the amount of ventilation must have a due relation to the 
number of lights employed. In small rooms, and in sleeping rooms 
where a lamp is kept burning through the night, and in rooms occu- 
pied by invalids, attention to this circumstance is especially impoitant. 
In this connection I will allude to another very common source of 
vitiated air — smoky lamps. It may astonish those who have never 
seen this evil, to be told that persons can have their organs of sense so 
dulled and torpified as to sit a whole evening in a room with two or 
three oil lamps, each sending up a column of black smoke, and filling 
the room with a rank, suffocating odor, and yet not appear to be the 
least offended or incommoded. Yet such things are not uncommon in 
our cities ; and many who work evenings by the light of smoky lamps, 
often get weak eyes as well as impure blood as the result. 

Public Conveyances.- — It may be traveling a little out of the 
record, for me to speak of the bad air of steamboats, railroad cars, 
stages, omnibuses, and other conveyances ; but being a constant suf- 
ferer from this source, I may perhaps be justifiable in glancing at it. 
especially as it is a public evil as well as a private grievance. It would 
seem at first thought that any method of passing through the air at the 
rate of fifteen or twenty miles an hour, ought to secure the passenger 
fresh air in abundance. The theory is beautiful, but it fails in practice. 
Wherever we go, the tobacco-nuisance follows us. "We feel its nar- 
cotic miasm rank in every street of the city, and if we go into the 
country it goes with us. To be sure, "No smoking abaft the wheels," 
is conspicuously displayed on the Sound and River steamers; "No 
smoking inside the cars," is said or intended on the cars; while on the 
numerous ferry-boats conveying constant streams of people to and 
from the great emporium, it is gently intimated, "Gentlemen are par- 
ticularly requested not to smoke on this side of the boat;" still it always 
happens that the evidence of smoking pervades every part of the boat 
or car. Those who stand outside of the not-to-be-smoked-in apart- 
ment, around the gangways, on the platform, and at either end, con- 
trive in some way or other to make the whole company smell the 
weed, whether they will or no. And in the stages and omnibuses 
no one thinks of smoking inside without permission, but the driver, 
and one or two puffers on his seat, can easily give the passengers a 
"comfortable smoke," particularly uncomfortable to some if the wind 
be against them. 

There is yet another evil which ought to be remedied. There is 
usually in omnib'ises. stages, and railroad cars, a few persons who cfi'-. 

304 II Y G I E N E. 

not, or think they cannot, bear fresh air, when the weather is cool or 
damp. To suit their whim, all the windows are closed, and the com- 
pany perhaps for an hour or two sit inhaling over and over again the 
confined air, all the while becoming more vitiated. The rules of venti- 
lation apply to all rooms and apartments alike, whether in dwelling- 
houses or traveling vehicles 


Relation of Light to Organizatiot. — The hygienic import- 
ance of light is not sufficiently understood by the people, nor its reme- 
dial influence sufficiently regarded by physicians. Whether it be a 
distinct imponderable entity, a property of electricity, or something 
else, it would be idle here to speculate ; but it is certain that the light 
which this earth derives from the sun and the fixed stars, has a power- 
fully modifying influence on all the functions of its animal and vege- 
table kingdoms. 

Some plants thrive best when exposed to strong sunlight, others in a 
moderate light, and others when considerably shaded, yet all of them, 
without exception, require a good degree of the influence of light to 
become hardy, firm, and vigorous. Those which grow in deeply- 
shaded situations or dark cellars are comparatively colorless, slender, 
and friable. Light is the cause of color in all bodies ; it is entirely re- 
flected by white surfaces, and completely absorbed by black. 

Many insects and fishes while living are constantly luminous, in con- 
sequence of the rays of light being constantly emitted from various 
points of their bodies; the fire-fly emits its sparks from two oval spots 
at the side of the thorax ; in the glow-worm a phosphorescent bril- 
liancy issues from its abdominal rings ; luminous insects are supposed 
to absorb light during the day, like the Bononian stone, and impart it in 
the evening. 

Physiological Influences of Light. — Plants absorb carbon, 
and give out oxygen or vital air in the light ; but during the night this 
process is reversed, so that they absorb oxygen, and give out carbon; 
hence it is injurious and even dangerous to sleep at night in a situation 
which is closely surrounded with den^e foliage, and not well ventilated. 

LIGHT. S(k. 

The nutritive process is materially checked in all vegetables and animals 
when deprived of light for a considerable time ; in this case vegetables 
are said to become etiolated, a condition analogous to that called anetmia, 
or hyptemia, in man — a state of debility, bloodlessness, and inanition. In 
some of the lower animals the process of metamorphosis is arrested 
by deprivation of the solar influence. The tadpole, for example, in- 
stead of developing into the frog, either continues to grow as a tadpole, 
or degenerates into some kind of monstrosity; and the specimens of 
human monstrosities, developed abnormally, in consequence of the 
absence of a due degree of " Heaven's first-born," are neither few 
nor far between in the underground tenements of large cities. 

The operation of light on the animal organism has always been- 
recognized as urging to exercise, and increasing the activity of both 
the bodily and mental powers ; while its absence or privation disposes 
to indolence and obesity. Animals are more readily fattened when 
kept in obscurity, becatise the diminished activity of the depurating 
functions favors the accumulation of adipose matter. Poultry are often 
confined in dark places to augment their store of oil ; and the heads 
of geese and turkeys are sometimes covered by a hood, or their eyes 
put out, in order to procure from them fat and greasy livers, as choice 
morsels for depraved epicures. 

Almost the entire population of our large cities, who occupy back- 
rooms and rear buildings where the sun never shines, and cellars and 
vaults below the level of the ground on the shaded side of narrow 
streets, is more or less diseased. Of those who do not die of acute 
diseases, a majority exhibit unmistakable marks of imperfect develop- 
ment and deficient vitality; and, in fact, as with animals and vegetables 
in like circumstances, often run into deformities and monstrosities, not 
more reproachful, however, to those parents who propagate under 
such disadvantages, than disgraceful to that city, state, or national gov- 
ernment which either compels or permits any class of its citizens to live 
in such abodes. 

These facts show us that light, and an abundant supply of it, is in- 
dispensable to a due development of all organized bodies. 

Therapeutic Considerations. — Medical men have always no- 
ticed that diseases of all kinds, from the most trifling toothache, 
quinsy, or rheumatism, to the severest attack of fever, scrofula, or 
consumption, are much less manageable in low, dark apartments. 
And it is notorious that, during the prevalence of epidemics, as the 
cholera, the shaded side :-f a narrow stre ?t invariably exhibits the 
greatest ratio of fatal cases 


" The observations of Dr. Edwards, on the influence of light in pro- 
moting the perfect development of animals, led him to conclude that 
in climates where nudity is not incompatible with health, exposure of 
the whole surface of the body to light is favorable to the regular con- 
formation of the body ; and he, therefore, has suggested insolation in 
the open air as a means calculated to restore healthy conformation to 
children affected with scrofula, whose deviations of form do not appear 
to be incurable." 

Pereira says : " As in bright solar light we feel more active, cheer- 
ful, and happy, while obscurity and darkness give rise to a gloomy and 
depressed condition of mind, so we employ isolation in the open air as 
a mental stimulus in melancholy, lowness of spirits, and despondency." 

Sanatory Inferences. — The inferences deducible from the fore- 
going considerations are sufficiently obvious. All persons, in order to 
acquire and maintain the best condition of health and strength, should 
be frequently exposed to the light of the sun, except when oppressively 
hot. Children are generally maltreated, more especially in cities, ir 
being kept almost entirely excluded from sunshine. Many good moth- 
ers are more fond of the delicate faces and pale complexions of their 
little ones, than intelligent in relation to their physiological welfare. A 
little sun-browning occasionally of their faces, necks, hands, and feet, 
and, finally, of their whole bodies, would not only render their devel- 
opment more perfect and enduring, but tend to the production of the 
greatest symmetry and beauty in manhood and womanhood. Parents 
should not be too careful in putting umbrella-hats and bonnet-sun- 
shades on the heads of thair children evei-y time they run out of 

Almost all persons, young or old, who live in cities, can invigorate 
the skin and improve the genera' health, by frequent exposures of the 
whole body to the air of a well-lighted room, applying moderate fric- 
tion to the surface at the same time. Light as well as air is generally 
excluded from the surface by too much or too tight clothing, which evil 
such exposures in some degree would counteract. 

Dwelling-houses ought to be constructed with especial reference to 
light. Those rooms which are most occupied should be the best light- 
ed, as the kitchen and sitting-room. The sun should be allowed free 
access to the yard and out-grounds. Shade-trees and shrubbery, use- 
ful to some extent around the dwelling, should never be so thick as to 
shut the direct rays of the sun out entirely. The influence of light in 
dissipating and decomposing noxious vapors and deleterious gases, which 
collect in and around low grounds and dark p!a:es, is very great. 

1 X K. 307 

The sudden exhilaration and invigoration experienced by the pent- 
up denizens of our large towns, when they go from their dim count 
ing-rooms, gloomy offices, and basement workshops, to rusticate a few 
days in mountainous regions, is due nearly as much to the greater 
strength of tho natural light as to the greater purity of the air. 


Nature's Beverage. — Nature has provided no other drink for 
man, nor for animals, nor for vegetables, than pure water ; and no 
animal but man seeks any other either as a beverage or as medicine. 
Its value as a beverage is in all cases in proportion to its purity. In 
plants water is employed as a vehicle to convey the nutrient elements 
absorbed by the roots throughout their various structures. In animals 
provided with a stomach for receiving aliment, it is the medium by 
which the materials of nutrition are conveyed to all parts of the body, 
and the waste matters carried away. Milk, which constitutes the prin- 
cipal food of the young mammal until the teeth are developed, contains 
about ninety parts of water in a hundred, and though often employed 
as a leverage by adults, is properly regarded as food. All the diluent 
preparations, which fill so large a space among medical prescriptions, 
owe their whole powers of dilution to the water alone. 

Is Man a Drinking Animal ? — The question whether man is by 
nature a drinking animal, or whether the water required for his organ- 
ism is sufficiently supplied in his natural food, has been raised within 
the kst half century. Dr. Lambe, of England, has very ably argued 
the negative of the first position named ; but the majority of dietetic 
writers hold the opposite opinion. It is, however, perfectly certain — 
and the fact has been proved by the direct experiments of Dr. Alcott 
and others — that those who adopt a regimen exclusively vegetable, and 
make a large proportion of their food to consist of succulent fruits and 
watery vegetables, can be healthfully sustained and nourished without 
water-drinking. It is also certain that those who eat much animal 
food, use salt, spices, and greasy dishes freely, and who have to employ 
a large proportion of concentrated farinaceous substances — which is, 
indeed, the general plan of the dietary sys'em of civilized society — 



require a large amount of water to carry off the saline particles and 
other impurities, and allay the artificial fever which they produce. In 
either case the thirst is the safe rule of practice. 

Quantity and Times of Water-Drinking. — Writers are re- 
markably discordant in their notions as to the quantity of water a per- 
son should take into the stomach, and also as to the times for taking it. 
Some think we should drink as little as possible ; others are of opinion 
that we should swallow all we can ; one class of writers recommends 
all drinking to be done between meals, and another class advises us to 
drink abundantly at meals. It is easy to discover the sources of these 
discrepancies. Writers are too apt to deduce general inferences from 
individual peculiarities. What is precisely right for one person may 
be exactly wrong for another. If the dietetic and other voluntary 
habits of all people were strictly physiological, we could give them all 
a rule without exceptions, and the same rule. But the quantity of 
water useful or necessary depends on all the habits of life, amount of 
exercise, quality of food, the employment of stimulants, condiments, 
etc. The kind of occupation also affects the question ; for example, a 
person laboring in a dry, warm atmosphere will require more drink 
than one working in a cool, moist air. 

The amount of water contained in the various alimentary substances 
in common use, shows the relation which the quantity of the water 
necessary to employ as drink bears to the kind of food. Thus, in one 
hundred parts (rejecting fractions) water constitutes, of gum arabic 17, 
sugar-candy 10, arrow-root 18, wheat 14, rye 16, oats 20, barley 13, 
maize 18, peas 16, beans 14, lentils 15, potatoes 75, turnips 92, carrots 
87, beets 87, artichoke 79, white cabbage 92, black bread 32, beef tea 
98, blood 80, fresh lean meat of beef, mutton, veal, pork, deer, chicken, 
and pigeon 74 to 78, cod, haddock, sole, carp, and trout 79 to 82, ox's 
liver 68, calf's sweet-bread 70, white of egg 68, yolk of egg 85, cow's 
milk 87, human do, 87, goat's do. 86, ass's do. 91, ewe's do. 85. 

The quantity of water contained in aliments, however does not de- 
termine their nutritive power, for some substances, as butter and hog's 
lard, contain scarcely any water, yet are capable of supplying the body 
with much less nourishment than milk, which is about seven eighths 
water. & 

As to the best times for drinking, it is not difficult to give a general 
rule ; but people who live variously must vary it according Un 
questionably the best time for water-drinking, as a habit, is when the 
stomach is entirely empty— on first rising i„ the morning, and half an 
hour or an hour before meals Persons who take habituallva himhter 

Oil INK. 309 

of pure water at those times, and eat plain food, will seldom expe- 
rience much thirst; but those who employ thirst-provoking aliments 
or seasonings should assuage that thirst by water-drinking, even at 
meals. There are many morbid conditions of the system in which it 
is advisable to drink freely, even at meals, and without regard to thirst, 
but these will be more appropriately considered hereafter. One rule, 
however, of almost universal application for dietetic or remedial pur 
poses is, never to drink, either at meals or at other times, to the extent 
of producing any decidedly uncomfortable heaviness, distention, or op- 
pression of the stomach. Those who have weakened their digestive 
jwwers, and rendered the sensibility of the nervous system morbidly 
acute by the use of tea, coffee, etc., should accustom the stomach to 
the impression of cold water gradually, beginning with only a part of 
a tumbler, and increasing the quantity as the tone of the digestive 
organs improves. 

Temperature of Drink. — Cool, but not very cold water appears 
to be most perfectly adapted to all the purposes of the animal economy. 
Without doubt the human system possesses a wide range of adaptabil- 
ity, and can, provided the general habits are reasonably correct, be 
very well sustained on water rather warm or very cold. It is well 
known that in the hot season, particularly in our cities, many laborers 
die veiy soon after drinking freely of iced-water. This matter ought 
to be well understood, for there is surely no necessity for any one to 
die in this way. It is not the iced-water alone that destroys them, 
but this proves an exciting cause when the system has been brought 
into an unfavorable state of vital resistance. I never knew or heard 
of any person dying or being seriously injured by the free use of iced- 
water — as free as the thirst demanded — who was temperate and sim- 
ple in all his eating and drinking habits. All who are fatally injured by 
drinking iced-water, as far as I have been able to observe, or can learn 
from others, are among those who use some kinds or combinations of 
dietetic articles which provoke a great degree of factitious thirst; for 
example, baker's bread, and butter, stale salted meat, as ham or cod- 
fish, old cheese, plum-pudding, etc. Of course such persons feel a 
necessity for drinking freely, and as iced-water seems a grateful anti- 
dote to the feverishness artificially produced in the stomach, they are 
apt to indulge injuriously. There is no safety for such persons, except 
in either eating wholesome food, which does not provoke thirst, or in 
drinking water of a moderate temperature. But the great danger is 
with those who, in addition to the fead diet just mentioned, add the 
poison of intoxicating drinks. In fact, very few die in consequence oi 


drinking cold water in hot weather, except those more or less addicted 
to alcoholic stimulants — probably not more than one in ten. The tend- 
ency of all forms of alcoholized beverages — from soft wines and ales to 
small beers and porters, and from hard ciders and rough brandies to 
harsh rums and strong gins — is to weaken and paralyze the nerves of 
the stomach ; and when these exhausted nerves are suddenly chilled 
by a large draught of cold water, it is not wond »vful that reaction does 
not take place, nor that' death ensues. 

Artificial Drinks. — Under this head I purpose to speak briefly 
of a variety of made-up drinks, some of which are intended as luxu- 
ries, others as medicines. " Ardent spirits, malt liquors, wine and 
cider," specially anathematized by name and nature, and deservedly 
excommunicated from use and fellowship by the total abstinence soci- 
eties, I need not dwell upon. They are poisons, in every sense inim- 
ical to the human constitution ; in fact, deleterious to every organizeo 
thing in existence, and are produced only from the decay, destruction, 
and decomposition of the products of organized matters. They d« 
serve commemoration only for the mischiefs they have done, and ex 
ecration only for the miseries they are now inflicting on human society 
I cannot, however, refrain from uttering a word of lamentation in this 
place, and expressing my regret and astonishment that there should bo 
any found in this enlightened day and country, and among the leaders 
of mankind, especially among medical gentlemen and Christian minis- 
ters, who profess to guide the body to health and the soul to heaven — 
who profess to take true science aad the Bible as their guides, yet who 
not only indulge in the intoxicating bowl themselves, but even com- 
mend it to their fellow-creatures ! Surely the number of clergymen 
who have fallen from their pulpits in consequence of misinterpreting 
Paul's advice to Timothy, and the number of physicians who have 
filled drunkard's graves, ought to admonish them that " wine is a 
mocker, and strong drink is raging." 

Tea possesses strong nervine and moderate narcotic properties, and 
considerable astringency, due to the presence of tannin. All the 
properties of tea are subject to much variation. Usually the green 
teas possess more astringency than the black ; they are also, as found 
in our markets, to a great extent adulterated with coloring matter, 
commonly Prussian blue. The less injurious effects of black teas 
evidently depend on their purer quality and weaker strength, as a 
concentrated extract of either is powerfully and equally poisonous. It 
is amusing to read the conflicting testimonies of medical authors re- 
specting the operative effects of f >n us a beverage hi 1 we sometimes 

DRINK. 311 

find conflicting opinions expressed by the same author. Thus says 
Pereira: "Strong green tea produces on some constitutions, usually 
those popularly known as nervous, very severe effects. It gives rise 
to tremor, anxiety, sleeplessness, and most distressing feelings. On 
others, however, none of these symptoms are manifested. Part of 
the ill effects sometimes ascribed to tea may be owing to the use of so 
much aqueous liquid, to the temperature of the liquid, to milk and 
sugar used with it, or to the action of tannin on the digestive liquid. 
But, independently of these, tea possesses a specific and marked in- 
fluence over the functions of the brain, not referable to any of the 
circumstances just alluded to. The influence of tea, especially the 
green variety, over the nervous system, is analogous in some respects 
to that of foxglove, for both green tea and foxglove occasion watchful- 
ness, and act as sedatives on the heart and blood-vessels." 

This appears to read plain enough, but in the next preceding para- 
graph the same author has told us : " Notwithstanding the extensive 
employment of tea in this country, it is no easy matter to ascertain its 
precise effect on the constitution." 

Professor C. A. Lee, of this city, says: "A very strong decoction 
of green tea, or the extract, speedily destroys Jife in the inferior ani- 
mals, even when given in very small doses. The strongly-marked 
effects of tea upon persons of a highly nervous temperament, in caus- 
ing wakefulness, tremors, palpitations, and other distressing feelings, 
prove also that it is an agent of considerable power, and should not be 
used to any great extent by persons of such a habit. It not unfre- 
queutly occasions vertigo and sick headache, together with a sinking 
sensation at the pit of the stomach shortly after eating. It is also op- 
posed to an active nutrition, and should, therefore, be used with great 
moderation by those who are very thin in flesh." 

These facts are useful to us, but the medical prescription can be 
greatly improved upon. If the extreme effects of tea are manifested 
by the susceptible constitutions, the principle is clear enough that all 
constitutions suffer from it, though in a lest egree. Instead of recom- 
mending "nervous" and "thin" persons to use it with moderation, the 
true physician, who values truth too highly to compromise it with false 
customs, will advise its total disuse. 

Schwaan found by experiment that tannin, when mixed with arti- 
ficial digestive liquids, threw down a precipitate, and rendered the 
fluids inert. The effect of the tannin upon the gastric juice may ac- 
count in part for its influence in promoting indigestion. 

It is certain that females, on account of their in-door occupations 
and more sedentary habits, suffer incomparably moro from this, their 


favorite beverage, than males do ; and I am inclined to think that the 
hot water is nearly or quite as deleterious as the herb, as the infusion 
is usually drank. From a pretty close observation, too, I am fully sat- 
isfied that the general prevalence of "female weaknesses" — a phrase 
including an extensive and formidable class of ailments — are in a great 
measure attributable to warm teas. 

Almost every kind of herb that grows, except those which are 
really nutritious, or are violently poisonous to the stomach and bowels, 
preternaturally excites the action of the kidneys and urinary organs ; 
or, to speak more physiologically, the kidneys are the excretory organs 
intended to throw off a great part of such foreign or waste material as 
is contained in infusions and decoctions of herbs. Very warm drinks 
are in themselves debilitating to the stomach, but the addition of the 
properties of the tea or other herb burdens the kidneys and urinary 
apparatus with an unnatural amount of labor continually. These or- 
gans, kept constantly over-excited, must become debilitated, and pre- 
ternaturally irritable ; and this condition of debility and irritability ex- 
tends sympathetically to all the surrounding viscera ; finally, the 
abominal muscles themselves become relaxed, and, with the general 
nervous exhaustion produced by the active nervine and narcotic prop- 
erties of the tea throughout the system, a foundation is laid for the 
whole train of maladies, displacements of organs, and disordered func- 
tions, which are so general among females of the present day. 

The history of these complaints, and the history of artificial bever- 
ages, particularly the employment of hot tea and coffee, show that 
there has been an intimate connection between the origin, progress, 
and prevalence of those diseases and these beverages. Fifty or an 
hundred years ago these complaints were comparatively rare. Moth- 
ers in those days did not commence tea-drinking in childhood; their 
bodies were nearly developed and their constitutions well formed 
before their mothers allowed them to indulge in enervating slops. 
But now tea-drinking commences sometimes before the period of 
childhood — in babyhood. I have seen a regular tea-toper in a baby 
under two years of age. It is very common in these days for chil- 
dren of five and six years of age, little girls especially, to drink their 
two cups of tea or coffee morning and evening. Is it wonderful that 
in early youth they are precocious in infirmities, and become chlorotic 
or cachectic, and complain of spinal irritation, mismenstruation, ner- 
vous debility, and a train of local affections wholly unknown in simple 
or in savage life ? 

Coffee possesses the same nervine and narcotic properties as ten, 
without its ((stringency. It usually acts as n laxative to the bowels for 

DRINK. 313 

awhile in those unaccustomed to its use ; but its long-continued em- 
ployment always results in constipation. Its operative effects are, in 
most persons, rather more exciting and disturbing to the mental and 
organic functions than those of tea. Most persons who accurately no- 
tice their feelings under its influence, find a greater derangement of 
the digestive functions and the secretion of the liver, than results from 
the use of tea. From all the testimony I can gather from medical 
and dietetical writers, coupled with some degree of personal observa- 
tion, I should judge it to be more directly injurious to the digestive 
process, and more exhausting to the general nervous energy, than tea, 
and less injurious to the kidneys and pelvic viscera. 

Medical authorities are as self-contradictory in regard to coffee as 
they are about tea. Pereira says : " Employed moderately, I believe 
it to be a wholesome and slightly nutritive beverage." But in the 
same paragraph Pereira continues : " The immoderate use of cofl'eo is 
said to produce various nervous disorders, such as anxiety, tremor, 
disordered vision, palpitation, and feverishness.". Professor Lee speaks 
like a man who loves a good cup of the exhilarating decoction. He 
says : " We should consider that cordials and stimulants are, at least 
occasionally, useful, and that, whether useful or not, mankind always 
have, and probably always will, make use of them. But of all those 
which have hitherto been introduced, none, perhaps, combine so many 
excellent with so few evil qualities as that of coffee. To moderately 
nutritive properties it adds those of a mild and cordial stimulant, with- 
out producing those peculiar narcotic effects which so often accompany 
the use of strong green tea." 

The eulogy of Dr. Lee is out-eulogied by Abd-al-Kadir Anasari 
Djezeri Hanbali, son of Mahommet: "O coffee! thou dispellest the 
cares of the great ; thou bringest back those who wander from the 
paths of knowledge. Coffee is the beverage of the people of God. 
and the cordial of His servants who thirst, for wisdom. When coffee 
is infused into the bow!, it exhales the odor of musk, and is of the color 
of ink. The truth is not known except to the wise, who drink it 
from the foaming coffee-cup. God has deprived fools of coffee, who, 
with invincible obstinacy, condemn it as injurious." 

Chocolate, though destitute of the nervine properties of tea and 
coffee, contains a large proportion of fat or oil, called bulter of cacao, 
which is difficult of digestion, and particularly injurious to dyspeptic 
stomachs. Chocolate is prepared from the seeds of the theobroma 
cacao, a native plant of the West Indies and Central America. The 
kernels of the roasted seeds are ground in a mill, whose sole rests on 
a heated iron plate, by which they are made into a brown pasty mass, 
I— 27 

314 II Y G I E N "G. 

then sweetened with sugar or honey, mixed more or less with sago, 
flour, or starch, and generally flavored with vanilla or china non. 

Ckickory, or suckory, is a preparation of the roasted roots of a plant, 
called wild succory, or wild endine, which is cultivated in Holliind, 
Belgium, and Germany. It is used to adulterate collee, and a spu- 
"ious article is sold for chickory, made of roasted peas and beans, dam- 
aged corn, and coffee husks, and colored with Venetian red or Arme- 
nian bole. 

Cocoa is another preparation of the seeds cf the iheobroma cacao; 
it is somewhat less greasy than chocolate, but has no other advantage. 

There are a great variety of acidulous drinks in popular use. Host 
of them are prepared juices of fruits and sugar, as lemonade, apple-tea. 
Bottle soda-water, as generaUy prepared, is merely a mixture of car- 
bonic acid gas in sweetened water. These beverages, in a hygienic 
point of view, possess but little importance. The only reason that the 
appetite demands them is, because the sense oi taste is so torpified by 
stimulating food and seasonings, that it cannot relish simple water; 
still, they cannot be considered quite as healthful as pure water. Ef- 
fervescing preparations of soda and tartaric acid, and of seidlite pow- 
ders, are decidedly injurious as common beverages, because they 
introduv e into the system a large quantity of debilitating nrutral salts. 
Ginger and root beers have had an extensive employment among pop- 
ular beverages. The latter is rendered pungent by yeast fermenta- 
tion, which develops from two to four per cent, of alcohol ; this, of 
course, is against its healthfulness ; but as such preparations will not 
keep but a very few days without becoming sour, the manufacturer 
often finds it profitable to add an additional quantity of alcohol. These 
drinks are trash at best, and worse than useless in their tendency to 
keep up artificial appetences, requiring strong, pungent, or gross bev- 
erages to satisfy. 

In relation to the wilder kinds of malt liquors, small beer, or tabli 
beer, as it is called, porter, pale ale, and brown stout, Pereira talks pre- 
cisely like an "old-fashioned English gentleman." I quote Pereira 
mostly, because he is the latest and most approved author on dietetics 
as well as materia medica in the allopathic school. He says : " The 
practice of taking a moderate quantity of mild malt liquor, of sound 
quality, at dinner, is in general not only unobjectionable, but benefit 
rial. Considered dietetically, beer possesses a three-fold property : it 
quenches thirst; it stimulates, cheers, and, if taken in sufficient quan- 
tity, intoxicates ; and, lastly, it nourishes or strengthens." Surely his 
admiration of the virtues of grog was not excelled by that of the toper, 
who found it amply sufficient for food, drink, and lodging. Who can 

URINK. 315 

wonder that drur.kenness is the distinctive vice of Christendom, when 
the professors of the healing art teach such ridi, ulously false doc- 
trines? But let us quote also Pereira's reasoning: "Its power of 
appeasing thirst depends on the aqueous ingredient (water) which it 
contains, assisted somewhat by its acidulous constituent. Its stimulat- 
ing, cheering, o»- intoxicating power is derived either wholly or prin- 
cipally from the alcohol which it contains. Lastly, its nutritive 01 
strengthening quality is derived from the sugar, dextrine, and other 
substances contained in the extract. Moreover, the bitter principle of 
hops confers on beer tonic properties." If the reader can discover in 
such reasoning any thing but the veriest nonsense, I confess he has 
the advantage of me. 

Different Kinds of Natural Waters. — The natural waters of 
the globe have been classed into common waters, comprising rain, spring, 
river, well or pump, lake, and marsh waters; sea waters, including 
the ocean and the salt lakes or inland seas ; and mineral waters, to 
which class belong all the springs, streams, or pools usually regarded 
as medicinal. 

Rain water is the purest of all natural waters. When collected in 
cities, it is more or less impure at the commencement of the shower, 
from admixture with foreign matters suspended in the atmosphere, 
and is often loaded with the particles washed from the roofs of the 
buildings. After several hours of continuous rain in cities, and a much 
shorter time in country places, it ^omes down almost perfectly pure. 
Air is a constant constituent, of or admixture with rain water, and it 
contains a slight trace of carbonate of ammonia, which is probably a 
product of animal decomposition, and the cause of rain water so read- 
ily running into the putrefactive process. Snow ivater does not differ 
materially from rain water, except in not containing air. That it is 
injurious to health has long been a vulgar error; eating snow, how- 
ever, does not quench thirst; but melted snow is as efficacious for this 
purpose as rain water. 

Spring water only differs from rain water in having percolated 
through the earth, and having, during its passage, either imparted 
some of the particles it held, in solution to the soil, or taken up soluble 
matters from the soil, or both. Its properties will therefore depend 
entirely upon the nature of the soil. A majority of the springs in the 
United States are hard, owing to earthy and saline matters, the most 
common of which are sulphate, and carbonate of lime. There are, 
however, many soft ivater springs ; enough, in fact, to answer all the 
drinking purposes of as dense a population as the country can sustain, 


if it were conveyed to and distributed among the dwellings. The 
people in the country are generally singularly inattentive to the im- 
portant matter of providing themselves with pure soft water. They 
are very apt to get tneir supply from the most convenient spring, in- 
stead of the best. If they fully appreciated the importance of good 
water, they would not locate the dwelling-house until they had located 
the spring or well. 

River water is an admixture of rain and spring water ; it always 
holds in suspension a greater or less amount of extraneous matter, and 
in and around cities is strongly contaminated with decomposing animal 
and vegetable matters. Much of the river water in this country, as it 
runs through the sparely-populated districts, is comparatively quite 
pure and healthful. 

The w iter of the Thames, and in the vicinity of London, contains, 
as impurities, about 20 grains of solid matter to the gallon. Of this, 
carbonate of lime constitutes about 16 grains, and sulphate of lime and 
common salt about 3i grains. 

The Croton water, of New York contains but a trifle over four 
grains of solid matter to the gallon, only a grain and a half of this 
being carbonate of lime ; sulphate of lime, the chlorides of calcium 
and magnesium, and the carbonate of magnesia constitute a little ovei 
two grains. The Cochituate water of Boston is equally as pure, and 
the Schuylkill of Philadelphia nearly as pure. 

Previous to the introduction of the Croton river, the Manhattan 
water supplied to our citizens contained, in Chambers and Reade streets 
125 grains of impurities to each gallon ; in Bleecker-street 20 grains ; 
and in Thirteenth-street 14 grains. Some of the wells in the lower 
part of the city contained 58 grains. The water in the wells of Bos- 
ton and Philadelphia were in no better condition. 

The usual results of drinking very hard waters, and those strongly 
impregnated with the exuvias of animal and vegetable substances, are 
severe dysenteries or protracted diarrheas, and chronic affections of 
the kidneys. 

Well water is generally more impregnated with earthy salts, espe- 
cially bicarbonate rnd sulphate of lime, than river water, or even 
spring water. Its hardness is shown by its curdling and decomposing 
soap, instead of mixing with it readily and forming a suds, as will soft 
water. Sulphate of lime (gypsum, plaster of Paris) is a frequent 
cause of diarrhea. 

Horses manifest such an instinctive repugnance to hard water, that 
they will drink out of a ti'-'jid and muddy pool, provided its water is 

DRINK. 817 

soft, in preference to partaking of the clearest and most transparent 
■water, if it be hard. 

Lake water is generally very impure, being a collection of rain, 
river, and spring water, contaminated with putrefying animal and veg- 
etable matters. 

Marsh water is similar to lake water, but still more loaded with 
offensive and putrescent organic matters. The stench arising from 
marshy and swampy grounds, which are occasionally inundated from 
the sea, is owing to the decomposition of the sulphates, of the sea wa- 
ter by the putrefying vegetable matters, which process evolves the 
intolerable sulphureted hydrogen gas. 

Sea water contains on the average 3 2 L per cent, of solid matter. 
The amount varies considerably in different seas, and in different parts 
of the same sea. Its composition also varies in different localities. 
An analysis of 1000 grains of the water of the Mediterranean gave 
the following result : Water 959.26, chloride of sodium (common salt) 
27.22, chloride of potassium 0.01, chloride of magnesium 6.14, sul 
phate of magnesia 7.02, sulphate of lime 0.15, carbonate of lime 0.20. 
Iodine, and bromide of magnesium have been found in some sea waters. 

Taken into the stomach, sea water excites thirst, nausea, and, in 
large doses, vomiting and purging. 

Mineral waters are classed according to the character of their pre- 
vailing impurities. Those whose predominating active principle is iron 
are called chalybeate or ferruginous. Sulphurous or hepatic waters are 
strongly impregnated with sulphureted hydrogen, which gives them an 
odor like rotten eggs. Carbonated or acidulous waters contain car- 
bonic acid, which renders them sparkling and pungent. Of the saline 
mineral waters there are many sub-varieties, as the calcareous, alka- 
line, silicious, etc. 

The medicinal fame of the " Congress water" at Saratoga is derived 
from the great amount of its deleterious ingredients. One gallon con- 
tains the following impurities : Chloride of sodium (common salt) 385.0 
grains, hydriodate of soda 3.5 do., bi-carbonate of soda 8.982 do., bi- 
carbonate of magnesia 95.778 do., carbonate of iron 5.075 do., silex 
1.5 do., hydro-bromate of potash, a trace ; in all, 597.943 grains. 
Each gallon also contains 311 cubic inches of carbonic acid gas, and 7 
of atmospheric air. 

Dr. Steel, of Saratoga, very judiciously advises those who wish to 
experience the full benefit of this water to drink it only once a day — 
about three pints enr\y in tlie morning ; and be remarks very sensibly : 
" It would be much better for those whose complaints render them fit 
subjects for its administra/ion, if the fountain Miould be locked up, and 

818 , HYGIENE 

no one suffered to approach it after the hours of nine and ten in the 
morning." If it should be locked up at all hours of the day and night, 
and a stream of pure soft water substituted, the advantage to the in- 
valid portion of the guests would be still greater. 

The Iodine Spring, at that place, differs from the former mainly in 
containing 3i grains of iodine to the gallon, with a little more than half 
the quantity of the other ingredients. The Sans Souci Spring, at 
Ballston Spa, differs from the Congress principally in containing carbon- 
ate of lime, instead of bi-carbonate of magnesia, and possessing alto- 
gether a little less than half the amount of impurities. 

Tests of Ordinary Impurities. — The following are the tests 
(copied from Pereira's " Food and Diet"), by which the presence of 
the usual impurities of common waters may be ascertained: 

1. Ebullition. — By boiling, air and carbonic acid gas are expelled, 
while carbonate of lime, held in solution by the carbonic acid, is de- 
posited ; this deposit is the fur or crust which lines tea-kettles and 

2. Protosulphate of Iron. — If a crystal of this salt be introduced 
into a phial filled with the water to be examined, and the phial be well 
corked, a yellowish-brown precipitate (sesquioxide of iron) will be de- 
posited in a few days, if oxygen gas be contained in the water. 

3. Litmus. — Infusion of litmus, or syrup of violet, is reddened by a 
free acid. 

4. Lime-water. — This is a test for carbonic acid, with which it 
causes a white precipitate (carbonate of lime), if employed before the 
water is boiled. 

5. Chloride of Barium. — A solution of this salt usually yields, with 
hard water, a white precipitate, insoluble in nitric acid ; this indicates 
the presence of sulphuric acid, which, in common water, is combined 
with lime. 

6. Oxalate of Ammonia. — If this salt yield a white precipitate,' it 
indicates the presence of lime, carbonate and sulphate. 

7. Nitrate of Silver. — If this occasion a precipitate insoluble in nitric 
acid, the presence of chlorine is inferred. 

8. Phosphate of Soda. — If the lime contained in common water be 
removed by ebullition and oxalic acid, and to the strained and trans- 
parent water ammonia and phosphate of soda be added, any magnesia 
present will, in the course of a few hours, be precipitated in the form 
of the white ammonincal phosphate of magnesia. 

9. Tincture of Galls. — This is used as a test for iron, with solutions 
of which it forms an inky liquor (tannato and gallate of iron). If the 

DRINK. 319 

test produce this effect on the water before, but not after boiling, the 
iron is in the state of carbonate ; if after as well as before, in that of 
sulphate. Tea may be substituted for galls, to which its effects and 
indications are similar. Ferrocyanide of potassium yields, with solu- 
tions of the sesquisalts of iron, a blue precipitate, and, with the proto- 
salts. a white precipitate, which becomes blue by exposure to the air. 

10. Hydrosulphuric Acid (sulphureted hydrogen). — This yields a 
dark (brown or black) precipitate (a metallic sulphuret), with water 
containing iron or lead in solution. 

11. Evaporation and Ignition. — If the water be evaporated to dry- 
ness, and ignited in a glass tube, the presence of organic matter may 
be inferred by the odor and smoke evolved, as well as by the charring. 
Another mode of detecting organic matter is by adding nitrate or ace- 
tate of lead to the suspected water, and collecting and igniting the 
precipitate, when globules of melted lead are obtained, if organic mat- 
ter be present. The putrefaction of water is another proof of the 
presence of organic matter. Nitrate of silver is also a test, as before 

Purification of Common Waters. — Filtration removes all in- 
sects, living beings, and all suspended impurities, but it does not deprive 
water of the substances it holds in solution. Boiling destroys the 
vitality of any animals or vegetables it may contain, expels air or car- 
bonic acid, and causes the precipitation of carbonate of lime. Some- 
times it may be advantageous to boil water first, and filter it afterward. 
Distillation purifies water from ev,pry thing except traces of organic 
matter; it is, however, a process too troublesome and expensive for 
general employment. Chemical agents are sometimes made use of to 
free water from particular ingredients. Alum, two or three grains to 
a quart, will cleanse muddy water; the alum decomposes the carbon- 
ate of lime ; sulphate of lime k found in solution, and the alumina is 
precipitated in flocks, carrying with it mechanical impurities. Though 
this process renders the water clear, it adds nothing to its healthfulness, 
but renders it even harder, by converting the carbonate into sulphato 
of lime. Alkaline carbonates soften water by decomposing all the 
earthy salts, and precipitating the earthy matters ; the carbonates of 
soda and potash are much used in washing on this account ; they do 
not render the water any purer, nor fit for drinking or culinary pur- 

Adulterations of Common Water. — The purest water is liable 
to become impregnated with poisonous properties when conveyed 


through some kinds of metallic pipes, particularly leaden ones. The 
air contained in very pure water rapidly corrodes lead ; distilled water, 
from which the air is excluded, has no action on it until air is again ad- 
mitted, when a thin white crust of carbonate and hydrate of the oxide 
of lead is speedily formed. Rain water is often impregnated from the 
lead of roofs, gutters, cisterns, anc pipes. Combinations of lead, iron, 
and zinc, and other mixed metals, as in cases where iron bars are used 
to support leaden cisterns, the introduidon of iron pumps into leaden 
cisterns, etc., often produce a galvanic action which dissolves a portion 
of the lead. The leaden covers of leaden cisterns are also a source of 
contamination ; the water evaporates from the cistern in the form of 
pure or distilled water, and condenses upon the lid, which it corrodes, 
and then falls back into the cistern impregnated with the metal. Su.-h 
cisterns should have wooden covers. 

Various saline matters impair the corrosive action of water and air, 
and exercise a protecting influence. The carbonates and sulphates 
afford the best security against lead poisoning, because they form a 
protecting crust upon the surface of the metal. Dr. Lee declares 
that " Palsy is often met with in the city of New York among grocers 
and porter-house keepers, and is doubtless occasioned by their drink- 
ing beer in the morning which has stood in the lead pipes over night." 

Chemists do not agree respecting the action of our Croton water on 
its leaden conduits ; but experience settles the question affirmatively. 
It becomes our citizens, therefore, to exeixise a constant watchfulness 
in its employment, which is, to let as much water run as the leaden 
pipes contain to their junction with the iron pipes in the streets, be- 
fore drinking it. With this precaution, and the frequent emptying of 
the leaden pipes tln'ough the day, it is not probable that any appreci- 
able injury will be experienced from the lead. But these facts prove 
that the principle of conveying water through our dwellings by leaden 
pipes is wrong, and a substitute should engage the attention of inge- 
nious men and philanthiopists. 


Chemical Elements of Food. — In the present state of chemical 
science all known bodies, mineral and organized, are regarded as con- 
stituted of fifty-five simple substances, wl h arc called chemical ele- 

FOOD. 321 

ments. Of these fifty-five elements nineteen have been found in 
organized bodies, animal and vegetable. Of these nineteen elements 
thirteen are regarded as essential constituents of the human body, viz., 
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorous, sulphur, iron, chlo- 
rine, sodium, calcium, potassium, magnesium, and fluorine. 

Pereira lays down the following postulate: " A living body has no 
power of forming elements, or of converting one elementary sub- 
stance into another; and it therefore follows that the elements of 
which an animal is composed must be the elements of its food." 

If this position is correct, any alimentary substance capable of sus- 
taining the structures of the human body, must possess all of the 
chemical elements above-named among its constituents. We do not, 
however, find such to be the fact. Milk affords complete nutrition to 
the young mammal, and occasionally to the adult; wheat and apples 
are capable, of perfectly nourishing the body ; yet neither of these 
articles, nor all together, yield to chemical analysis all of the elements 

It is, moreover, probable, and I think demonstrable, that, to a cer- 
tain extent, the vital functions of a living organism have the power of 
transmuting substances supposed to be elementary. This is proved 
by the fact, that the lime found in the bones of the chick when it quits 
its shell did not pre-exist in the recent egg. It could not be derived 
from the shell, because the membrane which lines its interior is not 
vascular ; hence its only source is the transmutation of some other 
substance. The accuracy of Pereira's proposition may be admitted, 
or, rather, it cannot be controverted, with a qualification he has after- 
ward expressed, viz., that many substances now regarded as element- 
ary may be in reality compounds, which the body, though not able to 
create, may compose and decompose. 

Liebig, and most of the recent writers on physiology and organic 
chemistry, have distinguished foods into nitrogenized and non-nilrogen- 
ized — a distinction based on the presence or absence of nitrogen when 
the articles are subjected to chemical analyses. It is assumed that the 
former only are capable of transformation into blood, and of form- 
ing the substance of the tissues ; hence Liebig has called them the 
plastic elements of nutrition. The non-nitrogenized foods he denomi- 
nates elements of respiration ; their use in the animal economy being, 
according to his notion, to keep up the ani'mal heat, by yielding carbon 
and hydrogen to be oxidated in the lungs. The following "-af«ular ar- 
rangement, copied from Pereira, shows the absurdities '■ > which 
men of the most extensive learning becomn nvolved, in the attempts 
to square all the phenomena of life by the :amparatively i ■•gnificant 



chemical processes and experiment they can perform in a chemical 
laboratory : 



or Plastic Elements of Nutrition 

or Elements of Respiration. 



Fat. Pectine. 



Starch. Bassorine 



Gum. Wine ! 



Cane Sugar. Beer! ! 



Grape Sugar. Spirits ! ! ! 
Sugar of Milk. 

Whenever any man of science names any form of intoxicating drink 
among the foods of the human body, I want no further evidence that 
he is calculating the problems of life on principles fundamentally erro- 
neous. Again, if nitrogenized foods are capable of nourishing the 
tissues because of their nitrogen, it would follow that those aliments 
which contain the largest proportion of nitrogen would be most nutri- 
tious. But this does not hold true in practice, for flesh-meat contains 
fifteen per cent, of nitrogen, while wheat, rye, oats, barley, corn, rice, 
peas, beans, and lentils contain only from two to five per cent.; yet 
each of these articles is more nutritious than flesh. Rice, which con- 
tains less than two, and wheat, which contains but a fraction over two 
per cent, of nitrogen, are three times as nutritive as flesh-meat, not- 
withstanding this contains nearly seven times as much nitrogen. 

The truth seems to be that an alimentary substance is more or less 
nutritious, not according to the presence or absence of nitrogen, or any 
other single constituent, but according to the constitutional relation of 
the whole substance, as compounded by the arrangement of all its 
constituent elements. The most wholesome aliment and the most 
deadly poison may be composed of the same chemicrl elements, the 
only difference being in the proportions in which their constituents are 

It is true, furthermore, that nearly and probably all of the aliment- 
ary substances which are capable of sustaining the prolonged nutrition 
of animals, contain greater or less proportions of nitrogen, oxygen, 
carbon, and hydrogen, with more or less of a number of other sub- 
stances, which are called elements. And it is quite clear to my mind 
that no substance entirely destitute of either nitrogen, oxygen, carbon, 
or hydrogen, possesses much alimentary value, either as a "plastic 
element of nutrition,' or as an "element of respiration." If fats, 
oils, alcohol, etc, a»3 inken into the stomach, they must be disposed of 

FOOD. 323 

in some way; and as they are not convertible into the tissues, they 
are oxidated in the circulation, and expelled by the lungs, liver, skin, 
kidneys, and bowels. That part of this excretory process which is 
performed by the lungs has been mistaken for a special vital process, 
by which the body is warmed ; and the commotion of the organism in 
getting rid of these offensive materials has been mistaken for a func- 
tional process, which makes use of wine, beer, and spirits in the nu- 
tritive economy of the system. Such errors, emanating from such 
high authorities in the scientific world, have a disastrous effect on the 
public mind, and tend powerfully to check the progress of all the re- 
forms of the age. 

The per centage of carbon contained in the aliments in common 
use, rejecting fractions, is as follows : Wheat, dried in vacuo at 230° 
Fahr. 46, oats, do. 50, rye, do. 46, potatoes 12, do. dried 44, turnips 3, 
do. dried 42, artichoke, dried 43, peas 35, do. dried 46, lentils 37, 
beans 38, fresh bread 30, black bread, dried 45, ox blood 10, do. dried 
51, fresh lean meat 13, dry lean beef 51, roasted veal 52, sugar-candy 
42, butter 65, mutton fat 78, hog's lard 79, olive oil 77. Alcohol, an 
aliment according to Liebig and Pereira, contains 52. 

Oxygen and hydrogen exist in acetic acid, starch, gum, and sugar, 
in the proportions which form water ; in oil, alcohol, malic acid, gela- 
tin, gluten, animal and vegetable fibrin, albumen, and casein, the hydro- 
gen is in excess ; in pectin, citric acid, and tartaric acid the oxygen is 
in excess. 

Phosphorus is found in the muscular and nervous tissues of the 
body, in the bones, in the spermatic fluid, and in the ovary. In some 
diseases the breath of patients emits a strong phosphoric odor. Phos- 
phorus is also a constituent of nearly all vegetable substances, existing 
in combination with lime or magnesia. 

Sulphur is also found in the fibrinous and albuminous tissues, and in 
hair, bone, casein, and the saliva. Metallic matter held in the mouth 
is often discolored by the action of sulphur ; and gold plates used to 
support artificial teeth, and the amalgam of silver, sometimes employed 
to fill decayed teeth, often become incrusted with metallic sulphuret. 
Sulphur is a constituent in nearly all the vegetable substances employed 
as food. Culinary vegetables generally contain it; the cruciferee in 
abundance. Asafuetida, which contains a large proportion, is some- 
time? used as a seasoning or condiment ; and although it would not be 
inviting to a majority of American olfactories or palates, some Oriental 
nations consider it as " food for the gods." Sulphur is readily de 
tected in mustard, white cal.iag}, potatoes, almonds, peas, and (thet 


Iron is found in the ashes ot animals and vegetables. The quantity, 
however, detected in organized beings is exceedingly small, and the 
precise state in which it exists in living beings is entirely unknown. 
Chemists find a very small quantity in the blood corpuscles and hair, 
but are unable to assign it any office. Liebig's theory, that the color 
of the blood depends on iron, has been positively disproved. A slight 
trace of iron is found in most vegetable articles used as food ; for ex- 
amples, milk, mustard, cabbage, potatoes, peas, and cucumbers. It is 
by no means yet proved that iron is an essential constituent of any liv- 
ing being. Its liability to oxidation, its general employment in agricul- 
ture and the arts, and its abundance in the mineral kingdom, afford at 
least good grounds for conjecture that the variable quantities found in 
plants and animals are accidental ingredients. 

Pereira remarks : " But the well-known influence of chalybeates in 
the disease called ancemia, in which the blood is found to contain a 
smaller quantity of iron than in a state of health, favors the notion that 
the proper color of the blood is in some way connected with the amount 
of iron contained in it; for one. of the most characteristic symptoms 
of this malady is an absence of the natural vermilion tint of the com- 

Unless the preparations of iron in the hands of European practi- 
tioners operate very differently from those prescribed by American 
physicians, Pereira must labor under a great mistake. The medical 
journals of this country have, during a year or two past, reported many 
cases of anaemia treated with chalybeates, nearly every one of which 
terminated fatally. The particulars of several cases may be found in 
the Water-Cure Journal for 1850. 

Cliiorine is found in the blood, in combination with sodium, forming 
common salt ; in the gastric juice, combined with hydrogen, constitut- 
ing hydrochloric acid. It is also found in saliva, and in all the excre- 
tions. It is a constituent of nearly all vegetable aliments, from whence 
a sufficient supply is derived for the wants of the animal organism. 
The dietetic use of salt, therefore, to furnish chlorine to the system is 

Sodium exists in most of the animal tissues and secretions. A 
large part of that found in the different solids and fluids is doubtless 
derived from the use of table salt, for it is not an ordinary constituent 
of vegetables unless they grow in the neighborhood of salt water. 

Calcium, in the form of a subphosphate of lime, is found in all the 
animal solids, in the blood, and in mrst of the secretions. It is a con- 
stituent of most vegetables ; it is found in the cereal grains, onions, gar- 
lics, rhubarb, grapes, gum, and unrefined sugar. 

FOOD 325 

Magnesium, in small quantities, is found in the blood, teeth, bones, 
nerves, glands, and other parts of the body. It is also a constituent of 
grains, potatoes, and other vegetables. 

Potassium is found in minute traces in the blood, solids, and several 
of the secretions. It is a constituent of most kinds of vegetables, espe- 
cially inland plants; it is readily detected in grapes and potatoes. 

Fluorine has been detected by Berzelius in minute quantities in the 
bones and teeth of animals, in the form of fluoride of calcium. It is 
never found in plants, and it is probably, when found in animals, an 
accidental ingredient rather than a normal constituent. 

Proximate Elements of Food. — Water, gum, sugar, starch, 
lignin, jelly, fat, fibrin, albumen, casein, gluten, gelatin, acids, salts, 
and alcohol, are called alimentary principles by Pereira and other au- 
thors. They are all compounded of two or more chemical elements, 
and fill of them, except alcohol, are produced in the process of organic 
growth and development in the vegetable kingdom. Alcohol, as al- 
ready stated, results from the death and putrefaction of organic mat- 
ter. Foods proper are compounds of these proximate elements in 
various proportions, as these are compounds of the ultimate elements. 
Physiologists, in directing so much of their attention to the investiga- 
tion of the chemical qualities of alimentary principles, and so little to 
the physiological effects of aliments themselves, have taught more er- 
rors than truths in relation to food and diet. 

None of the proximate elements of food are capable of the pro- 
longed nutrition of animals, though gluten, which is in reality a very 
compounded substance, may alone sustain life for a considerable time. 
Nor is the power of an alimentary principle, or an aliment proper, to 
sustain the animal organism, at all proportioned to what is chemically 
regarded as its nutritive property. Dogs fed on sugar, or butter, or 
fine flour, become plump and adipose, but die of starvation in a few 
weeks. Horses and cattle confined to the most nutritious grains soon 
grow sickly and die ; and the human being, restricted to a diet of 
starch, fibrin, or superfine flour, soon becomes unhealthy. But a 
suitable admixture of bones, grass, straw, woody fibre, bran, etc., usu- 
ally considered as innutritious, allows the animal organism to select and 
assimilate such nutritive materials as are needed to maintain the integ- 
rity of its structures and functions, and reject the rest. 

Water, constituting about three fourths of the entire weight of the 
body, and being essential to the performance of all the vital processes, 
may be regarded as liquid aliment, all the other aliments or foods being 


solid, or solids dissolved in water. Its properties have been consid- 
ered in the preceding chapter. 

Gum is the mucilaginous alimentary principle of authors. It exists 
almost universally in plants. The gms called Arabic, Senegal, East 
Indian, Barbary, Cape, tragacanth, cherry, plum, and bassora, exude 
spontaneously, and concrete on the stems of trees or plants. The 
following articles contain, in one hundred parts of gum or mucilage, 
rejecting unimportant fractions : Barley-meal 4, oatmeal 2, wheat-flour 
2 to 5, wheat-bread 18, rye-meal 11, corn 2, rice 0-1 to 0-71, peas 6, 
garden bean 4, kidney bean 19, potatoes 3 to 4, cabbage 3, sweet al- 
monds 3, ripe green gage 5, ripe fresh pears 3, gooseberries 0-78, 
cherries 3, ripe apricot 5, ripe peach 5, linseed 5, marshmallow root 35. 

Sugar is very generally distributed throughout the vegetable king- 
dom. Barley-meal contains about 5 per cent., oatmeal (including bitter 
matter) 8, wheat-flour 4 to 8, wheat-bread 3 to 4, rye-meal 3, corn 1-45, 
rice 0-05 to 0-30, peas 2, sweet almonds 6, figs 62, ripe green gage 11, 
tamarinds 12, ripe fresh pears 6, ripe pears kept some time 11, ripe 
gooseberries 6, ripe cherries 18, ripe apricot 11, ripe peach 16, melon 
1*5, expressed carrot juice evaporated to dryness 94, beet-root 5 to 9, 
cow's milk 4-77, ass's milk 6-08, woman's milk 6-50, goat's milk 5-28, 
ewe's milk 5. 

Sugar, though taken freely into the stomach, and sometimes repro- 
duced in the secretions, as in the urine of diabetic patients, is never 
found in healthy blood. It must therefore undergo decomposition be- 
fore it is admitted into the circulation. 

Most of the raw sugars of commerce contain various impurities, 
and the purified or refined sugars have a constipating effect on the 
bowels. The best article for dietetical purposes is that of a pale yel- 
low color, with large, clear, brilliant crystals. Syrup is made by dis- 
solving two pounds and a half of sugar in a pint of water. Molasses 
is the viscid fluid which drains from raw sugar. Treacle is a dark- 
brown uncrystallizable syrup, which drains from the molds in which 
refined sugar concretes. 

Sugar is the basis of an immense quantity and variety of hard con- 
fectionary — lozenges, brilliants, pipe, rock, comfits, nonpareils. They 
are mixed more or less with flour, starch, gum, and often other less 
wholesome articles, flavored with a variety of pungents and perfumes, 
and not unfrequently medicated with calomel, tartarized antimony, 
morphine, and many other poisons. The whole of it is abominable 
trash at best; and although the children of our cities have their hands 
full of it a good proportion of the time, every mother ought, and all 
intelligent mothers wilt, expel it frf -n their houses. 

F D. 327 

Starch is found iu the seeds, fruits, roots, stems, tubercles, and 
mosses of a large portion of the vegetable kingdom. It constitutes the 
amylaceous alimentary principle of authors, and is known under the 
various names of amylum, starch, fecula, and farinaceous matter. 
Wheat-flour yields in one hundred parts 56 to 72 parts, wheat-bread 
53, barley-meal 67, oatmeal 59, rye-meal 61, maize or corn 81, rice 
82 to 85, peas 32, garden bean 34, kidney bean 36, arrow-root plant 12 
to 26, yam 12 to 22, bread-fruit 3, tapioca plant 13, Iceland moss 45, 
batatas 9 to 13, kidney potato 9, red potato 15. 

The much larger quantity of starch contained in corn than in the 
potato, has suggested the preparation of it from the former article. 
Recently several manufactories of corn starch have been established 
in this country, and starch made from this grain is now in common 
use as a dietetic article as well as for the toilet. Its value as a food is 
far inferior to that of the whole grain. In fact, it is employed more as 
a desert or superfluity than as a nutriment. 

Dr. Prout thinks starch " differs from sugar in being a necessary 
article of food, without which animals could not exist, while sugar is 
not." But as starch is not found in animal food, and as there are many 
animals of the carnivorous kind which eat no other, this position can 
only be correct in its application to herbivorous animals. 

The different kinds of amylaceous matters in common use are sago, 
tapioca, arrow-root, rice starch, potato starch, corn starch, and lichenin, 
or feculoid, obtained from Iceland moss. Sago is the medulla or pith 
of the stems of various species of palms ; it is manufactured princi- 
pally in the Moluccas, and comes to us in the form of sago-meal, pearl 
sago, and common sago. The first is principally used in making sago- 
sugar ; the second is generally employed for domestic purposes. 
Tapioca is obtained from the roots of a plant, said to be poisonous, in 
the Brazils. Its irregular, lumpy form is owing to its having been 
dried on hot plates. Cassava bread, used in Brazil, Guiana, Jamaica, 
and other places, is made of the whole roots of the plant, which are 
grated and then pressed in a hair bag. Arrow-root is obtained from 
the roots of the plant, whose botanical name is maranta arundinacea. 
There are several varieties in market, as West Indian, Tahiti, East 
Indian, Portland, etc. 

In a dietetical or medicinal sense there is very little to choose in 
these different forms of starch. They are highly commended by 
physicians to children and invalids, but as food they are incomparably 
inferior to the whole grains, vegetables, and fruits from which they 
are derived. 

Lignin is the woody fibre which constitutes the basis of ah vege- 


table structures. It also forms the skin of potatoes, the husk of grapes, 
gooseberries, etc., the peel and core of apples and pears, the skin and 
stone of plums, peaches, etc., the seed-coats of the kernels of nuts, 
the membranous covering of beans and peas, the pod of melons, cu- 
cumbers, etc., and the bran of grains. The per centage contained in 
various aliments is : Rice 4-8, barley 18-75 (husk), oats 34 (bran), ryo 
24 (husk), ripe apricots 1-86, ripe green gages I'll, ripe peaches 1-21. 
ripe gooseberries 8-01, ripe cherries 1-12, ripe pears 2*19, sweet 
almonds 9 (and seed-coats), peas 21-08 (amylaceous fibre), garden 
bean 25-94 (amylaceous fibre and membrane), kidney bean 18-57 (do.), 
potatoes 4-03 to 10-05 (amylaceous fibre), cocoanut kernel 14-95. 

Lignin, or wood, when divested of all its soluble matters, repeat- 
edly subjected to the heat of an oven, and finally ground to a fino 
powder, yields a flour, on being boiled with water, resembling corn- 
flour, and capable of being made into a jelly or loaf-bread, which is 
both agreeable and nutritious. The nutritive importance of lignin in 
the animal economy is equal to that of starch, or of any other proxi- 
mate element, for none of the others, nor all together, can perfectly 
sustain the integrity of the organism without some admixture of the 
woody element, which authors usually put down as innutritious and 
indigestible. Pereira thinks it serves as a mechanical stimulus to pro- 
mote the action of the bowels — a queer phrase for him to apply to 
what he calls an alimentary principle. Dr. Prout remarks : " Of the 
numerous shapes assumed by lignin, the best adapted for excremental 
purposes is undoubtedly the external covering of the seeds of the cer- 
ealia, and particularly of wheat. Bread, therefore, made with un- 
dressed flour, or even with an extra quantity of bran, is the best form 
in which farinaceous and excremental matters can be usually taken ; 
not only in diabetis, but in most of the other varieties of dyspepsia 
accompanied by obstinate constipation. This is a remedy, the efficacy 
of which has long been known and admitted ; yet, strange to say, the 
generality of mankind choose to consult their taste rather than their 
reason, and by officiously separating what nature has beneficently com- 
bined, entail upon themselves much discomfort and misery." 

Jelly is found in both animals and vegetables. Vegetable jelly con- 
stitutes the pectinaceous alimentary principle, so called because it has 
for its base starch and pectin, or pectic acid. Pectin and pectic acid 
are regarded by some chemists as identical. One or both are found in 
most pulpy fruits, currants, apples, pears, quinces, apricots, plums, and 
in melons, gooseberries, blackberries, raspberries, strawberries, bilber- 
ries, mulberries, cherries, tomatoes, oranges, lemons, and tamarinds. 
The artichoke, onion, carrot, turnip, celery, beo:, and many other 

FOOD. 329 

root3, yield a portion of it. Sugar promotes the solidification and ge- 
latination of pectin and poetic acid, and is, therefore, conveniently 
employed in the preparation of fruit jellies. Jams are mixtures of 
vegetable pulps with sugar. Carrigeen, pearl, or Irish moss, are veg 
eto-gelatinpus substances resembling pectin. 

Considered dietetically, fruit jellies are among the slight deviations 
from the healthful preparations of food. They are far less valuable 
than the crude fruits, or the fruits dried, stewed and sweetened, or 
preserved in their own inspissated juices. 

The organic acids constitute the acidulous alimentary principle of 
authors. They are the acetic, citric, tartaric, malic, oxalic, and lactic. 
Those chemists who regard tea as nutritious add to this list tannic acid. 
It is not certain that acetic acid is entitled to a place among organic 
elements. It is found in pyroligneous acid, vinegar, sour beer, and 
sour wine ; but these materials are not the products of formation, 
but of retrogradation. Vinegar, which is generally considered as al- 
most identical with acetic acid, is very far from being alimentary. 
Like alcohol, it is a product of fermentation ; and although it is re- 
garded as "agreeable," "cooling," "refreshing," " antiseptic," etc., by 
the medical profession, it is certainly very debilitating to the human 
stomach. Its tendency to produce leanness has long been known. 
Young girls who have employed it freely to diminish an unfash- 
ionable plumpness of body, have soon found themselves fatally con- 
sumptive. If any argument can be drawn from antiquity in favor of 
the propriety of its dietetical employment, the same argument may 
be made to sanction every evil thing under the sun. 

Citric acid is found in the lemon, orange, citron, lime, shaddock, 
cranberry, and, mixed with an equal quantity of malic acid, in the red 
currant, strawberry, raspberry, cherry, and bilberry. In the pulp of 
the tamarind it exists, mixed with malic and tartaric acids. 

Tartaric acid is found in the free state in tamarinds, grapes, and 
pine-apples. In the form of cream of tartar it exists in tamarinds, 
grapes, and mulberries. This acid is much employed in effervescing, 

Malic acid is extensively distributed ; it is found in apples, pears, 
quinces, plums, apricots, peaches, cherries, gooseberries, currants, 
raspberries, strawberries, blackberries, pine-apples, barberries, elder- 
berries, grapes, tomatoes, tamarinds, and other fruits. 

Oxalic acid is found in garden rhubarb, common sorrel, wood sorrel, 
and some other vegetables. It may be produced by the action of 
nitric acid on sugar, starch gum, wnol, hail silk, and many vegetablo 


Lactic acid exists in sour milk ; it is also generated in the souring 
process of various vegetables ; for example, when oatmeal sours in a 
large quantity of water. Liebig states that no lactic acid is found in 
a healthy stomach, but that in some dyspeptic individuals sugar yields 
lactic acid, attended with flatulence and preternatural acidity of the 
stomach. These facts prove conclusively to my mind that this acid is, 
like vinegar, a product of destructive decomposition, instead of organic 
formation, and hence is in no sense an aliment. 

The precise chemical offices which the vegetable acids perform in 
the animal economy is not obvious, nor is it of the least consequence 
for us to know. It is sufficient that they exist in those fruits and veg- 
etables which nature has provided for our nourishment. And if nature 
has assigned them any nutritive duty, it is at least probable that she 
has provided them in about the proper quantities and proportions, just 
as she has the sugar, salt, starch, gum, and all the other nutritive ele- 
ments, so that we may use them as we find them, without troubling 
ourselves to manufacture an extra supply by way of " necessary" sea- 

Fixed oils constitute the oleaginous aliments, and the oily aliment- 
ary principle of authors. Under this head some authors include also 
the volatile oils of those vegetables which are used as condiments — 
mint, marjoram, savory, sage, thyme, carraway, anise, fennel, parsley, 
mustard, horseradish, garlic, onions, eschalots, leeks, cinnamon, nut- 
meg, mace, cloves, pepper, allspice, ginger, bitter almonds, peach leaves, 
cherry, laurel, etc. Some of these vegetables do indeed possess aliment- 
ary properties, but the volatile oil residing in them is as destitute of 
nutritive virtue as vinegar or alcohol. 

The fixed oils are : Fat, suet, tallow, lard, or axunge, marrow, 
grease, butter, and blubber, derived from the animal kingdom, and 
olive oil, almond oil, walnut and other nut oils, derived from vegetables. 

The quantity of oil or fat in 100 parts of the following substances is: 
Filberts 60, olives 32, olive seeds 54, walnuts 50, earth-nut 47, cocoa- 
nut (fleshy part) 47, almonds 46, plums 33, white mustard 36, black 
mustard 18, grape stones 11 to 18, m&.'«e 9, dates 0-2; yolk of eggs 
28, ordinary flesh-meat 14, ox liver 4, cow's milk 3-13, human do. 3-55, 
ass's do. 0-11, goat's do. 3-32, ewe's do. 4-20, bones of sheep's feet 
5-55, bones of ox head 11-54. 

Fats are peculiarly liable to become rancid on exposure to the air; a 
high degree of heat also produces chemical changes which render 
them exceedingly acrid and irritating to the digestive organs; hence 
frying is a very objectionable metrnd of cooking. 

Peieira says • " Fixed oils, or fa . is more difficult of digestion, and 

FOOD. 331 

more obnoxious to the stomach than any other alimentary principle. 
Indeed, in some more or less obvious or concealed form, I believe it 
will be found the offending ingredient in nine tenths of the dishes 
which disturb weak stomachs. Many dyspeptics, who have most re- 
ligiously avoided the use of oil or fat in its obvious or ordinary state (as 
fat meat, marrow, butter, and oil), unwittingly employ it in some other 
more concealed form, and, as I have frequently witnessed, have suffered 
therefrom." Liebig, as already stated, considers fatty matter the 
principal fuel by which the animal heat is sustained. Dr. Beaumont 
ascertained that the gastric juice had a very slow and feeble action on 
fatty matters, either in or out of the stomach. Dr. Combe states that 
there is one form of dyspepsia in which the fat of bacon is digested 
with perfect ease, when many other apparently more appropriate arti- 
cles of food oppress the stomach for hours. Prof. Lee, of this city, 
remarks : "We have treated many cases of cholera infantum, where 
every thing would be rejected from the stomach except salt pork, or 
fat bacon, rare broiled, and given in small quantities." I think an ex- 
planation of the cases mentioned by Drs. Combe and Lee may be 
found in the fact that such stomachs, and usually the duodenum also, 
are loaded with foul, acid, acrid, or putrescent secretions, which the 
grease mingles with, and for a time obviates their irritation. If warm 
water had been freely given, and the cutaneous function attended to, 
the pork and bacon might have been spared with advantage. Brandy 
will often quiet a dyspeptic's stomach, and at the same time be one of 
the worst quieters he could employ, and calomel will often "stay on 
the stomach" when the patient would be better if it were off. Pro- 
fessor Dunglison, in his recent work on Human Health, says, "Ole- 
aginous substances are eminently nutritious;" an assertion pre-eminent- 
ly susceptible of disproof. 

The most objectionable dishes, on account of their fatty character, 
at ordinary tables, are yolk of eggs, livers, brains, strong cheese, butter- 
cakes and toast, pastry, marrow-puddings, suet-puddings, hashes, stews, 
broths, and several kinds of fishes, as eels, sprats, salmon, and herrings. 

The vegetable fixed oils are less indigestible, and from their less 
putrescent tendency, more healthful than the animal. Indeed, it is 
highly probable that persons long accustomed to a plain, unstimulating, 
and unconcentrated diet, could employ the oily fruits, seeds, and nuts 
as a part of their aliment with entire physiological satisfaction. 

Vegetable fibrin, albumen, casein, and gluten, and animal fibrin, al- 
bumen, and casein, constitute the proteindceous alimentary principle of 
Pereira, which, except in not including gelatin, agrees with the albu- 
minous 'alimentary principle of Dr. Prout. Protein, however, from 


which this group of proximate elements is named, has no real ex- 
istence in organized beings at all; but chemical analysis resolves 
the fibrin, albumen, and casein of both animal and vegetable sub- 
stances into a something and salt, sulpaur, phosphorus, potash, soda, 
and phosphate of lime, and this something, which is formed in the 
process of analysis, is called protein. Protein, from whatever sub- 
stance obtained, exhibits the same identical composition, that is, as 
nearly as can be determined by chemical analysis, which is always 
imperfect, and never quite uniform in determining the atomic constitu- 
tion of complicated organic substances. 

The fibrin, albumen, and casein of animals are chemically identical 
with the fibrin, albumen, and casein of vegetables. According to Lie- 
big, they are produced by vegetables only, although the animal organ- 
ism is capable of converting one of them — one modification of protein, 
into another. If this be true, and if the proteinaceous compounds — 
the "plastic elements of nutrition" — only are capable of forming the 
tissues, all the truly nutritive materials of animals not only exist in, but 
are formed in vegetables ; and this fact forms a strong presumption in 
favor of the superiority of a purely vegetable diet — taking the aliment 
directly from the vegetable kingdom in its primitive purity and vitality, 
before it is vitiated by the taint of animal deterioration and putrefaction. 

Vegetable fibrin exists abundantly in wheat, rye, barley, oats, maize, 
rice, and the juice of grapes. It is also found in buckwheat, and in 
many newly expressed vegetable juices, as of carrots, turnips, and 
beet-root; it exists also in the raw gluten obtained from wheaton 
flour Animal fibrin is the principal constituent of lean flesh, and 13 
found m the blood. One hundred parts of lean beef contain of fibrin 
about 18, veal 17, mutton 20, pork 17, chicken 17, cod, haddock, sole, 
each about 13, pancreas of calf 8, blood of sheep 0-03, blood of ox 0*37, 
blood of hog 0-46. 

Vegetable albumen is found in abundance in oily seeds — almonds, 
nuts, etc. ; it is a constituent of wheat and other grains, and a consider- 
able quantity is contained in the juices of carrots, turnips, asparagus, 
cauliflowers, cabbages, etc. It differs from albumen in not coagulating 
when heated, and from fibrin, in dissolving in water. Animal albumen 
exists in the solid state in flesh, glands, and viscera, and in the fluid 
state in the egg, and in the serum of the blood. The quantity con- 
tained in 100 parts of the following aliments is : Blood of the ox, hog, 
goat, and sheep 18 to 19, beef 2-2, veal 2-6 to 3-2, pork 2-6, deer 2-3, 
pigeon 4-5, chicken 3-, carp 5-2, trout 4-4, sweet-bread of calf 14, 
caviare (fresh) 31, live; of ox 20, yolk of egg 17, white do. ]f>, East 
India isinglass 7 to 13 

FOOD. 833 

Vegetable caseir. uas been called legumin, because it is found 
chiefly in leguminous seeds — peas, beans, lentils. Almonds, nuts, and 
other oily seeds contain it with albumen. Many vegetable juices yield 
it in small quantities. It is soluble in water, unlike fibrin, and uncoag- 
ulable when its aqueous solution is heated, unlike albumen. Animal 
casein is the coagulable matter in milk, and forms its caseum, or curd. 
In the liquid stats it does not coagulate by heat. Cheese is the coagu- 
lated casein deprived of its whey, and mixed with more or less of 
butter. When rich in butter, cheese is very liable to undergo sponta- 
neous decomposition, and generate active poisons. The strong, pi- 
quant flavor of old cheese depends on oleic acid, and an acrid oil, both 
extremely unwholesome. The per centage of casein in milk is: 
Woman's 1-52, goat's 4-02, ewe's 4-50, ass's 1-82, cow's 3 to 4-48. In 
two samples of cow'» milk, the animals fed on potatoes and hay, one 
yielded 15-1, the other only 3-3. 

As a food, liquid casein, curd, and fresh cheese are wholesome 
articles, but all old cheese is an exceedingly obnoxious aliment. Dr. 
Dunglison says: "Cheese is supposed to be an excellent condiment, 
and accordingly it is often systematically taken at the end of dinner, as 
a digestive." Dr. Dunglison ought to have added, especially as he was 
writing the "Elements of Hygiene," that the supposition was a very 
erroneous one, and the practice a very bad one. 

Gluten is the tenacious elastic mass which is left of wheaten dough 
after washing away the gum, sugar, starch, and albumen. It is a mix- 
ture of several organic principles, and is regarded as one of the pro- 
teinaceous compounds. Liebig's vegetable fibrin is the insoluble por- 
tion of gluten when it is boiled in alcohol. Mucin is the substance 
which deposits as the hot alcoholic solution of the soluble portion- of 
gluten cools, and the portion remaining in. solution is called gluten. 
The pure gluten of authors is the compound of gluten and mucin. It 
is the gluten of wheaten flour which renders it adhesive, and conve 
niently manufactured into macaroni, vemicelli, and similar pastes; to 
its larger proportion of this ingredient, wheat owes its superiority to 
other grains for the purposes of making fermented bread, crackers, 
and cakes. In the ordinary commercial pi-ocess of bread-making 
(bakers' bread) the gluten is more or less destroyed, and converted 
into acetic acid, which is neutralized by ammonia, or some other alkali. 
If the panary fermentation is allowed to proceed beyond the point of 
converting the sugar of the flour or meal into carbonic acid gas (which 
being diffused among the ductile and tenacious particles of gluten, puffs 
up, or raises the dough), the process of decomposition attacks the 
gluten itself, which it literally rots, and although such bread may bo 

834 HY3IENE. 

exceedingly light and spongy, and expand into the "largest loaf," it is 
very unwholesome, compurid with good bread, and after standing 
twenty-four hours becomes insipid and disagreeable. 

The quantity of glutinous matter contained in the cereal grains is 
liable to great variation, according to soil, manner of cultivation, species 
of grain, etc., if we may trust thf» deductions of chemical analyses. 
Wheat has been found to contain, in 100 parts, 12 to 35, barley 5 to 6, 
oats 4 to 8, rye 7 to 10, rice 3 to 4, corn 3 to 6, common beans 10, 
dry peas 3J, potatoes 3 to 4, red beet 1-3, common turnips 0-01, cab- 
bage 0-8. 

All of these proteinacious aliments — gluten, casein, albumen, and 
fibrin — as well as fat, starch, sugar, and gum, have been fed separately 
to dogs and other animals, in order to ascertain their nutritive proper- 
ties. The animals all died of starvation, and < physiological science 
profited— just nothing at all, unless it was from the mortality of the 
dogs ! If animals were intended by nature to subsist on any single 
element of nutrition, consistency would seem to demand that such ele- 
ment should be accessible in some way except through the tedious 
process of culinary preparation or chemical analysis. Such unnatural 
dietetic experiments can only result in "cruelty to animals." 

Gelatin is regarded by Dr. Prout as an imperfect kind of albuminous 
matter. Gelatin and albumen are, however, not convertible into each 
other by any known chemical process. Those tissues of animals called 
gelatinous — skin, tendons, cartilage, cellular and serous membranes — 
by boiling, yield a substance called gelatin ; and this substance, with 
water, forms a tremulous mass, called animal jelly. The quantity of 
gelatin found in 100 parts of the following substances is: Muscles of 
beef 6, do. veal 6, do. mutton 7 do. pork 5, do. chicken 7, do. cod 7, 
do. haddock 5, sole 6, sweet-bread of calf 6, antlers of stag (hartshorn) 
27, caviare (fresh) 0-5, spongy bones 39, hard bones 43 to 49, isinglass 
70 to 93. 

Gelatinous substances are moderately nutritious, but generally, in 
the form of stews, hashes, soups, etc., difficult of digestion, on account 
of the fatty matters they contain ; gelatin easily becomes rancid and 
putrescent when exposed to a high degree of heat, and is then ex- 
tremely offensive to the stomach. Calf's foot jelly is a favorite with 
physicians and invalids, but far inferior, dieteticsdly or medicinally, to 
Indian or wheat-meal gruel. 

A few years ago a Gelatin Commission was appointed in Paris, 
for the purpose of ascertaining the nutritive virtues of bones and other 
refuse animal matter, with the view of providing a cheaj) diet for the 
poor ! Alter a series of experiments, which caused a large number 

FOOD S!i5 

of dogs to " bite the dust," it was finally concluded that gelatin alone 
would not sustain animal life — a conclusion that correct physiological 
principles would have settled without the experiments. As a specimen 
of the extremely absurd manner in which those experiments have usu- 
ally been conducted, I quote the following from Pereira's " Food find 
Diet:" " M. Donne tried the effects of gelatin on himself. He took 
daily from 20 to 50 grammes (308£ to 771i£ grs. troy) of dry gelatin, 
in the form of a sugared and anomatized jelly, with either lemon or 
some spirit ; and from 85 to 100 grammes (1312 to 1543i grs. troy) of 
bread. At the expiration of six days he had lost two pounds in weight, 
and during the whole time was tormented with hunger, and suffered 
with extreme faintness, which was only alleviated after dining in his 
usual way." 

Such " experiments" are not worth criticising", except to exhibit the 
foolish and frivolous manner in which those who assume to teach us 
physiology derive the facts which they parade with such flourishes in 
their " scientific" books. Any man accustomed to a " good dinner" 
every day, as the phrase is usually understood, and spirituous liquor 
with it, would suffer hunger, or, rather, craving and faintness, on first 
changing his dietetic habits to greater abstemiousness and simplicity, 
whether the change was to better or worse. 

The gelatinous substances commonly employed in the preparation 
of jellies, solutions, etc., are isinglass and hartshorn. The former is 
procured from the air-bag or swimming-bladder, sometimes called 
the sound, of various fishes. The Russian and Siberian sturgeons 
yield the finest kinds for domestic purposes. Blanc-mange is a jelly 
prepared of Russian isinglass dissolved in milk, and flavored with su- 
gar, lemon, etc. Cod sounds, procured from the common cod-fish, are 
used as a substitute for isinglass ; the glue obtained by boiling cod 
sounds dries into a hard substance, and is used in the shops for gluing 
pieces of wood together. Glue is also prepared from the skins and 
hides of beasts and the bones of animals, for both dietetical and com- 
mercial purposes. The shavings of the antlers of the stag are em- 
ployed in the preparation of the decoction of hartshorn ; hartshorn 
jelly is made by boiling down half a pound of the shavings in three 
quarts of water to one quart, and flavoring with lemon, wine, etc. 
Jellies made from calves' feet, calves' heads, cows' heels, sheep's trotters, 
and petit-toes (sucking pigs' feet), are in great repute as delicate ali- 
ments for epicures and invalids. I regard them all as miserable trash 
at best. 

The salts which are found to exist in very small quantities in vege- 
tables and fruits constitute the saline alii entary principle of authors. 

336 . H Y G I E N E. 

Chloride of sodium (common salt) and the earthy j-hesphates are the 
most frequently found in vegetable aliments; and some chemists re- 
gard salts of potash and compounds of iron as indispensable constitu- 
ents of our food, because they are generally found in the human body, 
and frequently in vegetable productions. 

Perhaps there was never a greater and more general delusion 
abroad than that in relation to the nature, properties, and uses of com- 
mon salt. It can be shown, with almost the certainty of a mathemati- 
cal demonstration, that it possesses no nutrient properties, and is in no 
sense a dietetical article, nor in any sense of any possible use for any 
purpose of the animal economy ; and yet medical writers are continu- 
ally echoing the stale phrase, " that animals cannot exist without the 
free use of salt ;" and this directly in face of the facts, that hundreds 
of species of animals never taste of salt, and that millions of the human 
race have lived healthfully, and died of a good old age, without em- 
ploying it at all ; and that, furthermore, hundreds of thousands of hu- 
man beings now live in the enjoyment cf excellent health, who have 
never used salt either as a food or a condiment. The stereotyped 
statements so frequently copied in medical books and journals are 
really amusing for their very absurdity. Pereira says : "It is a neces- 
siiiry article of food, being essential for the preservation of life and the 
maintenance of health." Dunglison says : " Salt is a natural and agree- 
able stimulant to the digestive function; a diet of unsalted aliment 
generating disease, chiefly of a cachectic character. Children who 
are not allowed a sufficient quantity of this useful condiment, are ex- 
tremely liable to worms." Liebig siiys : "Salt is essential to the for- 
mation of bile in the herbivora, and to that of gastric juice." These 
expressions, and a hundred similar ones which could be quoted from 
as many authors, are purely fictitious, as is proved by the whole his- 
tory of the animal kingdom, and the experience of a large portion of 
the human family. But let us look at the theory or philosophy of the 

Dr. Dunglison admits that salted meats are more indigestible than 
fresh, and he says also: "When highly dried they become more or 
less coriaceous, and of a texture very unfit for the due action of the 
gastric secretions." Dr. Paris thinks: "Salt combines with the ani- 
mal fibre of salted meats, by which the texture is so changed as to 
render them less nutritive as well as less digestible." " Certain fish," 
says Dunglison, "when salted, as the anchovy, cod, haddock, herring, 
etc., are used as relishes in the way of condiments. They are stimu- 
lating ; but the combination of flesh and salt is very indigestible, and 
unfit for the dyspeptic." Pereira says : "The antiseptic power of salt 

FOOD. 837 

is by no means well understood." Liebig says : " Fresh flesh, over 
which salt has been strewed, is found, after twenty-four hcurs, swim- 
ming in brine, although not a drop of water has been added. The 
water has been yielded by muscular fibre itself, and having dissolved 
the salt in immediate contact with it, and thereby lost the power of 
penetrating animal substances, it has on this account separated from 
the flesh. The water still retained by the flesh contains a proportion- 
ally small quantity of salt, having that degree of dilution at which a 
saline fluid is capable of penetrating animal substances. This property 
of animal tissues is taken advantage of in domestic economy for the 
purpose of removing so much water from meat that a sufficient quantity 
is not left to enable it to enter into putrefaction." 

If Liebig's explanation be true — and I believe it is true, and it u 
corroborated by the experiments and opinions of other distinguished 
chemists— that the antiseptic property of salt is owing to its abstract- 
ing from the animal fibre its aqueous particles, thus rendering it less 
capable of solution and decomposition, it proves also that salt is anti- 
dietetic in the exact ratio that it is antiseptic, for digestion implies tho 
decomposition and transformation of the elements of the alimentary 
substance. But some authors, among whom are Paris and M. Eller, 
have expressed the opinion, and proved it by experiments, that salt 
actually combines chemically with the animal tissues, thus effecting to 
some extent their destruction ; hence a large quantity of it, or what is 
usually called the " free use of salt," cannot be otherwise than seriously 

The following awfully convincing argument in favor of salted food is 
frequently quoted by " old school" writers on hygiene : " Lord Somer- 
ville, in an address to the English Board of Agriculture, refers to a 
punishment that formerly existed in Holland. The ancient laws of 
the country ordained men to be kept on bread alone, unmixed with 
salt, as the severest punishment that could be inflicted upon them in 
their moist climate. The effect was horrible ; these wretched crim- 
inals are said to have been devoured by worms engendered in their 
own stomachs." Whether this story is fact or fiction, the principle 
applicable to its explanation is obvious enough. It is true that salt will 
kill many kinds of worms ; and if the bread fed to the Hollander con- 
victs was really a bad, rotten, wormy article, there can be no doubt 
that the addition of salt enough to destroy the vermin was a decided 

The fondness of domesticated animals for salt is often referred to aa 
evidence that the desire for salt is a necessary and natural instinct in 
all animals ; and the fact that the deer of our forests seek the licks of 

838 H 1" G 1 E N E. 

salt water, is adduced in evidence of the same nntrotil instinct. But 
it should be remembered that domesticated animals have domesticated 
tastes, and that civilized horses, sheep, cattle, and hogs, are just as 
liable to acquire depiaved appetites as civilized men. I have known 
cows to break into the " sap-bush" in maple-sugar districts, and drink 
themselves almost to death on syrup, yet no one would pretend that 
sugar, molasses, or treacle, was a natural food for cattle, except as it 
exists in the juices of vegetables. It should be observed, too, that the 
wild animals who frequent the salt water pools, only do so habitually in 
the warm season, when insects and worms are troublesome. 

The scurvy, which is owing principally to a diet consisting of a large 
proportion of salted provisions, is a disease whose symptoms indicate 
an exceedingly impoverished state of the blood, and a putrescent con- 
dition of all the fluids and solids of the body. The antiseptic property 
of salt does not therefore render it wholesome. The truth is, the 
term antiseptic has no applicability to a living body or its aliment. It 
is a property which preserves dead organic matter in a fixed, un- 
changeable state ; and so far as it affects any living tissue, it must 
deaden its vitality. 

The dietetical rule for the employment of salt is very simple — tht 
less the belter. I do not suppose a very moderate quantity is harmful 
to any appreciable extent. A very little may be so diluted by the fluids 
of the stomach, and so readily washed out of the system as to occasion 
no important inconvenience. But if used habitually to the extent of 
provoking unnatural appetite and exciting thirst, it cannot be other- 
wise than prejudicial to the whole organic domain, occasioning glandu- 
lar obstructions, rigidity of the muscles, producing general irritation of 
the mucous membrane of the alimentary canal, and loading the circu- 
lating fluids with a foreign ingredient, which the excretory organs must 
labor inordinately to get rid of. 

So far as common salt and its elements (sodium and hydrochloric 
acid) exist in esculent fruits and vegetables, so far I admit they are 
alimentary. But it seeuu 'o me quite clear that nature has put the 
saline as well as the acid ai.d alkaline elements of our food together in 
exactly the right proportions, so that the wants of the organic economy 
do not require us to make any extraneous additions. 

Probably those who have never tried the experiment would be sur 
prised to learn how easily the appetite for very salt food is overcome. 
Many persons, on restricting themselves to less than one fourth the 
usual quantity for on6 month, have found the palate as well satisfied aa 
it was previously on four times the quantity. The diminution of quan- 
tity can then bo carried still further without sacrificing much gustatory 

FOOD. 839 

pleasure, for, as the unnatural irritant is withdrawn, the sense of taste 
becomes proportionally keen, so that food, before unpalatable without 
high seasoning, is relished with little or none. 

The remarks in relation to common salt are equally applicable to the 
dietetical nature of all other saline ingredients found in alimentary sub- 
stances, although none of them are in use as condiments. The phos- 
phate of lime, which is the basis of the bony structure, is found more 
generally in vegetables than any other salt. The earthy phosphates are 
found in one hundred parts of wheat 0-36 to 0-9, rye 0-06 to 4-18, 
barley 0-1 to 0-6, oats 0-16 to 0-6, rice 0-4, garlic 1-1, casein G-0, milk 
0-1975, blood 0-03, bones 45 to 56, muscular flesh of ox a trace, do. of 
calf 0-1, do. of pig a trace, do. of roe 0-4, do. of chicken 0-6, do. of 
trout 2-2, corn, potatoes, milk, and many other foods contain the earthy 

Minute quantities of the salts of potash are found in most vegetable 
foods, and in the blood, solids, and secretions of animals. The state iu 
which the compounds of iron evst in the system, and the manner in 
which they are introduced, are entirely unknown ; and it is question- 
able whether they are in any degree natural constituents of alimentary 

Aliments, or Foods Proper. — Having treated of the ultimate or 
chemical elements of food, and the proximate elements compounded 
of the ultimate, we come now to the consideration of aliments, or foods 
proper, which are compounds of the proximate elements. Pereira 
terms the proper foods " compound aliments,' 1 '' a name predicated on 
the mistaken notion that the alimentary principles were really simple 
aliments. He might as well call the oxygen and the hydrogen of the 
water we drink aqueous principles, and their combination in the form 
of water compound drink! 

Whatever may be the natural dietetic character of man — a question 
to be discussed in the succeeding division of this work — both the ani- 
mal and vegetable kingdoms are irade subservient to his nutrition. 
Hence the obvious propriety of treating this branch of our subject 
under the general divisions of animal and vegetable food. 

§. Animal Food. — Animal substances yield the alimentary princi- 
ples called proteinaceous, gelatinous, and oleaginous, to which may be 
added the sugar of milk. They are derived from flesh, blood, bones, 
cartilages, ligaments, cellular tissue, viscera, milk, and eggs. All 
the species of animals which human power and ingenuity have been 
able to grasp — beasts, birds, fishes, reptiles, and insects, and every 
viscus or structure of each animal — brain, lung, heait, stomach, in 

840 * HYGIENE. 

tostine, kidneys, skin, etc., has been more or less employed as human 

In the more civilized countries the mammals — neat cattle, sheep, and 
hogs, afford the principal supply of food ; the deer, raboit, hare, elk, 
moose, buffalo, and bear, belong to this class, and are used to some ex- 
tent in many countries. Even the horse, dog, cat, rat, and mouse, are 
common food among the Kalmuck Tartars and some other tribes of 
the human family. Of birds those principally eaten are the common 
fowl, turkey, goose, duck, partridge, woodcock, and pigeon, though a 
great variety of other game birds are common at the refectories. The 
only reptiles which are much sought after in the United States are the 
various kinds of turtles, the most common of which are the salt water 
terrapin, painted tortoise, broad terrapin, red-bellied terrapin, geo- 
graphic tortoise, snapping turtle, soft-shelled turtle, and the green tur- 
tle. The common water-frog and the bull-frog are occasionally eaten, 
and the flesh of vipers was once in repute as an analeptic or restorative 
diet for invalids. Of fishes our brooks, rivers, lakes, and oceans furnish 
an endless variety, from the whale of a hundred tons to the shrimp of 
a tenth part of an ounce. The shell-fish employed as food are the 
lobster, crawfish, crab, praivn, shrimp, etc. — the crustaceous; and the 
oyster, mussel, cockle, whelk, scallop, limpil, periwinkle, etc. — the 

The best animal food is, beyond all peradventure, that derived from 
the herbivora — beef, mutton, etc. Those animals which derive their 
nourishment directly from the vegetable kingdom will certainly afford 
a purer and more wholesome aliment than animals who subsist on 
other animals — the carnivora. Omnivorous animals, that eat indiscrim- 
inately vegetables or other animals, are far inferior to the purely herb- 
ivorous as food for human beings. Of the hog, whose filthy carcass 
is converted into a mass of disease by the ordinary fattening process, 1 
need only express my abhorrence. Although swine flesh and grease, 
under the names of pork and lard, are staple and favorite articles of 
food throughout Christendom, common observation has long since traced 
the prevalence of scrofula, erysipelas, and a variety of glandular and 
eruptive diseases resulting from impure blood, to their general em- 
ployment. If there are any animals which should be exterminated 
from earth, mad dogs and fattened hogs are among them. If, as Dr. 
Adam Clarke suggested at a dinner where a smoking roaster of a pig 
graced the table, the animal was "cursed under the law," how can it 
be blessed under the gospel ? The flesh of animals that subsist ex- 
clusively on vegetable food contains a greater portion of nutritive mat- 
ter, according to chemical analysis, than the flesh of any other animals. 

FOOD 841 

But the quality of the food derived from herbivorous animals may 
be greatly varied by circumstances. Very young or very old animals 
are less healthf i\ than young, nearly full-grown, or middle-aged. Ani- 
mals which have been excessively fattened, or stall-fed, and those 
which have been hard worked, are deteriorated as food ; and animals 
that have been "slopped" with liquid preparations, the refuse matters 
of the kitchen, rr the filthy excrements of distilleries, are very un- 
clean and unheakhful. 

There is also a choice in the different parts or structures of all ani- 
mals when we come to the matter of converting them into the actual 
substance of the organs and structures of our own bodies. The very 
best part of any animal for any human being to eat is the lean flesh or 
muscular fibre ; and that flesh is unquestionably the most wholesome 
which is found in animals neither fattened nor emaciated. But some 
allowance must be made for the masticatory ability of human teeth, 
"as society is now constituted." Flesh-meat requires thorough mas- 
tication. Human beings have not the tearing teeth of the tiger and 
the wolf, nor the cutting motion of the jaw which belongs to the car- 
nivora. Moreover, the teeth, jaws, and gums of most people who live 
in the ordinary way are preternaturally sensitive and tender; and in 
addition to all this, a large portion of people, even young people, ii 
civilized society, wear artificial teeth. They cannot, therefore, well 
masticate tough meat, as is often demonstrated in the cases of choking 
in the attempt to swallow half-chewed flesh. For this reason the ani- 
mal had better be in good condition, and only the most tender fibres 
selected as food. Epicures generally have their flesh kept until it 
becomes tender from age ; but such tenderness is the condition of in- 
cipient putrefaction, and although the article may be very easily dis- 
posed of by the teeth, and very quickly dissolved in the stomach, it 
can never be well digested, nor can it ever be converted into pure 
blood and sound tissues. It is advantageous to break up the fibres of 
tough meat by thoroughly pounding before cooking. 

The process of decomposition commences in a dead animal the mo- 
ment that life is extinct, although it may not be offensively apparent to 
our senses for some hours or days after death And as living animals can 
derive no nutriment from any solid food except it be in its organized 
6tate, it follows that the flesh of animals as food deteriorates continually 
after the animal is killed ; and hence the sooner butcher's meat is em- 
ployed after being killed, the more wholesome. It may, however, be 
immediately frozen, and kept a long time without injury. The manner 
of slaughtering the animals also affects the quality of their flesh. They 
should always be killed allopath catty — begging pardon of my "old- 


school friends," if I havo any — that is, bled in such a manner as to 
empty the vessels as cleanly as possible, and never executed by stunning, 
pounding, wringing the neck, etc. The blood not only contains the 
nutrient elements of the food, but the waste matters to be expelled 
from the body, and also such accidental impurities as may hiive obtained 
admission into the body; and the more bloody any kind of animal food 
is, the more unclean, putrescent, and unwholesome. Dr. Dunglison 
utters the following flat 'Contradictions on the same page of his late work 
on Human Health. In speaking of the Roman custom of killing ani- 
mals by running a red-hot spit through the body, he says: "This mode 
of slaughtering was replete with objections, if regarded in an aliment- 
ary point of view. The flesh of animals thus killed is dark colored, 
owing to the retention of blood in the vessels, and hence it becomes 
speedily putridi" Per contra, says Dr. Dunglison: "When an animal 
is killed accidentally, without bleeding, its flesh is not unwholesome, al- 
though it may not be palatable, in consequence of the blood remaining 
in the vessels/' And yet again says Dr. Dunglison, as if to render 
confusion as confounded as possible : " The blood is the most putresci- 
ble of all fluids, and consequently animals, under such circumstances, 
do not keep sound so long as when they are bled to death." And yet 
once more says Dr. Dunglison : " Caution should always be observed 
in eating animals that have died from, or been killed during disease. 
Although the meat may often be innoxious, at other times it would 
seem to be capable of producing disease, and even death." The body 
of an animal dying from disease may be healthful food, says Dr. Dungli- 
son. Of such thoughtless and senseless gabble is the great mass of 
medical and dietetical books afloat made up. The bloody drippings 
from broiled flesh which are so eagerly "spooned out" by many per- 
sons to season their potatoes, or "sop" their bread with, are always 
more or less charged with animal excrement, and never fit to be taken 
into the stomach, albeit some medical books prate about that stuff being 
the "juice" and "strength" of the meat! 

The Mosaic law, which forbade the Jews to eat the blood of any 
beast or bird, or to partake of their flesh, unless the throat had been 
cut, in order to drain off the blood, was founded on correct physiolog- 
ical principles. As a further precaution against eating blood, they 
were required, previously to boiling meat, to let it soak half an hour in 
water, and then lie an hour in salt; the object of tlris proceeding was 
to draw out any remaining portion of blood the flesh might contain 
In regard to the philosophy of dietetics, Moses was far in advance of 
the majority of the Christian teachers of the present day. 

The sausages sold in the si: Dps under the name of black pudding 

FOOD. 843 

aifi made of pig's blood mixed with fat, seasoned with aromatics, and 
inclosed in the prepared intestines. 

Brando and Schlossberger give the following proximate composition 
of muscular flesh: 

100 Parts. 


or Fibrin. 





























The comparafve healthfulness of other parts of animals can be read- 
ily determine' -sy a reference to the physiological principles already 
adverted to. The fatty matters, next to the blood, are the worst ali- 
mentary suostances ; and, notwithstanding artificially depraved appe- 
tites generally crave unnatural aliment with an intensity proportioned 
to its impurity, such fact does not alter the truth, nor should qualify 
our manner of expressing it. The kidney, whose function is to elini- 
iiiiito from the body a large proportion of its most putrescent materials, 
though often considered a "dainty di«h" by epicures, is certainly unfit 
to eat. A cooked kidney always exhales a urinous odor. The liver 
etands in the same relation to the human stomach. Next in the order 
of their unfitness are the brains, lungs, stomach, and intestines, skin, 
cartilages, tendons, etc. All these viscera and structures are made 
into a variety of fashionable dishes, and all have their admirers ; but 
just as far as we depart from lean flesh hi selecting aliments from the 
animal kingdom, just so far does their value depreciate. 

The dietetic character of animal food is also affected by the manner 
of cooking. It is to be preferred lightly or but moderately cooked, 
providing a due degree of tenderness of fibre is secured. In broiled 
steaks this may be accomplished by pounding; but large, thick, roasting 
pieces are apt to be tough if not, well cooked. Broiling, on all accounts, 
is the best method of cooking all flesh-meat. Boiling, taking care to 
skim off any floating particles of oil, is better than roasting; and this 
again is better than frying, which is a method never to be recommended. 

Another argument may here be stated in favor of the position that 
muscular flesh is the best form of animal food, which is, the absolute 
identity of the chemical elements of pure flesh and pure blood. The 
analyses of Playfair and Boeckuiann give the following results : 





Ox Blood. 

Dry Beef 

Roasted rieef. 

Roasted Veal. 
























21-37 £ 
4-23 S 




100-00 100-00 100-000 100-00 100-00 

The milk of the mammals, though an .animal secretion, can hardly 
be called animal food, in strict language. It contains, on the average, 
nearly ninety per cent, of water, and about ten per cent, of solid mat- 
ter, consisting of butter, casein, sugar, and various salts. The cream 
of cow's milk, according to Berzelius, consists of butter 4-5, casein, 
or curd 3-5, whey 92-0=100-0. By agitation, as in churning, J.e 
gjobules of fatty matter unite, and form butter; the residue is called 
buttermilk ; it consists of casein, serum, or whey, and a very small 
quantity of butter. Skimmed milk very soon becomes acid and curdy. 
The admixture of an acid or rennet (which is the infusion of tho 
fourth, or true stomach of the calf), immediately coagulates it, separ- 
ating the casein, or curd, from the whey. The addition of acetic 
acid will cause a still further separation of coagula, which has been 
called zieger, bracolte, etc. After the separation of casein and zieger, 
the whey left yields lactic acid, salts, and some nitrogenous sub- 
stances, one of which is supposed to be osmazome. Osmazome, how- 
ever, does not appear to be a tangible reality, but a flavor or effluvia 
developed by the chemical changes which take place in several animal 
substances during the process of cooking — heating, roasting, boiling, etc. 

Good milk is a homogeneous but not viscid liquid, not coagulable by 
heat. When examined by the microscope it appears to consist only 
of transparent spherical globules. The cream yielded varies from five 
to twenty per cent., as tested by the lactometer, which, by the way 
seems to be a very unsatisfactory instrument for the purpose. 

No secretion is so readily affected by the ingesta, or the general 
health of the animal producing it, as the milk. The taste, color, and 
odor of cow's milk are readily modified by the food. Children are 
easily salivated, narcotised, catharticised, and poisoned and disordered 
in many ways, through the mother's milk. The organic instincts, true 
to the first principle of self-preservation, determine the accidental im- 
purities of the body to this channel as the most ready way of expelling 
them from the body Nursing mothers have little idea how much 
disoiise, pain, and misery they inflict on their litllo ones, nor how fre- 

F D. 345 

quently they commit infanticide, by taking irritating aliments and 
drinks, and injurious drags into their own stomachs. If I could pre- 
sent this subject to them in all its force, and in all its bearings on their 
happiness, and on the well-being of the human race, as I hope to at- 
tempt in a future publication, I am certain there would be a sudden 
and very radical revolution ir. the way of dieting mothers and doctoring 

The milk produced by cows fed on distillery slops, which, to the 
disgrace of municipal authorities, rich men are permitted to sell to the 
poor in nearly all our large cities, is not only very innutritions, but abso- 
lutely poisonous. In New York, Brooklyn, and Williamsburgh, several 
thousand cows are kept in close and horribly filthy stables, fed on 
warm slops, and other refuse matters of the distilleries, which rot 
their teeth, weaken their limbs, and render their whole bodies masses 
of disease ; and their milk is furnished to our citizens as a principal 
article of diet for their children ! 

Although milk cannot be considered a necessary or strictly natural 
food for mammals, except during the period of infancy, when the teeth 
nre undeveloped — and no animals of the class mammalia, save man, em- 
ploy it otherwise — it is nevertheless, when pure, the best form of ali- 
ment out of the strict order of natural foods. It contains all the elements 
requisite for prolonged nutrition, and except in certain abnormal states 
of the digestive organs, its moderate employment is attended with no 
inconvenience. Some invalids cannot enjoy, and some dyspeptics can- 
not tolerate it ; but exceptional cases from morbid conditions are not 
rules for healthy persons. 

Butler, as prepared for the table, is a different article dietetically 
from its fatty particles as they exist in milk. The former must rank 
with all animal oils, in being difficult of digestion, but slightly nutritive, 
ond liable to generate rancid acids in the stomach. There is, however, 
n great difference between fresh-made and slightly salted butter, and 
that which is old and highly salted. Compared with the latter the 
former is almost innocuous. Melted and cooked butter is, wherever 
fouud, a very deleterious aliment. Sweet cream, from its solubility in 
water, and greater miscibility with the saliva, is far preferable to but- 
ter. Indeed, I am not aware that experience assigns to it any injurious 
or even unpleasant effects as an aliment. 

The fresh curd of milk is perfectly wholesome, and pot-cheese, 
when made of milk as soon as it becomes sour, and before it gets bit- 
ter, is also a harmless article. Green cheese is not very objectionable, 
but old, strong cheese is one of the most injurious and indigestible 
things in existence. It is also one of the most constipating articles to 


the bowels that can be found. It is a common fancy among med- 
ical men, and a common whim among the people, that old, strong, rank 
cheese, though itself very indigestible, stimulates the stomach to digest 
other things ; hence almost all the medico-dietetical works quote the 
old adage : 

" Cheese ie a mity elf, 
} igesting all things but itself." 

There is more poetry than truth in the doggerel distich. Old cheese 
occasionally undergoes spontaneous decomposition, during which pro- 
cess acrid and poisonous elements are developed, as is frequently the 
case with bacon and sausages. 

Next to the flesh of the herbivora, or rather the graminivorous ani- 
mals, the flesh of birds affords the most wholesome form of animal 
food. All of the species of the feathered tribes in common use, how- 
ever, are not equally wholesome. Their alimentary value depends in 
a great degree on their food and manner of life. Pereira says: "Ra- 
pacious birds, as the hawk and oivl, are not eaten, partly, perhaps, from 
prejudice, and partly because those which touch carrion acquire a 
cadaverous smell." I should think the stench alluded to was a suffi 
cienily strong reason for refusing to eat them, without imputing any 
thing to the score of prejudice. 

The white -fleshed birds — chicken, turkey, partridge, quail, etc. — are 
very nearly as nutritious and digestible as beef. Chicken flesh is called 
the "least stimulating of animal foods" by medical writers, but I think 
the assertion is wholly gratuitous. The dark-fleshed birds, as game 
birds, grouse, robin, woodcock, snipe, etc., are less nutritive and less 
digestible, but more greasy and savory to epicures. Pereira says of 
the flesh of these birds : "It is richer in ozmazome, and when suffi- 
ciently kept it acquires a peculiar odor, called fumet, and an aromatic, 
bitter taste, most sensible in the back. In this condition it is said to be 
ripe, or high, and is much esteemed as a luxury." This "fumet," so 
highly prized, is the stench of putrefaction, as is the " cadaverous 
smell" of carnivorous birds. Prof. Dunglison eulogizes this fumet still 
more extravagantly: "The solubility of game, grouse, etc., is amazingly 
increased, as well as the luxury of the repast, by keeping it until it has 
attained the requisite fumet; which indicates that incipient putrefaction 
is diminishing its cohesion." The luxury of putrefying animal flesh 
sounds strangely to those who do not go to epicures and "riotous 
livers" to learn their dietetic rudiments. It is unfortunate for the 
cause of human health and longevity, that phys ologists do not consult 
nature and common-sense more, and cooks a .d refectories less, in 
seeking for the facts and principle! of hygiere. 

FOOD. 347 

The aquatic birds, geese and .lucks, a - e strong, rancid, and oily, and 
extremely unwholesome. The canvas-tack is considered one of the 
greatest of luxuries ; but here, as in a majority of cases, the luxury 
consists in the pampering of an exceedingly depraved appetite. 

The manner in which fowls are fattened for the markets of many 
large towns, though it commends them to the tastes of epicures, detracts 
very much from their purity as food. They are confined in dark 
places, sometimes their eyes are put out or stitched up, and crammed 
with a paste made of barley-meal, mutton suet, molasses, and milk; 
this ripens them in a fortnight, when, if they are not immediately 
killed, a fever or general inflammation comes on, which frequently 
destroys them. 

Particular parts of certain birds have long been celebrated as "deli- 
cate morsels" by epicures; as the brains of the ostrich and peacock, 
the tongues of the nightingale and flamingo, the trail, or intestine of 
the woodcock, the enlarged liver of the goose, etc. This last article 
is a diseased condition of the liver, called by physiologists fatty degen- 
eration, and is produced by confining the goose in a dark, warm place, 
and stuffing it with food and charcoal. Sometimes in this way the 
liver swells enormously, weighing two pounds. The body of the gooso 
also becomes very fat, and in the language of Pereira, "excellent for 
the table." Pereira says of tins morbid liver: "It is obvious, therefore, 
that these diseased livers must be difficult of digestion, and unfit for 
persons with delicate stomachs." Why should any persons, be their 
stomachs delicate or indelicate, eat "diseased" livers? 

The eggs of oviparous animals, when fresh and rare-boiled, are 
moderately nutritious and easy of digestion. They are not particularly 
objectionable as a part of a dietary selection, yet their virtue is rather 
negative than positive. Poached eggs are extremely pernicious ; and 
eggs are very indigestible when hard-boiled or fried. One writer, 
Mr. Pearson, states that there are "instances of laboring people, and 
persons who use violent exercise, with whom eggs, hardened by boiling 
or frying, agree better than in the soft or liquid state." It is not un- 
common for laboring men to suppose that hard water agrees better 
with their stomachs than soft water; but no intelligent physiologist 
will think so. 

The flesh of turtles is prepared at the refectories in the forms of 
steak and soup. It is unwholesome aliment in all ways, though Sir 
Hans Sloane, who appeal's to be as high authority among flesh-eaters 
as Hoyle is among chess-players, says, " the livers are counted delica- 
cies." Sir Hans also tells us that the callepce, or under part 
of the breast or belly, baked : s reckoned the best piece. Moreover, 


Sir Hans remarks : "Persons who feed much on turtles sweat out a 
yellow serum, especially under the armpits." And again says our 
author: "The lard, or fat of the green turtle, when melted out, is of a 
warm yellow color, and communicates a yellow tinge to those who feed 
on it ; whence their shirts are yellow, and their skin and face of the 
same color ;" from all of which testimony we conclude that these rep- 
tiles are not fit for human beings to eat. The eggs of these animals 
are sometimes eaten. 

In a general sense, fish aliment is far inferior to flesh. The pis- 
civorous tribes of the Iranian family are universally in a state of extreme 
mental and bodily abjection. The explanation of this fact is found in 
the food upon which the animals which they eat subsist — smaller fishes, 
worms, and insects, and the impurities of the element in which they 
reside — so far as salt-water fishes are concerned, which penetrate their 
structures, and mingle in all their fluids and secretions. Fish is not as 
nutritious as flesh, and is usually considered as less stimulating. The 
feverishncss so generally noticed after a meal of fish may be imputed 
to the impurity of the aliment, though some regard it as evidence of 
stimulation. As a general rule the least oily fishes are the most 
wholesome, as the cod, halibut, trout, u'hitefish, bass, blackfish, had- 
dock, luhiting, sole, turbot, etc. Salm,on, eels, herrings, pilchards, 
sprats, mackerel, shad, etc., are among the oily varieties. Dr. Dekay, 
in a late work, enumerates 440 species of fishes belonging to the State 
of New York, hence the varieties distributed over the aqueous portions 
of the globe must be innumerable. 

The objectionable nature of fish aliment is generally made still more 
objectionable, by the usual method of cooking — frying, and the indi- 
gestible additions of melted butter, lobster-sauce, egg -sauce, etc. 

The idea has been extensively entertained that fish diet greatly in- 
tensifies the procreative powers, and Tourtelle refers to the numerous 
children found in seaports as proof. But there is no evidence that 
ichthyophagous people propagate faster than others. Were the opin- 
ion correct, it, would afford another argument against the sanatory na- 
ture of the food ; for it appears to be a law of the animal kingdom that 
the rapidity of propagation increases with the increase of the causes 
which destroy the animal. 

The Egyptian priests were forbidden to eat fish, and among the 
aquatic animals which Moses prohibited to the Hebrews were, "What- 
soever hath no fins nor scales." A law similar to that of Moses was 
made by Numa Pompilius for the Romans. In tropical climates many 
species of fish are absolutely poisonous, especially at particular seasons, 
producing, when eaten, violent itching, colic, burning heat in the throat, 

FOOD. 34!> 

nausea, giddiness, blindness, cold sweats, often terminating in death. 
Dr. Burrows enumerates twenty kinds of poisonous fish. The nature 
of this poison is wholly unknown. 

The fishes found in the clear water of lakes, rivers, and rivulets are 
greatly superior to those which inhabit muddy or foul waters. Some 
kinds of fish are eaten whole, as the white bait. Nearly all the parts 
and viscera of these animals are eaten more or less, not excepting the 
milt or testicle of the male, and the roe or ovary of the female. The 
former, called the soft roe, and the latter, called the hard roc, are 
among the " esteemed luxuries" of sensuous epicures. The caviare, 
which Dr. Dunglison calls "an article of national food," is the pre- 
served roe of the sturgeon and various other fishes, salted, peppered, 
and further flavored with minced onions. The milt of the herring 
has been recommended by several distinguished physicians — Ritter, 
Neumann, Frank, Siemerling, and Hufeland — as a remedy for various 
diseases ; and, what is specially amusing, its effiacy was ascribed to the 
common salt it contained ! 

Of the crustaceans, lobsters, crabs, shrimps, and prawns, are those 
most generally eaten. They are all exceedingly indigestible, and a 
frequent cause of disordered digestive organs. The peculiar odor and 
taste of these animals are due to a resinous substance of the membrano 
enclosing the shell, and which becomes red by boiling. Pereira says : 
"Both the crab and the lobster excite, in some constitutions, urticaria, 
or nettle-rash, and even colic." 

Of the class mollusca, the oyster is the greatest favorite with the 
lovers of sea-food. They are not very nutritive, containing only about 
12i per cent, of solid matter. When eaten raw they are more digest- 
ible and wholesome than when cooked in any manner. Oysters have 
had the reputation among medical men of being a specific for dyspep- 
sia, scrofula, and consumption, but the more intelligent physicians of 
the present day specially prohibit them in those diseases, except when 
they deem it policy to compromise with the appetites or prejudices of 
their- patients. Mussels, clams, scallops, cockles, and even snails, are 
eaten to a considerable extent by people on the sea-coasts. The for- 
mer are frequently poisonous. Dr. Lee states : " It is a very common 
thing for persons to be poisoned in this city (New York) by eating 
mussels produced from our adjacent waters." Eruptive and paralytic 
affections are said to be the results of being poisoned by these animals. 
The vineyard or great snail, has been, and still is, in England, not 
only a popular but a regular remedy for consumption. Fulvius Hir- 
pinus, of Roman celebrity, had several snail parks in his garden, 
where he kept and fattened the " most famous and excellent" snails, 

350 il Y G I E N E. 

each variety having a park to itself. He fed thein upon a pap made 
of sweet wine, honey, and flour ; " and under this diet," says Dr 
Dunglison, " they became so wholesome and deliciite, and were so 
much esteemed, that they were sold for eighty quadrants the dishful." 
I am of opinion that the wholesomeness of an aliment is not to be de- 
termined by the tastes of epicures, or its price in the market! 

But few insects are employed as food among civilized people at the 
present day. The grub-worm was in repute as a " delicacy" in the 
day; of PJiny. Locusts, grasshoppers, and some species of spiders, 
have been eaten. In South America centipedes are eaten. The Bra- 
zilian Indians are fond of the white ant ; and the West Indian negroes 
relish a species of caterpillar. On the dietetic value of these insects 
I need not dwell. 

§. Vegetable Foods. — The vegetable kingdom affords the purest 
aliments, as well as the greatest variety of alimentary principles. 
Vegetable foods are found in the form of the seeds, fruits, roots, buds, 
and young shoots, leaves, flowers, and stems, of flowering plants, and 
lichens, ferns, sea-weeds, and mushrooms, of flowerless plants. 

The seeds and fruits are the most important and most useful of hu- 
man aliments ; yet it would be difficult to decide which of these is 
most necessary, for the perfection of nutrition requires both. 

The seeds commonly employed are the cereal grains — wheat, oats, 
barley, rye, rice, maize or Indian corn, and millet; the leguminous 
seeds — peas, beans, and lentils ; the cupuliferous seeds — chestnuts, 
etc. ; and the oily seeds or nuts — almonds, walnuts, hazel-nuts, butter- 
nuts, filberts, cashew-nuts, cocoa-nuts, etc. 

The most common alimentary fruits are the drupaceous or stone 
fruits — peaches, nectarines, apricots, cherries, etc. ; the pomaceous fruits 
— apples, pears, quinces, etc. ; the baccate or berried fruits — currants, 
gooseberries, whortleberries, cranberries, grapes, elderberries, etc.; the 
aurantiaceous fruits — oranges, lemons, limes, citrons, shaddocks, etc. ; 
the curcubitaceous fruits, pepones, or gourds — cucumbers, melons, 
squashes, pumpkins, etc. ; leguminous fruits, legumes, or pods — of 
the tamarind, bean, etc.; the synochus fruits— figs, tomatoes, etc'; the 
sorosis fruits — mulber ies, pine-apples, etc. ; the etseno fruits — strawber- 
ries, raspberries, blackberries, etc. 

In the order of roots, tubers, and subterranean stems, we have the 
potato, turnip, carrot, beet, parsnip, artichoke, etc. 

Among buds and young shoots we find onions, leeks, garlics, shal- 
lots, asparagus, etc. 

Leaves and leaf-stalks furnish us cabbage, spinach, cauliflower, broc 
coli, cowslips, milkweed, turnip tops, potato tops, dandelion tops, let' 

FOOD. 351 

cuce, mustard tops, endive, water-cress, common cress, celery, rhubarb, 
sorrel, plantain, etc. 

Of the receptacles and bracts, the flower-heads of the garden arti- 
choke are the best known. 

The stems of several palms yield a farinaceous food, as sago. The 
pulpous stems of a fern-tree in New Zealand are eaten, and esteemed 
an excellent vegetable. 

The tuberous l'hizomes of ferns, in Polynesia and other parts of the 
world, yield a farinaceous matter, which is occasionally employed as 

Many lichens, of which Iceland moss is the most familiar example, 
are used dietetically and medicinally. 

Several species of alga? or sea-weeds — -Irish moss, Ceylon or Jqfna 
moss, etc., are also employed both as food and medicine. 

Several species of the fungi or mushrooms are considered edible. 
The best known among them are the field mushroom, boletus, morel, 
truffle, pepper dulse, and tangle. 

Of the cereal grains wheat and rice are the most extensively culti- 
vated. Although they possess about an equal amount of alimentary 
properties, the wheat is far superior as a single article of diet. Those 
who employ a diet mostly of rice require a larger proportion of succu- 
lent fruits, or watery vegetables, or ligneous matter, as letives, roots, 
etc., than those who subsist principally on the whole grain of wheat, 
for the reason that the latter contains in the bran a much larger pro- 
portion of lignin. But even wheat is too nutritious and concentrated 
of itself, and requires the admixture of a due proportion of fruits, or 
other succulent and, comparatively, innutritious vegetables. 

It appears to be a confirmed habit among dietetical writers and med- 
ical practitioners to write and speak of animal food, as compared with 
bread and other preparations of the grains, as being more " nourish- 
ing," more " substantial," etc., in the face of all human experience 
and all chemical investigation, which prove the latter to contain at least 
three times as much nutriment in a pound as can be obtained from the 
best flesh-meat. Those tribes of men, laborers, hunters, etc., who 
subsist almost wholly on flesh, fish, or fowl, devour on the average 
about seven pounds per day ; while those persons in similar circum- 
stances and occupations who subsist almost exclusively on farinaceous 
vegetable food, eat but little more than one pound. In fact, the quan- 
tities of animal food consumed by some human beings, who are car- 
nivorous in practice, seem almost incredible. Captain Parry relates 
the case of an Esquimaux lad, who, at a meal which lasted twenty 
hours, consumed 4 lbs. raw sea-horse flesh, 4 lbs. broiled ditto, \{ pint 


gravy, besides 1$ lbs. bread, 3 wine glasses raw spirits, 1 tumbler strong 
grog, and 9 pints of water. Captain Cochrane states, in a " Narrative 
of Travels through Siberian Tartary," that he has repeatedly seen a 
Yakut or Largouse eat forty pounds of meat in a day ! It is stated 
that the men in the service of the Hudson's Bay Company are al- 
lowed the daily rations of seven or eight pounds of ordinary flesh- 

The world is full of examples of laboring individuals, even in cold 
climates, subsisting on coarse bread, not exceeding the average amount 
of one pound of wheat, rye, or corn daily; and the millions of China 
and India subsist on much less than that quantity of rice, with only 
animal or other food enough to amount to a condiment or seasoning. 

For the purpose of making raised or fermented bread, wheat is su- 
perior to all other grains, on account of its large proportion of gluten. 
The wheat of hot climates, as a general rule, contains more gluten 
than that of cool climates. The Southern or red wheat of this country is 
more glutinous than the Western or white wheat ; hence the Southern 
flour is called stronger by the bakers, and is capable of being puffed up 
into the largest, and, for the manufacturers, the most profitable loaf. 
Wheat also proves more palatable to a majority of people in its various 
forms of preparation than any other grain. Boussingault gives the 
following analysis of wheat, rye, and oats, which makes them almost 
identical in chemical constituents. The other grains cannot differ 
essentially from these : 

Ultimate Elements. Wheat. 

Carbon, 46-1 

Hydrogen, 5-8 

Oxygen, 43-4 

Nitrogen, 2-3 

Ashes, 2-4 

Total, 100-0 100-0 100-0 

The proximate constituents of the grains are : Starch, albumen, 
fibrin, gluten, mucin, sugar, gum, cil, lignin, earthy j>hospliates, and 

The methods by which wheat is prepared for the table are very 
numerous. The very best is unquestionably the unleavened wheat- 
meal bread. The yeast brown bread ranks next in wholesomeness. 
Fine bread, made of flour, with the addition of a quantity of rye-meal, 
or coarse-ground Indian meal, or both, is an excellent article. The 
common superfine bread, especially as pre-vu-ed for the market by thf» 

F C D. 853 

bakers, is the lowest order of bread-kind in the scale of healthfulness. 
All the bakers' bread with which I am acquainted — and I have ex- 
amined it very extensively — is over-fermented, by which much of the 
starch as well as the sugar is destroyed, and more or less of the gluten 
decomposed, and converted into acetic acid, which acid is neutralized 
by ammonia, or othor alkaline matters. This is the reason that stale 
bakers' bread is so i lpalatable after it is fairly cold, while good domes- 
tic bread preserves its sweetness imd flavor for a week or two. Uni- 
versal experience as well as physiological science pronounced all fresh 
fermented bread unwholesome. Fermented bread is never fit for the 
stomach until it has been twelve hours from the oven, and is not in its 
best condition under twenty-four hours. There are two reasons why 
new bread, when fermented, is prejudicial to the digestive organs. 
Its texture being soft, spongy, and adhesive, it is not well masticated 
and insalivated ; and again, the jirocess of fermentation not only devel- 
ops the carbonic acid gas which raises the dough, but also converts a 
small portion of the elements of the saccharine matter into alcohol ; 
this alcohol is probably not perfectly dissipated by the heat of the oven, 
nor until the bread has been many hours from it. To make the best 
bread it is essential to have a good article of flour — if fresh-ground the 
better — fine, fresh, sweet yeast; the dough must be well kneaded, so 
as to diffuse the yeast equally through the mass ; the loaf must be 
placed in the oven the precise moment when it is sufficiently light, 
or it will be heavy from deficient, or sour from excessive fermentation, 
and baked in a brick oven from an hour to an hour and a half, accord- 
ing to the size of the loaf. Very good yeast bread may be baked in a 
stove or kitchen-range by observing carefully all the above conditions. 

Wheaten grits (cracked wheat), an article rapidly getting into popular 
favor through hydropathic auspices, simply boiled, make an excellent 
dish, seasoned with a little sugar or milk. For children there is nothing 
in the world superior, from the very moment they are able to take any 
food except the mother's milk. I know it will almost horrify some 
good mothers and kind nurses to be told that cracked wheat, " bran 
and all," is proper aliment for the delicate, susceptible stomachs of little 
infants; while many a college-bred M.D. is ready to declare that such 
coarse, rough, scratchy food is enough to tear its tender bowels all to 
pieces; and I know, too, that the great "standard authors" of the 
medical professir u, and all their little echoes throughout the country, 
proclaim the br-in part a "mechanical irritant;" and yet I know the 
assertion I make to be truo. Let those who oppose this kind of diet 
for children, if they can, give some rational reason why thirty children 
per weejr in the city of New York die of the disease called convulsions. 


a disease whose almost exclusive cause is obstruction, or constipation, 
and this condition being almost universally produced in them by the 
various preparations of fine flour. Farina, formerly called peart wheat, 
contains more of the ligneous, or branny property, and is hence far 
preferable to fine flour for mush or pudding. Semolina, soujee, and 
mannacroup, are also granular preparations of wheat similar to farina, 
considerably employed in England. Maccaroni, vermicelli, and caglivari 
paste, are pasty preparations of wheateu flour. Hot rolls are rendered 
tender and brittle by excessive fermentation, but are, for the same 
reason, very indigestible and unhealthful. Rusks, tops,- bottoms, buns, 
etc., are fermented, and for the same reason unhealthful when fresh ; 
they are also less digestible from the additions of butter, sugar, and 
milk. Gingerbread is made extremely light by means of carbonic 
acid gas, but the combination of Jlour, treacle, butter, alum, and potash 
is a serious objection to its wholesomeness. The common sea-biscuit, 
or ship-bread, is made of either wheat-meal, or flour containing a con- 
siderable proportion of bran, simply mixed with water, and baked. It 
is hard and compact, and very wholesome. Wlieat-meal crackers 
(Graham crackers) when made without shortening, and not over-fer- 
mented, are a good article for exercising the teeth, and promoting the 
salivary secretion. 

Cakes, in almost endless variety, are made of superfine flosr, butter, 
lard, sugar, eggs, with spices, essences, fruits, or alcoholic liquors, for 
seasonings. Of course they are pernicious, as a general rule, according 
to their complexity. Plum-cake is a fair specimen of the average 
character of the cakes of cook-books and popular recipes. All dietetic 
writers of any respectability agree as to its unfitness, while the common 
fruit-cake and wedding-cake are as universally regarded as exceedingly 
indigestible trash. Pancakes, or fritters, are fried in hog's lard. 
Griddle-cakes, made of wheat-meal, or of flour and Indian meal, or 
of rice or buckwheat, are a tolerable article, provided they are cooked 
on soapstone griddles without grease. A very palatable and compara- 
tively wholesome cake may be made of wheat-meal, sugar, and sweet- 
cream, or good rich milk in place of the cream. Those who become 
accustomed to unbolted farinaceous food, will generally prefer this kind 
of cake to that made of fine flour, even as a matter of taste. 

Puddings are sometimes made of wheaten flour; but no form of 
boiled flour can be very digestible or wholesome. Bread ]>uddings 
lire the best of these preparations; hasty and bailer puddings next in 
the descending scale. The plum or suet pudding is one of the most 
pernicious compounds ever invented ; it is generally made of bread 
crumbs, currants, raisins, boef suet, salt, citron, eggs, sugar, mace, and 

FOOD. 855 

nutmeg, and eaten with butter, sugar, and wine for sauce. Dumplings 
me another form of boiled flour and fruit ; they can be made so as to 
be tolerably light and digestible, but as usually served up at refectories 
they tax the digestive powers very severely. 

Considerable attention has of late years been given by bread-makers 
to various methods of manufacturing raised bread without yeast ; em- 
ploying in its stead acids and alkalies, usually hydrochloric acid and 
sesqui-carbonate of soda. If the proportions of these articles are exactly 
balanced, and their admixture with the dough carefully managed, the 
acid, uniting with the alkali, forms common salt, while carbonic acid 
gas, without leaving any free acid or alkali, is set free to raise the 
dough. A variety of other experiments have been tried in this country 
and in England, but I believe they have never succeeded in realizing 
quite as good an article as can be made with the best of yeast, skill- 
fully managed. Two years ago one of our city bakers commenced 
liie manufacture of bread raised with an acid and alkali. The baker 
conscientiously supposed his article to be more wholesome than the 
ordinary fermented bread, but wishing to be well assured of the fact, 
he submitted specimen loaves to the medical gentlemen of the New 
York Academy of Medicine, requesting a professional opinion concern- 
ing its hygienic character. The Academy referred the matte? to a 
special committee, but there it rested ; and notwithstanding ihe urgent 
importunities of the manufacturer, the Academy has not even yet seen 
fit to express any opinion. 

Oats have been extensively used as food by the people of Scotland 
and the northern parts of England, and to some extent in this and other 
countries. The entire seeds of oats contain, in 100 parts, about C6 of 
meal to 34 of husk. 100 parts of dried oatmeal yielded, according to Dr. 
Christison's analysis : Starch 72-8, sugar and mucilage 5-8, albumen 
3-2, oily-resinous matter - 3, lignin, or bran 11-3, and water 6-6. Oat- 
meal is prepared by grinding the kiln-dried seeds, deprived of their 
husk and outer skin. Groats are the grains deprived of their integu- 

Oatmeal is usually employed in the form of mush, porridge, or stir- 
about, prepared by simply boiling in water, and oat-bread, or oat-calces, 
made by rolling the dough into very thin cakes, and baking it before 
the fire, or in a stove or oven. These preparations are more whole- 
some than those of fine whcaten flour, because they contain a larger 
proportion of lignin, or bran, and are hence more laxative, or rather 
less constipating. Persons unaccustomed to oatmeal sometimes com- 
plain of acidity after eating it; but such a result may occur on first 
eating any kind of grain to which the stomach has not been habituated; 


it is, however, more frequently noticed with respect to rye and corn 
than the other grains. 

Barley is but little used as human food in modern days, the breweries 
converting nearly the whole crop of the world into the poisons caller? 
malt liquors. It is, however, far from being the most inferior of grains, 
either in chemical constituents or physiological properties. The seeds 
of barley contain, in 100 parts: Meal 70-05, husk 18-75, water 11-20. 
100 parts of barley-meal yield: Starch 67-18, fibrous matter 7-29, 
gum 4-62, sugar 5-21, gluten 3-52, albumen 1-15, phosphate of lime 
with albumen 0-24, water 9-37. 

Various preparations of barley are in repute for the sick-room. 
Pereira considers barley-water us a "light, mila, emollient, demulcent 
liquid, slightly nutritive, and very easy of digestion;" a rare combina- 
tion of medicinal virtues, truly, for steeped seeds of grain to possess ! 
Less learning would be displayed, but more intelligence communicated, 
by calling the water in which a little barley-meal had been boiled 
diluent and -nutritive, the former being the property of the water, and 
the latter the property of the grain. Scotch, hulled, or pot barley, is 
the seeds deprived of their husks ; and when these seeds are rounded 
and polished they constitute pearl barley. Patent barley is the farina 
obtained by grinding the pearl barley to powder. Barley contains too 
small a quantity of gluten to make good bread by panary fermentation. 

Rye is considerably employed as food among the inhabitants of 
northern Europe, and in New England. In Germany and Sweden it 
is the principal ingredient in bread. The entire seeds of rye yield, in 
100 parts : Meal 65-6, husk 24-2, water 10-2. Rye-meal contains, in 
100 parts : Starch 61-07, gum 11-09, gluten 9-48, albumen 3-28, sac- 
charine matter 3-28, husk 6-38. Rye-meal mush is somewhat more 
laxative to persons unaccustomed to it than wheat-meal mush, and is a 
valuable food in constipation and torpid bowels. 

Buckwheat is sometimes employed in bread-making. In Germany 
and France it is in common use for pottage and puddings; and in the 
United States it is extensively cultivated, and eaten in the form of 
griddle- cakes. It is not in itself objectionable ; but the melted butter 
and sugar with which buckwheat cakes are seasoned, and the burned 
grease used in cooking them render them exceedingly noxious. The 
itching and skin diseases generally attributed to buckwheat, are really 
chargeable to its accompaniments — pork gravy, sausages, butter, sugar, 

Rice is the principal grain of India, China, and most Eastern coun- 
tries. It is also oxte naively cultivated in the West Indies, Central 
America, the southern countries of Europe, and the southern parts o» 

FOOD. 367 

the United States. The con position of Carolina rice is, according to 
Braconnot, in 100 parts : Starch 85-07, woody fibre 4-80, glutinous mat- 
ter 3-60, oily matter 0-13, sugar 0-29, gum 0-71, phosphate of lime 0-40, 
water 5-00, with traces of acetic c:id, phosphate of potash, chloride of 
potassium, and vegetable salts of potash and lime. 

In nutritive properties rice, does not differ materially from wheat, 
although it is much less adapted to prolonged nutrition as an exclusive 
article of diet, because of its small proportion of lignin or bran. From 
the fact that the cholera first appeared in a rice-growing country, and 
has prevailed extensively in countries where this grain is the principal 
food of the inhabitants, a suspicion has arisen that a rice diet was 
among the causes of cholera. Although a rice diet alone would be 
incapable of producing such a disease, there can, I think, be hardly a 
question that a diet almost exclusively of rice would produce a predis- 
position, enabling other sources of impurity and debility readily to de- 
velop the disease. In fact, this principle is fully illustrated by the 
phenomena of cholera and bowel complaints as they appear in this 
country. The ordinary employment of concentrated farinaceous foods 
with us (food containing too small a proportion of what is called in- 
nutritious matter, to keep the excretories free and unobstructed) abso- 
lutely produces a general predisposition to bowel complaints, only 
requiring some disturbing agent of the nature of an exciting cause, to 
induce diarrhea, dysentery, cholera morbus, cholera infantum, inflam- 
mation of the bowels, or Asiatic cholera, according to the combination 
of all the predisposing and exciting influences. Obstruction, constipa- 
tion, irritation, and inflammation always result, unless due relations 
between bulk and nutrin ent are maintained in our aliments; and 
hence the more concentrated or nutritive the grain or flour we em- 
ploy, the greater should be the proporti n of the less nutritious vege- 
tables and succulent fruits. An immense amount of disease, suffering, 
decrepitude, and premature death result from a misunderstanding of, 
or inattention to, this simple and obvious principle ; and the advice 
emanating from medical men, boards of health, medical councils, etc., 
in cholera seasons, recommending the people to abstain from fruits and 
vegetables, and eat principally rice, superfine flour, dried beef, smoked 
herring, etc., has destroyed many lives and saved none. 

The best preparation of rice is that of simple boiling ; it should not 
be stirred sufficiently when cooking to break up or mash the seeds. 
Rice, milk, and sugar make one of the best plain puddings. Rice 
griddle-cakes, which contain eggs and sugar, are somewhat offensive 
to all stomachs, and especially so to dyspeptics. 

The various remarks which medico-dietetical writers have perpetrated 

858 H Y G I E X E. 

concerning the nature of rice as an aliment, afford some amusing ex- 
amples of the loose and thoughtless manner in which men may reason 
when they have no settled principles to reason from or "lpon. Thus 
says Dr. Dunglison, m allusion to the constipating effects of rice upon 
the bowels : " Perhaps the cause of its having astringent properties 
assigned to it is its long retention in the stomach when that organ is 
debilitated. This is probably owing to its possessing but little stimu- 
lating power.''' 1 Was ever greater nonsense uttered ! Again, says 
Dr. Dunglison : " Formerly the idea prevailed that rice, when habitu- 
ally eaten, is possessed of poisonous properties" — as though its nature 
depended on whether we eat it constantly or occasionally ! Bontius 
thought that the use of rice tended to the production of blindness. 
Probably he was not aware that disordered vision, giddiness, etc., is a 
very common effect of too concentrated food and of excessive aliment- 
ation in all countries. 

Maize or Indian corn is extensively employed as food in America, 
Asia, and some parts of Europe. Its proximate composition in 100 
parts, as analyzed by Dr. Gorham, is: Starch 77*0, ze'in (a substance 
somewhat resembling gluten) 3-0, albumen 2-5, gum 1-75, sugai 
1*45, extractive matter 0-8, cuticle and ligneous fibre 3-0, phosphate, 
carbonate, and sulphate of lime, nearly 1-5, water 9-0. In nutri- 
tive power and wholesomeness maize is but little inferior to wheat. 
It has not enough of the glutinous property to make light loaf bread 
alone, but makes an excellent bread with the addition of a portion of 
wheat-meal or wheaten-flour. The coarse-ground meal is incomparably 
superior to the fine-ground for all cooking purposes. Samp is made 
by boiling the broken grains until soft ; hominy is a preparation of the 
grain between samp and meal ; and Indian mush is the boiled meal. 
These are all excellent dishes as a part of a dietetic course. Corn, 
Indian, or Johnny cakes are made by wetting the meal with water, or 
milk, or both, and baking in a stove, r>ven, or before the fire. The In- 
dian method of baking under hot ashes is, for healthfulness, still better. 
Sometimes these cakes are sweetened and raised with sour milk and 
bi-carbonate of soda. This preparation is not as wholesome as the 
former, but far superior to most of the sweet-cakes made of fine 
wheaten flour. Saleratus is very generally employed in this country 
in nearly all kinds of Indian or wheaten cakes, but it is a most perni- 
cious article. For plain puddings the coarse Indian meal, or hominy, 
is the best article, excepting, perhaps, wheaten grits and rice. Milk 
and sugar are all the seasonings wanted to make as rich a pudding as 
human appetites ought to desire. 

Our New England mothers and grandmothers had a method of 

V C d D 869 

making a most delicious and salutary bread, without raising or fer- 
mentation, in which Indian meal was the chief ingredient. Due por- 
tions of the meals of corn, rye, and wheat were kneaded into a rather 
soft dough with water or milk, and baked all night in an iron bake- 
kettle, which was well covered with coals and hot ashes. In the 
morning an article "fit for a king" and all other "lords of creation," 
was brought forth from the baker. Such mothers would be godsends 
to the puny children of this degenerate age. 

Dr. Lee says: "A pound of corn, when cooked, makes from two 
and a half to three and a half pounds of food, and this will suffice for 
the daily support of a laboring man. If an individual could be sup- 
ported on this alone, his annual expense for food would be but $3 65, 
or say $15 to a family of five. The average cost of potatoes may be put 
at about half a cent a pound, and allowing five pounds per day to an 
adult individual, the expense will be about S>9 a year. When we 
consider that it is not unusual for land to yield one hundred bushels of 
corn to the acre, or thirty tons of potatoes, we may form some esti- 
mate of the population which this country is capable of supporting from 
the produce of the soil." 

We may see the munificence of the Creator, in making provision 
for all our natural wants, in a stronger light by varying the calcula- 
tion. Let us suppose an acre of land planted with corn, half an acre 
with potatoes, and good apple-trees surrounding the whole— all to be 
in the best state of cultivation. We would then have a combination 
of foods capable of fully sustaining the organism in its highest integ- 
rity; and nutrition enough from an acre and a half to sustain at least 
thirty human beings. 

Millet or hirse is less employed than any other cereal grain. It is 
cultivated in some places as a garden plant, and used in cooking pud- 
dings, seasoning porridge, etc. 

Peas, beans, and lentils possess nearly the same proportions of ulti- 
mate chemical constituents as the cereal grains. In proximate com- 
position they are more oily and amylaceous. They are most digestible 
when green and fresh. When dried and old they produce more or 
less flatulence, and sometimes colic in persons accustomed to a concen- 
trated or stimulating diet. This objection, however, is generally soon 
overcome in those who adopt a plain and correct dietary system. Not 
a little of the indigestibility charged upon the lugiminous seeds is justly 
due to the grease, butter, and seasonings with which they are usually 
cooked and served. 

The nuts or kernels- are generally oily, and, ti most stomachs, indi- 
gestible. The chestnut, however, contains no oi. and when cooked is 


pleasant and considerably nutritive ; it is employed as a staple article 
of food in some countries. It is at least probable that all, or nearly all, 
of the nuts are in themselves natural and wholesome food ; their indi- 
gestibility resulting from the abnormal state of the digestive organs we 
have produced by our artificial and enervating habits of lifo. Bitter 
almonds, though extensively used by cooks and confectioners, contain 
poisonous properties ; the volatile oil obtained from them is a more 
potent poison than Prussic acid. 

At the head of the fruit kingdom stand the apple-tree and the 
grape-vine. Many other fruits are as wLjlesome in their season, and 
some are more nutritive, but none are so hardy and enduring, nor 
capable of such extensive cultivation. The varieties of the apple that 
can be produced are abnost innumerable. The sweet, subacid, and 
mealy kinds are the most nutritious. If well grown and fully ripe 
they may be eaten in the raw state, roasted, or baked, with nearly 
equal advantage as a part of the meal, or they may be stewed and 
sweetened. They can also be preserved by drying, or in their own 
inspissated juices, the year round. 

Unfortunately, grapes are cultivated much more for the purpose of 
manufacturing intoxicating wine, than for human sustenance. An ar- 
gument in favor of this use, or rather abuse, of the fruit of the vine, 
has been predicated on the opinion somewhat prevalent, that wine- 
growing countries were the most temperate ones. But Dr. Bell, M. 
Villerme, M. Perier, Mr. Bulwer, and other standard writers, have 
shown this opinion to be an error. In France nearly one thousand 
millions of gallons of alcoholic drinks were consumed in 1830, of which 
wine constituted more than half. Several Americans who have resided 
in Paris testify that "drunkenness is the prevailing curse of the labor- 
ing classes of France." 

Of the different varieties of grapes the Isabella and catawha are 
more generally cultivated in this country ; the former of these is most 
common in our markets, and most highly esteemed. Dried grapes are 
called raisins. The muscatels and blooms are sun-dried. Sometimes 
the grapes are dipped in a mixture of water, ashes, and oil, and after- 
ward sun-dried, by which treatment the juice exudes and candies on 
the fruit. The small or Corinthian raisin is the black currant sold at 
our groceries. 

There is an old adage which says, " Fruit is gold in the morning, 
silver at noon, and lead at night." The proverb is founded more in 
our artificial habits than in nature. Those who are accustomed to a 
plain vegetable dl?t can take fruit with equal pleasure and profit at 
either meal. Bti stomachs weakened by enervating drinks or con- 

FOOD. 3C1 

centrated aliments can tolerate fruits much better in, the fore part of 
the day. 

The opinion is common that the fruits produced in different climates 
or localities are most suitable for the inhabitants residing there. Un- 
questionably this is true so far as quality and maturity are concerned ; 
for most kinds of fruit being exceedingly perishable, are of neces- 
sity gathered before fully ripe, when they are to be transported on 
long voyages. For this reason many of the peaches and straw- 
berries brought to the New York market are far inferior, both in 
flavor and dietetical virtues, to those picked nnd eaten where they ar« 

Almost all persons can use nearly all sorts of fruits in our markets, 
excepting, perhaps, the very acid kinds, with freedom and advantage, 
providing they are well grown, perfectly ripe, and are eaten only at 
meals. Those persons with whom thoy seem to disagree should grad- 
ually accustom themselves to their employment — eat a very little at 
first, and increase the quantity as the stomach will bear. We have 
many varieties of pumpkins and squashes, which are not only excel- 
lent for pies, but make a delicious sauce. The only cooking thoy re- 
quire is to be well boiled. As a general rule, those of the firmest, 
heaviest texture are the best flavored and most nutritious. 

Of the edible roots the potato holds the first rank. It is nearly or 
quite as nutritious as the best flesh-meat, and in ultimate chemical 
composition is almost identical with the cerenl grains, containing, in 
100 parts : Carbon 44-0, hydrogen 5*8, oxygen 44*7, nitrogen 1-5, 
ashes 4-0. Its proportion of solid matter is 24-1 to 74-9 of water. 
The potato alone is capable of sustaining the prolonged nutrition of 
human beings, as has been verified by repeated experiments. Potato 
starch is extensively sold under the names of potato flour, English ar- 
row-root, corn starch, etc. A mixture of potato starch and chocolate 
has been sold in England under the name of 3 right's universal sana- 
tive breakfast beverage. 

Two or three years ago Professor Mulder entered into a profound 
philosophical contemplation of the nature and properties of the potato, 
and came to the conclusion that its use, " as an Brticle of food, was the 
principal cause of the physical and mental degeneracy of the people 
of those nations who employed it." The learned professor had un- 
doubtedly mistaken the effects of intoxicating liquors, tobacco, and many 
other noxious agents, for those of the innocent potato. 

The Carolina or sweet potato contains considerable saccharine mat- 
ter, and is equally digestible and wholesome as the common or Irish 
potato, making due allowance for habit. When boiied until sotV. bu* 


without destroying tlioir shape, potatoes are probably more nutritive 
and wholesome than when prepared in any other manner. 

Potatoes have long been celebrated as a preservative against the 
scurvy ; and it has puzzled physicians exceedingly to determine in 
what particular part or element this antiscorbufic property resided. 
Soirie have ascribed it to citric acid. I am of opinion that this virtue 
resides equally in every part of the tuber, and that its preventive power 
in tliis disease is due to its healthfuhiess as an article of food, and not 
to any particular medical property. In fact, all good fresh fruits and 
vegetables are antiscorbutic. 

With regard to the other esculent roots, turnips, parsnips, beets, 
carrots, etc., they are of but little value in an alimentary point of view, 
yet useful in preserving the due relations of bulk and nutriment with 
those who partake of a large proportion of farinaceous food. To 
most stomachs they prove more or less flatulent, but this depends very 
much on the vigor of the digestive powers, and the other dietetical 
habits. A perfectly healthy stomach can manage them without any 

Of the cruder vegetable products the cabbage is the most nutritive. 
It contains considerable nitrogen as well as sulphur. An Edinburgh 
physiologist — Dr. Johnson, I believe — has lately " discovered" that it 
possesses more muscle-making property than wheat ; but his inference 
is drawn from the mistaken opinion that foods are nutritive to muscular 
tissue in proportion to the nitrogen they contain. As cabbage contains 
more than ninety per cent, of water, its nutritive power must be less 
than ten per cent., while we know wheat possesses from eighty to 
ninety per cent, of nutriment. 

Pot-herbs, including cabbage, spinach, asparagus, and a variety of 
leaves, leaf-stalks, stems, young roots and shoots, receptacles, bracts, 
Jloioers, etc., are generally grateful and wholesome ; always so to 
healthy stomachs. If they ever prove injurious, it is from the melted 
butter, oil, vinegar, etc., with which they are too often cooked and 
eaten. These aliments, too, prove flatulent to many stomachs ; and the 
rule already mentioned is applicable to these and all other crude and 
watery vegetables. Delicate stomachs must get gradually accustomed 
to their use, if they would avoid unpleasant effects. Salads are usually 
eaten with mustard, vinegar, pepper, salt, and oil, and are objectionable 
mainly on account of the seasonings. Lettuce contains the narcotic 
principle of opium, and is injurious on that account. 

Most of the fruits herein mertioned, and some of the vegetables, 
are employed in making pies and pastry. As usually prepared by the 
baker, they are of course exceedingly pernicious, for however delicious 


and wholesome the fruit of itself may be, the crust is far otherwise. 
But excellent, and delicious, and even healthful pies can be made of 
the mild-flavored or sweet fruits, simply sweetened, with a crust of 
wheat-meal or fine flour, shortened with potatoes, and seasoned with 
new milk or sweet cream. 

Condiments, or seasonings, though not in any sense alimentary sub- 
stances, are so commonly employed with almost all articles of food, 
that they deserve a moment's notice in this connection. Those in 
general use, in addition to salt and vinegar, already discussed, are mus- 
tard, cayenne, black pepper, allspice, cinnamon, cloves, mace, nutinc, 
Iwrse-radishes, ginger, etc. ; various other pungent and spicy substances 
are frequently employed. They all tend to blunt the organic sensibili- 
ties, and the more acrid are extremely irritating to the whole mucous 
surface. Though the majority of dietetical writers commend them, 
and nearly all medical writers declare them to be indispensable, I know 
of but one physiological rule in relation to them— the less the belter. 
It is true that an appetite partially palsied by their use, cannot appre- 
ciate the flavor of aliments without them; and stomachs accustomed to 
digest under their irritation, will not at first work as satisfactorily in their 
absence, but the same rule obtains with regard to liquor, tobacco, or 
any other artificial habit. Hunger is the only natural sauce ; and those 
persons who can summon moral and animal courage sufficient to abstain 
from acrid seasonings of all kinds, will find, in a short time, that the God 
of nature has made all the foods He has intended we should eat extreme- 
ly palatable, without endowing them with any properties to provoke our 
appetites to the injury of the vital domain. He made the food 
savory enough for us to "eat to live;" if we over-season it, we may 
soon find ourselves too closely allied with those who "live to eat," to> 
have pure appetites or sound health. 



Vicissitudes of Weather. — The wonderful power of the living 
organism to develop, maintain, and regulate its own heat, enables hu- 
man beings to exist in great extremes of climate, and exposed to nu- 
jmerous and sadden vicissitudes of weather. Franklin, Parry, Ross, 
Back, and other northern navigators, have been exposed for months 


together to a temperature varying from 50° to 70° below zero, while in 
the oasis of Mourzouk, and many parts of the tropical zone, the ther- 
mometer often ascends to 130°. The maximum of heat noticed by 
travelers in various places is : Equator 101°, Cape of Good Hope 111 , 
Bassora 114°, Cairo 104°, Madras 104°, Pendicherry 112°, Paris ]01°, 
Guadaloupe 101°, Surinam 90°, Martinique 95°, Vera Cruz 96°, Vienna 
96°, Warsaw 93°, Copenhagen 92°, Petersburgh 87°, Iceland 69°. In 
New York city the thermometer has a range of about 100°, rarely, 
however, rising to 100°, and seldom sinking below 0. The changes of 
temperature in this climate frequently amount to 40° or 50° in twenty- 
four hours. 

Generation of Animal Heat. — The more energetically the or- 
ganic functions are performed, the more rapid is the generation of ani- 
mal heat ; hence the animals of cold climates, whose actions are vigor- 
ous, manifest a higher bodily temperature than those of hot climates, 
whose motions are more sluggish. The quadrupeds of the frigid /.one 
are said to have a higher temperature than those of any other region 
of the globe ; an arctic fox, killed in an atmosphere of 14°, was found 
by Capt. Lyon to have a temperature of 106|. 

Capacity to Endure External Heat. — The human body is 
capable of enduring for a considerable time a highly-heated atmosphere, 
when the air is dry. Mechanics whose occupations require it, often 
endure, without perceptible inconvenience, an elevation of 250" to 280°. 
Some workmen have entered the furnaces of iron-foundries while the 
floor was red-hot, and the thermometer stood at 350°. Chabert, the 
"Fire-king," was in the habit of entering an oven heated from 400" 
to 600°. 

Artificial Heat. — As the human body is a self-regulating machine, 
within certain limits, as respects its temperature, it follows that all arti- 
ficial means of supplying heat to the body can only be regarded as 
necessary evils. Fire relaxes and debilitates the skin and the whole 
system ; yet in cold climates and seasons we have no better way of 
maintaining the requisite temperature of our rooms. These should 
always be warmed equally throughout every part, and the temperature 
kept as low as possible, consistently with comfort. The comfortablo 
point of out-door air depends very much on the temperature we have 
previously been accustomed to; it also varies in different climates and 
seasons. In this country it ranges from 65° to 75°; but when the 
thermometer has been for some days between 90" and 100°, a depres- 


sion of fifteen or twenty degrees imparts an uncomfortable sensation 
of cold; and in spring a sudden elevation from 30° or 40° to 75" imparts 
an oppressive sensation of heat. A room permanently heated above 
55° to 60° can hardly be consistent with health, and a few degrees less 
is still better for most persons. Those who occupy rooms wanned by 
grates should never sit directly before the fire. Many persons have 
a habit of sitting with their faces close to a hot fire, but such habits 
are not only very weakening to the whole skin, but particularly inju- 
rious to the brain and nervous system. 

Healthfulness of Climate. — It has been proved by ample experi- 
ment that the aeration of the blood is more rapid in cool or cold than iit 
warm or hot air, owing to the circumstance that rarefied air contains less 
oxygen in the same bulk than cold air. But I cannot subscribe to the 
doctrine generally advanced in medical books that all warm climates, or 
even hot climates, are necessarily unhealthful. It is well known that 
bilious attacks, diseases of the liver, fluxes (as diarrhea, dysentery, and 
cholera), and some forms of fevers, are more prevalent in hot climates, 
especially among those who go from a northern to a southern latitude. 
But I think a better explanation can be found in another way. It is as 
well known that persons can endure, with apparent impunity, in a cold, 
bracing air, riotous living, excessive alimentation, constipating food, and 
many other erroneous habits, which will inevitably produce disease, 
and frequently death, in a hot, enervating atmosphere. The travelers 
who visit pestiferous Africa, the Englishmen who remove to the 
scorching suns of British India, and the Northerners who go to the 
sickly South, may find the true explanation of their liability to disease 
in their own dietetic errors. 

Undoubtedly the more mild and uniform climates are most con 
ducive to permanent health and longevity. Examples, however, are 
not wanting of individuals attaining the age of 165 in Russia, and of 
200 in Arabia. Variable climates, like England and the United States, 
are more favorable to activity of mind and body — a rapid development 
of all the physiological and mental powers ; yet that excess of action 
must sooner exhaust their vitality. Various parts of the United States 
have furnished numerous examples of centenarians, but I believe Joice 
Heath, who reached the age of 162, was the oldest person this country 
ever produced. Rev. Mr. Harvey delivered a temperance lecture in 
the Broadway Tabernacle in this city, in 1846, at the age of 114. 

Common Colds. — "Catching coVd" is usually attributed to a sudden 
transition from a warm to a cold atmosphere ; but I believe more 


colds result from the contrary change — from a cold to a highly-heated 
atmosphere, especially the sudden change from a cold, out-door atmos- 
phere, to the confined air of a hot room. I need not say that the body, 
when excessively cold, should be warmed very gradually. When very 
hot, however, the body is better enabled to resist extreme cold, and 
may be suddenly exposed to it with impunity, provided it has not been 
warmed by any debilitating process or agency, as hot, confined air, 
severe and exhausting exercise, etc. Colds are more frequently pro- 
duced by unequal temperature than by extremes of either heat or cold. 
Thus, when a part of the body usually covered with clothing is exposed 
to a strong draught of air, when the rest of the body is protected with 
clothing or bedding, a cold is very easily caught. Again, a person ac- 
customed to wear boots in the winter season, will often "take cold" by 
wearing shoes a few hours, even though he remain within doors, and 
his feet feel perfectly comfortable. Young ladies, at balls and parties, 
often make such changes in their clothing as to expose some parts of 
the body usually covered, as the neck, or cover some parts usually un- 
dressed, as the hands and head, or dress some parts thinly which have 
been accustomed to thicker clothing, the feet and arms, for example, 
by which the usual temperature of the body is unbalanced, and severe 
colds produced. 

A very common way in which a severe cold, or a great disturbance 
of the body which is usually denominated a cold, is produced, is eating 
a very full evening meal after fasting all day, and then retiring soon 
after to rest, and sleeping in a warm room, or a room heated by hot air. 
The temperature of the apartment, aided perhaps by bad ventilation, 
relaxes the body, so that the stomach cannot relieve itself of its burden, 
and in the morning the sufferer awakes, if indeed he has slept, fever- 
ish, sore, and inflammatory, and with all the manifestations of a hard 
or confined cold. 

It is also to a crowded state of the stomach, as much perhaps as to 
the relaxing temperature and bad air, that the colds so generally follow- 
ing balls and dancing assemblies are to be attributed. The viands at 
these parties are all so prepared as to tempt the appetite to excessive 
indulgence, when the state of exhaustion requires exactly the opposite 
— fasting, so that the muscular system may have its due supply of 
nervous energy for the restoration of the motive powers. 

Those who are exposed to cold, pure, out-door air, may eat very in- 
temperately, as respects both quality and quantity, and suffer but very 
little, compared with those who commit the same error in the enervat- 
ing atmosphere of a crowded assembly, when the body is in a state of 
pxhaustion, tho whole muscular system relaxed, and the digestivo 
powers proportionately enfeebled. 



Mean Temperatures. — The following table of mean temperatures 
has been compiled from meteorological registers : 


| 3 | 

Mean Temrerature of different 

Mean Tempera- 
ture of 








New York 



53 78 
78. 8 
42 44 
5'. II III 




71 96 
80 24 
23 44 
38 06 

5°l .20 
79 00 
23 90 
40 87 

79 10 
75 90 
48 38 
09 33 


78 02 
78 98 
00 70 

79 70 

83 94 

84 38 


82 76 




Charleston, S. C 








Eastport, Me 


Newport, R. I 

32 14 
34 16 






Necessity for Exerise.— To secure the full and perfect develop- 
ment of the body, nature has implanted among the mental propensities 
a special organ of motion. The phrenological organ of " mirthfuluess," 
or " playfulness," seems to be intended to secure this end, by prompt- 
ing to frequent, free, active, and vigorous exercise. Young animals, 
especially of the mammiferous class, manifest this disposition very 
early; and young children must have their frequent "play-spells," or 
be sick— there is no alternative. I am disposed to believe that it is im- 
possible for a healthy adult to be otherwise than active in body or mind, 
or both, and that laziness is actually a disease, dependent on some ab- 
normal condition of the organism. 


It is true that a variety of social circumstances may operate to pro- 
duce an indolent dispositior of mind and inactive habit of body, as ex- 
treme poverty, excessive wealth, grinding servitude, tyrannical govern- 
ment, etc.; but all these also produce a primary condition of ill health. 
So of personal habits, dissipation, gluttony, dietetic errors, or uiihealth- 
ful voluntary habits in other respects; they all conduce to the production 
of a morbid condition. 

Nothing is more discouraging to the future prospects of a young 
child than a disposition to sit still, be quiet, keep out of mischief, etc. 
Such children may give the n?n-se and schoolmaster but little trouble in 
keeping them "out of the way;" but in after life their parents may 
find it somewhat troublesome and expensive to provide them attendants 
and doctors. 

Physiology or Exercise. — The function of respiration, by which 
the blood is vitalized, and the nutrition of the muscular structure, on 
which depends all the motive power or strength of the system, are in- 
timately connected with the circulation of the blood, and this with 
active exercise. This principle is well illustrated in the effects of 
gymnastics and training, by which the muscles of any part of the body 
are remarkably invigorated by regular, systematic exercises. People 
of all trades and occupations find those parts of the muscular system 
which are habitually the most exercised to be the most powerful. 
Thus farmers have the whole muscular system nearly equally devel- 
oped ; blacksmiths, joiners, carpenters, sailors, etc., have strong arms 
and chests; travelers, dancers, etc., are disproportionately developed 
in the muscles of the lower extremities; shoemakers, tailors, etc., have 
a tolerable development of the arms and chest, but suffer in the lower 
extremities and abdomen ; merchants, clerks, and others who pursue 
an easy, in-door occupation, have slender muscles generally; and pro- 
fessional men, whose exercise is more intellectual than bodily, exhibit 
large brains, with slender muscles. 

Varieties of Exercise. — For hygienic purposes there are many 
exercises equally advantageous. All that is necessary is that all parts 
of the body be actively and frequently exercised, within the bounds 
of not producing fatigue amounting to exhaustion ; that is to say, u 
degree of fatigue which is not readily recovered from on resting. All 
exercises, however, to secure their full benefit, should bo coupled with 
an object of either utility or a.nusement, otherwise the mind is apt to 
labor adversely to the body. Occupation — some useful business pursuit, 
which reouires and honce secures attention and labor during several 


hours of each day — is absolutely essential to the highest sanatory con- 
dition of the body, for nothing else will insure so constant, regular, 
and equally divided exercise for both body and mind. 

Amusements and plays could be advantageously alternated to vary the 
monotony of the exercises ; and indeed social and family recreations 
would constitute prominent features of all physiologically regulated 
neighborhoods. Among the active exercises which may be beneficially 
losorted to as pastime, are walking, running, leaping, dancing. Box- 
ing and fencing are physiologically adapted to expand the chest, and, 
in fact, strengthen the whole muscular system, but they are too closely 
associated with pugilism, and barbarism, and brutalism to be recom- 
mended, especially as many other exercises are equally beneficial. 
Wrestling is a dangerous method of developing the muscular power. 
Ten-pins, billiards, etc., are excellent exercises physiologically, but no 
better than sawing wood, planing boards, digging potatoes, hoeing 
corn, raking hay, etc., etc. Singing, declaiming, reading aloud, are 
admirable methods of cultivating the vocal powers, and increasing the 
capacity of the respiratory apparatus. Riding on horseback is one of 
the best exercises in cases of weak digestive powers, as is also riding 
in a carriage without springs over a rough road, or street paved with 
cobble stones. Hunting and fishing are highly recommended by some 
hygienic writers, but the ideas of gormandizing, and the exhibitions 
of cruelty with which they are associated, are hardly becoming a re- 
fined, enlightened, and Christian people. Such amusements are more 
appropriate to savage than to civilized life. 

Of the passive kinds of exercise, riding in easy carnages, sailing, 
swino-in"; etc., they are rather to be regarded as mere amusements, 
or as expedients for the invalid. They are highly serviceable, and, in- 
deed, indispensable to such valetudinarians as have not strength to get 
a sufficiency of the out-door air without them. 

Exercises of Children. — Our social organization is very defective 
in its provisions for the appropriate exercises of infants and young 
children. The cradle is a most unphysiological method of exercising 
a child to sleep; its primary object was to save the nurse trouble, but 
a child accustomed to be rocked to sleep will give the nurse more 
trouble in the end than one accustomed to sleep without such assist- 
ance. The motion of the cradle, too, is : njurious to the brain and 
nervous system. The modem " baby -jumper" is a better contrivance, 
but even this can be advantageously superseded by giving the child 
" the largest liberty" to exercise in its own way. Plenty of room, a 
smootk floor, and a plsntifil suppW of any kind of "playthings" which 

370 liYGIENE. 

are not dangerous — India-rubber balls, baskets, brooms, rattle-boxes, 
etc. — afford the opportunities which a child will always improve to the 
best possible advantage. Unfortunately, among the poorer classes of 
our cities young children are kept in stupid inactivity, simply because 
they have no room to stir; and this confinement makes them sickly, 
puny, peevish, and finally indolent. 

Times for Exercising. — In regard to the times for exercising, 
the common instincts of mankind have generally guided them cor- 
rectly. The most severe and active exertions should never be per- 
formed on a full stomach, nor immediately before or after a meal. 
The best hygienic regulation for a laboring or business man, who takes 
three meals a day, and is regular in his habits of retiring at night and 
rising in the morning, is to exercise moderately an hour or so before 
breakfast, perform the severest labor between breakfast and dinner, 
and work moderately again between dinner and supper. Much evening 
work is a violation of "the natural order." Persons of sedentary occu- 
pations should choose such exercises as they can habitually and regu- 
larly attend to, all of which should be as much out-door as possible. 
Their most active exercises should take place on first rising in the 
morning, and at other times of day when the stomach is partially 
empty. Vigorous evening exercises are also suitable for them. 

" Nature lives by toil ; 
Beasts, birds, air, fire, the heavens and rolling worlds, 
All live by action ; nothing lies at rest 
But death and ruin." 


General Observations. — Sleep may be defined — the periodical 
suspension of all the functions of external relation. The constitutional 
relation of man to the changes of the seasons and the successions of 
days and nights, implies the necessity of sleep. All animals sleep, but 
no animal, save man, sleeps on his back, "with face upturned to 
heaven." The time of sleep required by different individuals varies 
greatly, according to temperament, manner of life, dietetic habits, etc. 
John Wesley, with an active nervous temperament, and a rigi lly-plain 
vegetable diet, could perform mental and bodily labors almost Herculean, 

SLEEP. 871 

and slei p but four or five of the twenty-four hours ; while Daniel 
Webster, with a more powerful, but less active organization, and the 
ordinary mixed diet, "has a talent for sleeping" eight or nine hours. 

As a general rule, in the animal kingdom, herbivorous animals sleep 
less than carnivorous ; and the universal experience of the human 
race proves that vegetarians require much less sleep than the human 
omnivora, or those who subsist on both animal and vegetable foods. 
This fact must be accounted for on the principle of the greater purity, 
bkndness, and adaptedness of vegetable food, requiring less vital ex- 
penditure to appropriate it, and exhausting the organic economy less 
in disposing of its waste or innutritious particles. 

Phenomena of Sleep. — Profound or quiet sleep is the complete 
cessation of the functions of the cerebral hemispheres and the sensory 
ganglia, and is attended with entire unconsciousness. Dreaming im- 
plies imperfect rest — some disturbing cause, usually gastric irritation, 
exciting the brain to feeble and disordered functional action. Individ- 
uals of very studious habits, and those whose labors are disproportion- 
ately intellectual, require more sleep than those whose duties or pur- 
suits require more manual and less mental exertion. But no avocation 
or habit affects this question so much as the quality of the ingesta. 

Natural Term of Sleep. — Physiologists are not well agreed re- 
specting the natural duration of sleep. Historical data seem to indi- 
cate that a great majority of thos3 who attained great longevity were 
long sleepers, averaging probably at least eight hours. The statute of 
nature appears to read : Retire soon after dark, and arise with the first 
rays of morning light ; and this is equally applicable to all climates and 
all seasons, at least in all parts of the globe proper for human habita- 
tions, for in the cold season, when the nights are longer, more sleep is 

A general rule, and an invariable rule for all whose voluntary habits 
are correct, and who retire to rest early in the evening, is, to sleep as 
long as the slumber is quiet, be the time six, seven, eight, or nine 
hours. Dreamy, restless dozing in the morning is generally much 
more debilita'.ing than refreshing. Those persons who indulge largely 
in animal food, or eat gluttonously of any thing, and especially those 
who are addicted to spirituous liquors and tobacco in connection with 
high-seasoned animal food, are in danger of over-sleeping, even to tlio 
extent of very considerably increasing the stupidity and imbecility of 
mind, and indolence and debTrty of body, naturally and necessarily 
consequent, upon those habits 


Sleeping after Meals. — Some persons are partial to tLe siesta, 
or " dinner nap," and physicians are divided in opinion whether the 
habit is useful or injurious. Dr. Dunglison, who appears to be in some 
doubt on the subject, but rather inclines to regard a short sleep after 
dinner favorably, remarks : '■ It is certain that after a full meal both 
man and animals feel a propensity to sleep." I regard it as perfectly 
certain that there is no such propensity in man, except when his full 
meal has been an improper one. If he has slept too little the night 
previous, he may feel a propensity to sleep at any time during the 
next day, but not more after a meal than at any other time, unless his 
meal were fuller than the wants- of his system demanded, or of too stim- 
ulating or concentrated a character to be healthful ; nor is the assertion 
correct as respects the animals, excepting the carnivorous and gor- 
mandizing varieties. Sleeping after meals is always pernicious; and 
for an adult to sleep at all during the day can be regarded no better 
than the least of two evils when sufficient sleep is not had at night. 
All persons who can should do all their sleeping at once, and not eat 
such quantities or qualities of food as will produce the unnatural pro- 
pensity to sleep after meals. 

Sleep for Different Persons. — It has long been a popular 
whim that females require more sleep than males, and many physio- 
logical reasons, as whimsical as the whim itself, have been offered in 
support of the notion. I know of no sound argument that proves any 
difference so far as sex is concerned ; and I think a safe rule for male 
and female, young and old, is, for children to sleep all they are inclined - 
to, without the aid of extra-nervine agencies, rocking in the cradle, or 
paregoric drops ; and for the middle-aged and old, of both sexes, to 
sleep all they can at one effort, between sunset and sunrise. Of course 
those whose business or pleasure obliges them to retire at late or ir- 
regular hours should govern themselves accordingly. 

Bodily Position during Sleep. — The 'position of the body in 
bed is worth a moment's reflection. It should be perfectly flat or hor- 
izontal, with the head a little raised ; one common-sized hair pillow is 
generally sufficient. A najority of people sleep with the head too 
high, often elevated on two thick pillows, with a heavy bolster for the 
shoulders. This is certainly a very bad habit. The neck is bent, the 
chest is compressed, and the whole body unnaturally crooked. Chil- 
dren often become stoop-shouldered, or otherwise crooked, from their 
heads being placed on high pillows. Some physiologists object to 
sleeping on the back , and assign as a reasos that the stomach and other 

SLEEP. 373 

abdominal viscera press upon the large blood-vessels below the heart, 
and thereby produce a tendency to cerebral disturbances, nightmare, 
apoplexy, etc. This argument only has weight with those who take 
late or heavy suppers, or suffer from enlarged livers or other abnormal 
conditions. Healthy persons, of correct dietetic habits, may sleep at 
pleasure on the back, or gently reclining to one side. All, however, 
should carefully avoid reclining nearly on the face, or crossing the arms 
over the chest, as that would approximate the shoulders, contract the 
chest, and materially affect the respiration. Sir Charles Bell thinks 
the incontinence of urine, which so frequently troubles children, arises 
from their lying on their backs. A more rational explanation of this 
difficulty may be found in the paregorics, antimonial wines, herb teas, 
and other weakening drugs and debilitating slops with which they are 
so generally stuffed by kind mothers, as per advice of sage doctors. 

Beds and Bedding. — The nature of the beds ana bed-clothing are 
of importance to those who would preserve or attain health. Feath- 
ers can only be i entioned in reprobation. Straw, corn husks, hair, 
and various palms and glasses, make comfortable and healthful beds. 
In cold weather those who are tender may use over either of them a 
light, thin, cotton mattress. No bed should be soft enough for the 
body to sink into it; and few persons who have thoroughly tried the 
experiment of sleeping on feathers and on straw will willingly ex- 
change the latter for the former. Children and infants are cruelly 
though unwittingly abused, when compelled to sleep on feathers. I 
can hardly imagine that any person would be willing to have a pillow 
of feathers under his head, after once getting accustomed to one of 
hair, chaff, or even straw. Cotton b much better for pillows than 
feathers. The bed-clothes should be as light as possible, consistently 
with comfort. Linen or cotton sheets are better than flannel, and for 
outside bedding thin quilts are best in summer, and light flannel blank- 
ets in addition in winter. 

Sleeping apartments always ought to be large and well ventilated ; 
but generally they are neither. Especial attention is therefore, as 
intimated in a preceding chapter, due to these circumstances. The 
windows or doors should be so arranged as to allow a free circula- 
tion of air ; even night air, which many people and some medical 
writers appear to think is really poisonous, should have free ingress. 
If the sleeping-room is dark or damp, it should be occasionally dried 
and aired, by a fire if necessary, which may be put out before the 
sleeping hour. Whether fires in sleeping-rooms are to be advised or 
discountenanced, medical men agree as little among themselves as they 


do in relation to almost every other hygienic influence that can be 
named. While their expediency for some invalids is unquestioned, 
but little reflection seems necessary to convince any mind unprepos- 
sessed with vague theories that, as a habit, they cannot be otherwise 
than pernicious. When fires are employed during the daytime in the 
sleeping-room, they should be extinguished and the room well aired 
before going to bed. In houses heated with warm air, particular at- 
tention should be paid to ventilating the lodging-room. 



Physiological Nature or Clothing. — -It is an obvious physio- 
logical fact, that the more the whole surface of the body is exposed to 
the external air, within certain limits, the more vigorous is its func- 
tional action performed, and the better is it enabled to preserve its own 
proper temperature, as well as to resist all morbific impressions from 
vicissitudes of weather, or the extremes of heat and cold. Clothing, 
therefore, which the usages of society and the severity of climates 
render indispensable, should, as an invariable rule, be as light and loose 
as possible without bodily discomfort. We must, however, recollect 
that comfort is very much a matter of habit, and make- a due discrim- 
ination between the natural sensation of health and the morbid sensi- 
tiveness produced by false customs. Some persons wrap their whole 
bodies in flannel under-garments, and yet are ready to go into a "shiv- 
ering fit" at every unusual breath of cold air: while others eschew 
those garments entirely, and endure the coldest weather of this cli- 
mate with much less discomfort. 

Materials of Clothing. — The substances principally employed 
in the manufacture of clothing in civilized countries are, linen, cotton, 
silk, wool, and hair or down. Those materials which are bad con- 
ductors of caloric, afford the greatest immediate protection from cold, 
as woolens or flannels ; but, for the same reason, they are more de- 
bilitating to the cutaneous function ; they are only to be preferred in 
cases of temporary exposure, or in very cold climates, or as a " neces- 
sary evil" in persons whose external surface is debilitated by bad habits 
of dress, until its vigor can bo restored by bathing and other hygienic 


processes. Cotton and linen are better adapted to temperate climates, 
especially during the warm season ; and linen for under-clothes is the 
best of the two in hot weather. Flannel next the skin, I am per- 
suaded, is invariably hurtful as a habit. When woolen clothing is 
worn, it should be the outside garments ; these may be of any quantity 
or thickness necessary to keep the body comfortable, while cotton or 
linen only comes in contact with the skin. The discrepancies among 
medical authors on this subject are almost ludicrous ; some advocating 
the use of flannel next the skin, at all times and in all seasons ; others 
condemning it as a fruitful source of colds, coughs, pulmonic and rheu- 
matic affections, etc. "As regards the chest," says Sir George Le- 
tVvre, " a very light kind of woolen waistcoat should not be dispensed 
with even in the dog-days." I would much rather prohibit it in winter 
than prescribe it in summer. In the last cholera season (1849) the 
New York Board of Health, by authority of their Medical Council, 
recommended, as among the preventive measures, "the wearing of 
flannel next the skin," during the hot weather of June, July, and Au- 
gust. And on this hint a medical adventurer has since invented med- 
icated aprons and bandages to keep the bowels warm, or, as the 
proprietor says, " retain the animal heat," and thus prevent bowel 
complaints. These notions are too absurd for serious refutation. Silk 
is a bad conductor, and for this reason females find silk dresses very un- 
comfortable in very warm weather. Furs are worn in this country 
more for ornament than use. They are the warmest clothing materials 
known, and by overheating the part of the body to which they are ap- 
plied, render it extremely susceptible to cold. Fur neckcloths, caps, 
etc., are very pernicious. 

Color of Clothing. — In a strictly hygienic regulation of dress, 
color cannot bo wholly disregarded. White colors reflect the rays of 
caloric ; black absorbs them. Light-colored clothing is therefore more 
comfortable and sanatory in warm weather than dark-colored, because 
the former repels the heat, and the latter readily receives and retains 
it. Various experiments have shown that the heat-reflecting or heat- 
retaining property of different fabrics varies exactly with their lighter 
or darker shades of color. This difference is, however, much greatei 
in the luminous rays of light than in the non-luminous. When, there- 
fore, we are not exposed to the sun, the subject of color is of less im- 
portance. The absorbing power of dark surfaces renders the skins of 
dark-colored animals, as well as of the darker persons or races of ths 
human family, less liable to be scorched or blistered by the direct rays 
of the sui:, than are those of a lighter color- 


Particular Garments. — Fashion seldom consults hygiene in the 
matter of dress. The hat is generally too stiff, heavy, and hot. It 
ought to be as ligbt and soft as possible, and as thoroughly ventilated as 
a bed-chamber. This could easily be accomplished without marring 
its beauty. The common neck-stock or cravat is one of the worst 
articles known ; by confining and heating the throat it predisposes to 
colds, rheumatism, quinsy, bronchitis, etc. I have known several per- 
sons in New York city, who were habitually the subjects of two or 
three severe attacks of quinsy a year, entirely cured by continually 
exposing the neck in all weathers, and bathing it daily in cold water. 
That the natural clothing of an unshaven beard is a protection against 
affections of the throat and lungs, I have no doubt. But if we will 
render ourselves preternaturally susceptible by shaving, we should not 
aggravate the susceptibility by binding up the neck with tight clothing. 
Females, are generally debilitated by too heavy an amount of clothing 
about the back and hips. The custom with some females of oiling the 
hair, then combing it very smooth, and fastening it in a bunch on the 
top of the head, is very injurious to the scalp and brain ; in fact, a com- 
mon source of headache and nervousness. Stockings of cotton and 
linen are better than flannel, except when the feet are exposed to both 
extreme cold and moisture. Garters are a common cause of varicose 
veins in the lower extremities. Fur gloves are a bad article ; so are 
India-rubber shoes, except as over-shoes to slip on temporarily. Straps 
for fastening the pantaloons tightly to the boot or shoe, I believe are 
almost or quite out of fashion ; it is well they are so, for they render 
all the motions of the body stiff and awkward, and cause an injuriou-s 
pressure to be exerted on the knee-pan and shoulders. Several cases 
of synovitis, attended with extreme weakness of the muscles around 
the knee-joint, have lately come under my notice, produced, without 
any doubt, by wearing pantaloon straps. Suspenders, when the trow- 
sers are loose and easy, are not objectionable ; although the sailor, 
whose vocation requires the utmost freedom from all restraint in the 
muscles of the chest and upper extremities, finds it more convenient 
to support the trowsers by the tightened waistband. 

Custom has dealt more cruelly with infants than with adults in the 
style of clothing. Swathing, bandaging from head to foot with ihe view 
of getting the body in shape, and bandaging the abdomen to prevent 
the child from becoming " pot-bellied," are fashions happily fast going 
into disrepute, under the teachings of hydropathic and physiological 
writers. The new-born infant wants no bracing or supporting from 
the clothes. All the clothing required in infancy and childhood is easy, 
loose, flowing garment, sufficient to preserve the requisite temperature. 


Bed and Body Linen. — It is always of importance that the bed 
and body linen be well aired daily, and frequently changed. Strict at- 
tention to the depurating function of the skin requires that the under- 
garment or shirt worn during the day should never be slept in during 
the night. The sheets, too, which collect more or less of the matters 
of perspiration, should be well exposed to the air every day. How 
often the shirts worn in the daytime require changing, depends some- 
thing on the amount of exercise, perspiration, etc. ; generally two or 
threo times a week are advisable. 

General Rules. — The first physiological rule of dress is, to have 
all garments as light in texture and as loose in fashion as is consistent 
with bodily comfort, and as will admit of the most perfect freedom in 
the exercise of every muscle of the body. The second is, to observe 
regularity and uniformity. Boots, shoes, hats, caps, thin and thick 
stockings, gloves, mittens, neck-dresses, head-dresses, etc., when worn 
nt all, should be always worn under similar circumstances — not indis- 
criminately changed or alternated. As intimated in a preceding chap- 
ter, inequality of clothing is a far more frequent cause of " colds" than 
deficient clothing. If a person exposes a part of the body usually 
protected by clothing to a strong current of cold air, he will take cold 
sooner than by an equal exposure of the whole body. 



Reasons for Bathing. — Were human beings in all other respects 
to adapt themselves to the laws of their organization, and were they in 
all their voluntary habits in relation to eating, drinking, clothing, exer- 
cise, and temperature, to conform strictly to the laws of hygiene, I do 
not know that there would be any physiological necessity or utility in 
bathing at all. But in civic society the laws of life and health are 
trans°ressed in a thousand ways ; and the sum total of all the un- 
physiological habits of civilized life is, a condition of body characterized 
by deficient external circulation, capillary obstruction, and internal con- 
gestion or engorgement. To counteract this morbid condition no single 
agent or y rocess is more effectuaV than bathing the whole surface of 


the body daily with cool or cold water. As a general rule, therefore. 
a daily bath should be as regularly attended to as are the daily meals. 

Methods of Bathing. — For hygienic purposes there are various 
methods of bathing equally advantageous ; the particular process is 
merely a matter of convenience. The towel or sponge bath, plunge, 
or shower, are, in ordinary cases, equally useful. The first-named is 
accessible to all persons, at all times, where a coarse towel and a quart 
of water exist. The others require less time and are more agreeable 
to persons accustomed to bathing. A portable apparatus for travelers 
has lately been constructed, which may be conveniently packed in a 
trunk or carpet-bag, and used in the bedroom of the hotel, or state- 
room of a steamboat. After the ablution, in whatever manner per- 
formed, the whole body should be thoroughly rubbed with a crash towel 

Time and Temperature of Baths. — The best time for a genera 
bath is unquestionably on first rising from bed in the morning. Bath 
ing at any time of day, when the stomach is partially or completely 
empty, is better than no bath. In warm weather an additional evening 
ablution is refreshing and invigorating. The temperature of the water 
must be varied to suit different circumstances of constitutional health 
.•aid vigor. The general rule is, that cool or cold water, short of pro- 
ducing any permanently disagreeable chill, is the best. Of course, 
persons of deficient blood and low vitality should use tepid water ; and 
extremely feeble individuals should commence with warm water, grad- 
ually reducing the temperature as "reaction" improves. The cold 
bath may, for general purposes, include all temperatures below G0° 
Fahr. ; the cool, from 60" to 72° ; the tepid, from 72° to 85° ; the warm, 
from 85° to 100° ; and the hot, above 100°. 

Infants ought to be bathed daily from birth. The water should be 
at the temperature of about 72° for the first three months, and reduced 
about five degrees every three months for a year, after which time, if 
the child has been well managed in other respects, it may be bathed in 
water of any medium temperature — say between 50° and G5°. 

Precautions in Bathing. — No person should bathe in very cold 
water when the body is chilly from cold, nor when exhausted or over- 
fatigued from violent exercise, nor when, from any cause, the respira- 
tion is materially disturbed, nor soon after eating. Heat and perspira- 
tion are no objections to going into cold air or cold water, provided the 
body is not in a state of relaxation from confined or bad air, or debility 
from over-exertion, and the breath 3g is easy and natural. 




Relation of Excretion to Nutrition. — From the physiology 
of the nutritive and the depurative functions we learn that an exact 
equilibrium must exist between the deposition of new material and the 
removal of old, in order to sustain the vital machinery in its perfect 
integrity of health and strength. If the nutritive functions be defi- 
cient, debility and inanition result; if the excretory functions are im- 
perfectly performed, obstruction, congestion, inflammation, and fever 

The Involuntary Evacuations. — As already explained, the 
lungs, liver, and skin are constantly eliminating from the body the 
greater portion of its waste, worn-out, useless, effete, and putrescent 
particles, their office being quite independent of the action of the -will 
and voluntary muscles. If the food and drink is rightly apportioned in 
quantity and quality, and all other hygienic circumstances are duly re- 
garded, their functional office will only cease when the body consoli- 
dates to a state of motionless density in a natural death. But when 
the voluntary habits are unhealthful, or when, from any morbific agen- 
cies, the involuntary excretions are checked or suppressed, we see a 
variety of phenomena indicative of disease. If the lungs fail in func- 
tional power, the whole surface is leaden and bloodless, the eye is dull, 
the face is wan and blue, the complexion is inanimate, and the extrem- 
ities are cold. If the liver does not duly eliminate the bile, the blood 
is thick and viscid, the skin is dingy and cadaverous, the head is op- 
pressed, the mind is confused, the nerves are weak and irritable, and 
the eyes yellowish or livid. If the skin fails to throw off the matters 
of perspiration, the lungs are oppressed, the head is giddy and painful, 
the mouth is parched and feverish, the heart is troubled with palpita- 
tion, the kidneys are irritated by excess of duty, and the bowels are 
liable to gripings, spasms, exhausting diarrheas, or inflammatory attacks. 

The Voluntary Evacuations. — The bowels and kidneys cleauso 
the body of the grosser fecal matters, and most of the surplus or ex- 
tnmeous saline and earthy particles If the bowels are torpid, ihe indi- 


vidual is troubled with fetid breath, bad taste in the mouth, coated 
tongue, gnawing or other uneasy sensations at the stomach, dry and 
harsh or cold and clammy skin, colic, sick headache, acrid eructations, 
bilious attacks, and generally hemorrhoids or piles. If the urinary 
secretion is deficient, dropsical accumulations take place, the head is 
exceedingly heavy, oppressed, and even apoplectic, the whole nervous 
system is excessively irritable, the cutaneous exhalation is impregnated 
with a urinous odor, and a low, irritative, and exhausting fever evinces 
the general putrescent condition of the whole body. The importance 
of attending to the solicitations of nature, so far as these evacuations 
are controlled by volition, cannot be overrated. Many persons have 
been seriously injured by retaining the urinary secretion for some time 
after its sensible accumulation. Few persons who live in the ordinary 
manner appear to have any intelligible idea of what constitutes a health- 
ful and natural action of the bowels. Many imagine that periodical 
regularity is all that is desired. But they may have a movement of 
the bowels regularly every day, and uniformly at a particular time of 
clay, and still be very constipated. The alimentary canal may still 
have retained faeces from one month to another. Healthful peristaltic 
action of the bowels demands not only that the dejections occur daily, 
regularly, and uniformly, but that each discharge be free, easy, and 
copious, but not watery, and without pain, straining, or irritation. 1 
have seen many persons who assured me, on a professional examina- 
tion, that their evacuations from the bowels were always "perfectly 
regular," when the furred tongue, foul breath, and turgid abdomen, 
assured me that this depurating function was very imperfectly per- 

Hardly a disease can be named but may have its origin in constipated 
bowels, and almost every habit of the present artificial state of society 
conduces directly to this result. The long catalogue of diseases pecu- 
liar to females, a large proportion of the fatal maladies of children, nnd 
a vast majority of the cases of dyspepsia and hemorrhoids, so common 
among adults of both sexes, have one of their principal causes in this 
condition. I need hardly add that no one can permanently enjoy good 
health, whose voluntary habits, in relation to diet and exercise, do not 
secure the integrity of this functional duty. It is a sad commentary 
on the boasted healing art of allopathic practice, that its professors doc- 
tor, physic, force, and purge the torpid bowels of their patients, year 
after year, nnd leave them invariably worse in the end, while they 
permit each and all of the causes which produce torpid bowels to ope- 
rate continually, uncontrolled, unattended to, and almost unthought of. 

passions. aai 



Mental Hygiene. — We may religiously observe all ihe htw.s ol' 
hygiene in relation to air, light, drink, food, temperature, exercise, 
sleep, clothing, bathing, and the excretions, and yet " lack one thing." 
If the passions are our masters, and not our slaves, they will rule and 
ruin, instead of obeying and serving us. There is no single hygienic 
influence more conducive to health, happiness, and long life, than a 
cheerful, equable temper of mind ; and there is nothing that will more 
surely disorder the bodily functions, exhaust the vitid energies, and 
stamp premature infirmities on the constitution, and hurry us on to an 
early grave, than an uneven, irritable, fretful, or passionate mental habit. 

Different Passions as Affecting Health. — There is, in the 
vigorous exercise of the higher mental powers — the moral affections 
and the intellectual faculties — an elevating, sustaining, self-supporting 
influence ; while the violent indulgence of the lower order of passions — 
the animal propensities — rapidly wears out the mental machinery, and 
enervates all the physiological powers. Who that has ever felt the 
holy inspiration of love, and the depressing influence of hatred, can 
fail to appreciate the importance of mental hygiene ? Contrast the 
emotion of benevolence, or gratitude, or veneration, or conscientious- 
ness, or mirthfutness, or faith, or hope, with that of envy, revenge, jeal- 
ousy, fear, grief, remorse, or despair! One energizes the mind and 
reanimates the body — the other sinks, chills, and enfeebles both ; one 
manufactures, creates, as it were, vital power — the other wastes and 
destroys it. 

Healthful Exercise of the Passions.— It is true that all the 
propensities with which we are endowed were intended to be exer- 
cised actively and vigorously, but always in relation to the uses or pur- 
poses for which they were given— never with violence, or in mere 
wantonness. When they are all exercised harmoniously with eacli 
other, their combined influence is to invigorate, ennoble, and exalt the 
whole being; but if one or several "grow mutinous and rave," the 
whole physiological and psj chological nature experiences a deteriora- 

882 H Y G I E V E. 

tion proportioned to the time iind degree in which ungoverned passion 
is in the ascendant. 

Those who would maintain permanent and uniform health and attain 
longevity, should cultivate the "better passions" with the same sedu- 
lous and unremitting care that they would cultivate the best fruits and 
vegetables. That anger which "dwells only in the bosom of fools," 
should be a rare or unknown visitant, and the " evils of life" should be 
met with courage, fortitude, and resolution, instead of wailing, com- 
plaining, and lamentation. That unhappy disposition which treats all 
the little or great perplexities, crosses, trials, disappointments, or 
troubles, which are incidental to existence, and which more or less 
beset the earthly pilgrimage of every individual, with fretting, scold- 
ing, and fault-finding, not only aggravates all the " necessary evils" of 
life, but greatly multiplies them ; and, what is worse, dissipates fool- 
ishly those talents and energies which should be devoted to overcom- 
ing obstacles, and, by profiting from the lessons of experience, " bring 
ing good out of evil." 

The Passions as Connected with Longevity. — In all ages of 
the world philosophers, divines, naturalists, statesmen, and other men 
whose studies and avocations were especially calculated to develop and 
maintain the supremacy of the moral and intellectual powers, have 
been proverbially long-lived. In this connection we may name among 
the ancients, Homer, Hippocrates, Pythagoras, Plutarch, Plato, Thales, 
Xenophon,' Carneades, Sophocles, Zeno, Galen, Democritus ; and 
among the moderns, Locke, Newton, Galileo, Boyle, Liebnitz, Buf- 
fon, Olbers, Blumenbach, Hahnemann, Swedenborg, Sir Edward Coke 
Fontanelle ; and in our own country, Marshall, Jefferson, Franklin, 
Adams, Jay, and Madison. All of the persons above quoted were dis- 
tinguished for active and laborious habits, and some of them were in- 
tense if not intemperate workers. The experience of a host of men 
renowned for great attainments in morals, theology, and various de- 
partments of science, proves that an immense amount of mental labor 
can be accomplished by an individual of ordinary natural capacity, when 
the propensities are harmoniously balanced, am' an even, cheerful, 
hopeful spirit constantly cherished and maintained. 

The Passions as Affecting the Secretions. — It is well known 
to medical men that violent fits of passion will arrest, alter, or modify 
the various organic secretions as suddenly as will an electric shock. 
They may be depraved or vitiated as readily by excessive mental emo- 
tion as by a drug-poison taken into the stomach. A paroxysm of anger 


will render t'.e bile as acrid and irritating p.s a full dose of calomel: 
excessive fear will relax the bowels equal to a strong infusion of to- 
bacco ; intense grief will arrest the secretion of gastric juice as effect- 
ually as belladona ; and violent rage will make the saliva as poisonous 
ns will a mercurial salivation. Many a nursing mother has sent her 
babe to the grave by indulging a furious emotion, which changed the 
character of her milk from a bland nutriment t( a deadly poison. 
These facts, which could be multiplied to a great extent, demonstrate 
the law, that a sound body cannot exist unless connected with a well- 
balanced mind. 

Physiological Law of the Passions. — The grand essential of a 
cheerful mind is self-control. This is the great law of mental hygiene. 
Those who cannot govern the lower range of propensities — the corpo- 
real and social groups — by the moral sentiments and intellectual facul- 
ties, should study to acquire self-government as " the one thing need- 
ful" in the mental operations. It may require long, patient, and 
thorough discipline ; it may cost much self-denial, and appear to de- 
mand great temporary sacrifices, but it is worth all it costs. Occasion- 
ally it is acquired through long years of bitter experience ; and some- 
times the greater part of a life is spent in suffering, disappointments, 
troubles, and crosses, ere the mind is found at peace with itself, and in 
right relations to all surrounding nature. Happy are they who can, 
even in such expensive schools, learn the art of adapting themselves to 
the invariable laws of the universe, which they cannot successfully op- 
pose, or in any respect alter ! Without self-control, let it be well un- 
derstood, no one is competent to govern others. To mothers this 
principle appeals with more momentous interest than to any or all 
other persons ; for it is their influence and example which infuse or- 
der or disorder into the infant mind, to " grow with its growth, and 
strengthen with its strength." 



Natural Duration of Life.— The Scriptures inform us that at 
one particular age of the world and state of society, " three score and 
ten" years were allotted to man; that at a preceding period, sur- 


rounded by different circumstances, it was ordained that "his days 
should be an hundred and twenty years ;" and that soon after the 
creation, when the air was free from infection, the soil exempt from 
pollution, the food of man plain, simple, and natural, and the ways of 
debauchery and dissipation almost unknown, individuals lived on the 
average four or five hundred years, the maximum point of longevity 
recorded being nine hundred and sixty-nine years. 

Without speculating upon the problem, whether the years of the 
early historians included the same period of time as the years of our 
present almanacs, it is sufficient for all practica. purposes to know the 
general law, that human lives may be lengthened to one or two hun- 
dred years or more, or "dwindled to the shortest span,' by our own 
voluntary individual and social habits. I can discover no physiological 
or natural law why man should not live some centuries, when placed 
under every possible favorable condition of constitution, climate, food, 
occupation, etc. It is obvious that, at the present day, a large propor- 
tion of our population is born with organizations incapable of manifest- 
ing the phenomena of life for a longer period than sixty or seventy 
years ; many, indeed, have not original vitality sufficient to reach the 
age of manhood, and others are born too feeble to survive the days of 
childhood ; but, on the other hatid, all ages of the world, and nearly 
all countries, give us many examples of individuals, even under many 
unfavorable influences, reaching various periods of life over a hundred 
years; some of them nearly completing the second century, and some 
few, if we may credit the records, enduring into the third century. 
If it can be proved that one man may live two or three hundred years 
under the most favorable hygienic circumstances, we want no further 
evidence of the existence of a physiological law that all may, under 
precisely similar circumstances. The learned Lichtenberg, who col- 
lected many statistics on the subject of longevity, declared, " Facts 
answer that man, in general, can live from one hundred and fifty to ono 
hundred and seventy, and even two hundred years." 

Examples of Longevity. — Haller collected most of the cases of 
longevity known in Europe in his time. Among them were over a 
thousand who attained to ages between 100 and 110 years; sixty from 
110 to 120; twenty-nine from 120 to 130; fifteen .from 130 to 140; 
Bix from 140 to 150; one reached 169 years. The Russian statistics 
of 1830 give examples of two hundred and fifty-five individuals between 
the ages of 100 and 160. In England and Wales, during a period of 
eighteen years preceding 1830, over seven hundred persons were 
buried each of whose ages exceeded 100 years. Baker's "Curse of 


Britain" gives a list of about one hundred individuals whose ages ranged 
from 95 to 370 ! Twenty-one of them reached the age of 150 and 
upward, and about thirty exceeded 120 years. Pliny copied from the 
records of the census in the time of Vespasian, the cases of one hun- 
dred and twenty-four men, living between the Po and the Apennines, 
who had attained ages from 100 to 140 years. At the same time 
there were living in Parma five men of ages from 120 to 130 ; in 
Placentia one of 130 ; at Facentia a woman of 132 ; and in Vellagaeian 
ten persons, six of whom were 110 and four 120 years of age. Hero- 
dotus informs us that the average life of the Macrobians was 120 years. 
The Circassians, according to the travelor, Mr. Spencer, attain a very 
advanced age. Modern statistics exhibit numerous examples of persons, 
in various parts of the United States, in Norway, Sweden, Denmark, 
Scotland, Ireland, Poland, Greece, and among the vegetarian Bramins 
of India, attaining more than one hundred years of age. France, 
Spain, and Germany afford a few examples. Many places on Long 
Island, in the state of New York, will compare advantageously with 
almost any equal number of places on the globe, as regards the 
longevity of their inhabitants, and the number who have attained 
100 years of age. The American Indians, previous to the intro- 
duction of the white man's " fire-water," frequently lived to the 
age of 100 years. The following catalogue of names and ages 
of persons distinguished for length of years has been collected by 
Baker, Horsell, and others. There is a discrepancy of a few years in 
relation to four or five of the individuals between the ages here stated 
and those given by other authors. The difference, however, is not mate- 
rial, and can in no way affect our argument or inferences. William 
Dupe 95, William Dupe's father 102, his grandfather 108, Michel! 
Vivian 100, John Crossley 100, Lewis Cornaro 100, Admiral H. Rol- 
venden 100, Jane Milner 102, Eleanor Aymer 103, Eleanor Pritchard 
103, her sisters 104 and 108, William Pepman 103, William Marmon 
103, wife of Cicero 103, Stender 103, Susan Edmonds 104, St. John 
the Silent 104, James the Hermit 104, Hippocrates 104, Bar Decapel- 
lias 104, Mrs. Hudson 105, Helen Gray 105, Mrs. Alexander 105, 
St. Theodosius 105, Mazarella 105, John Pinklam 105, St. Anthony 
105, Mary Nally 106, Thomas Davies 106, his wife 105, Ann Parker 

108, Gorgies 108, Simon Stylites 109, Coobah Lord 109, Democrates 

109, De Longueville 110, Ant. Senish 111, Ann Wall 111, Luceja 112, 
Mittelstedt 112, J. Walker 112, W. Kauper 112, W. Cowman 112, 
E. M. Gross 112, Paul the Hermit 113, F. Lupatsoli 113, M. Mahon 
114, John Weeks 114, R. Glen 114, St. Epiphnmus 115, George 
Wharton 115, Louis Wholeham 118, Bamberg 120. Arsenius 12a 

T— 33 


Romualdus 120, John Bailes 122, Margaret Darley 130, Francis Peat 
130, William Ellis 130, Bamberger 130. Peter Gorden 132, John 
Garden 132, Richard Lloyd 132, John Taylor 133, Catharine Lopez 
134, Margaret Forster 136, John Mount 136, Margaret Patten 137, 
Juan Marroygota 138, Rebecca Perry 140, Galen 140, Dumitor 
Radaloy 140, Laurence 140, Countess of Desmond 140, Mr. Ecleston 
143, Solomel Nibel 143, William Evans 145, Joseph Barn 146, Colonel 
Thomas Winsloe 146, Llywark Ken 150, Judith Crawford 150, 
Catharine Hyatt 150, Thomas Garrick 151, Francis Consist 152, 
James Bowels 152, Thomas Parr 152, Thomas Damma 154, Epi- 
menides 157, Robert Lynch 160, Letitia Cox 160, Joice Heth 162, 
Sarah Rovin 164, William Edwards 168, Henry Jenkins 169, John 
Rovin 172, Peter Porton 185, Mongate 185, Petratsch Czarten 185, 
Thomas Cam 207, Numes de Cugna 370. 

Zeno, the founder of the stoical sect, lived 100 years; Titian, the 
painter, nearly 100 ; Francis Secardia Hongo died a.d. 1702, aged 
114 ; in 1757, J. Effingham died at Cornwall, aged 144 ; Alexander 
Macintosh, of Marseilles, lived 112 years ; James le Measurer, of 
Navarre, 118 years ; Valentine Cateby, of Preston, England, 118 
years; Henry Grosvenor, of Wexford, Ireland, 115 years; John de 
la Soinet, of Virginia, 130 years; Elizabeth Macpherson, of Caithness, 
Scotland, 117 years; Owen Carollan, of Ireland, 127 years; Ann Day, 
an English gipsy, 108 years; Cardinal de Salis, of Seville, 110 years. 

Natural Death. — Diseases which produce violent or accidental 
death, destroy the whole human race, with few exceptions. Probably 
not one in n thousand dies a natural death. Even of those whose 
names have been held forth in the preceding paragraph as examples 
of extraordinary longevity, several were cut oft' prematurely by disease. 
Thomas Parr, at the age of 152, was destroyed by plethora, resulting 
from high living at court. Mrs. Hudson died of an acute disease re- 
sulting from taking cold at the age of 105. Richard Lloyd was in full 
health and strength at 132 years of age ; out being persuaded to eat 
flesh-meat and drink malt liquors, to which he had not been accus- 
tomed, he soon sickened and died. 

Natural death results from a gradual consolidation of the structures. 
In infancy, the proportion of the fluids of the body to the solids is 
much greater than in adult age, but this relation is constantly changing; 
the fluidity, flexibility, and elasticity of youth, as the structures harden 
and condense, is succeeded by the firmness, stiffness, and immobility 
of age ; yet this change is not necessarily attended with infirmity 
or decrepitude. If the life has been very nearly in conformity with 


the laws of life, the vital energies, so powerfully expended upon the 
muscular system during the period of growth and development, are, 
after the maturity of the body, mainly concentrated in the region of 
intellect. There is less activity, and vivacity, and impulse, but more 
serenity, and thoughtfulness, and meditation. The moral and intellect- 
ual nature seems not to reach its full development until actual decline 
has commenced in the functions of organic life. We are accustomed 
to notice, as the earliest marks of senility, the decay of the teeth, and 
the disproportionate destruction of the functions of the external senses, 
especially seeing and hearing. But such is not the natural decline of 
life. In a perfectly normal condition of the organism, all the functions, 
powers, and senses decline in the same harmonious relation in which 
they were developed. As the process of condensation goes on equally 
and imperceptibly throughout the organic domain, the motive powers 
grow torpid, the nutritive functions are enfeebled, the sensibility be- 
comes dull, the external senses are obtunded, and, lastly, the mental 
manifestations disappear — death occurs without a struggle or a groan. 

Advantages of Longevity. — Some speculative writers, whose 
minds have been more directed to the narrow science of "political 
economy" than to an enlarged view of the economy of the universe, 
have lately found a perplexing problem in the relation of the means of 
subsistence to the facilities for propagation. While population, say 
they, increases geometrically, the alimentary productions of the earth 
only increase arithmetically. On this bare proposition longevity seems 
to be one of the greatest evils that can befall the human family. Some 
scheme of death appears to be indispensable, to "kill off" the surplus 
population, to clear the ground of existing human beings as fast as the 
"coming generations" demand their places. But such a theory places 
us in an awkward dilemma, and is not very well calculated to "vindi- 
cate the ways of God to man," nor give us the most exalted views of 
what constitutes " man's humanity to man." But the whole puzzle 
comes from mistaking the present social disorder for natural order. It 
is very true that in some parts of the world there is a dense population 
in a state of starvation; but it is equally true that the earth has capacity 
even there, to produce food enough for all, and to spare. Undet 
existing governments and social arrangements, more than three fourths 
of all the land and all the labor, as far as the production of the means 
of human sustenance is concerned, is wasted, or worse than wasted. 
A large extent of the earth's surface has never yet been brought under 
cultivation, and that part of it which is cultivated the best admits of vast 
improvement. There is "-lso an immense waste iu raising domestic 


animals for food, for it requires not less than twenty times more extent 
of soil to nourish animals enough to furnish our food, than is necessary 
to supply us with food directly from the soil itself. And again, millions 
of acres of excellent land are worse than wasted in raising the filthy 
tobacco, and fruits and grains to convert into alcoholic poisons. 

But there is a much more cogent argument derived from the phys- 
iological principles we have been considering, against the position that 
" creation is a failure ;" for the idea I am controverting amounts to 
nothing less. It is a philosophical maxim that " intensive life cannot 
be extensive." The present races of human beings have a hurried, 
stimulated, forced, disorderly existence. Population is as much more 
numerous, as a general rule, as it is more depraved ; the causes of 
multiplying the species increase with the causes of their destruction. 
Males and females marry at twenty, become the fathers and mothers 
of a " numerous offspring" at forty, find themselves old at fifty, and 
are compelled to die at sixty; in this way, supposing the majority of 
the children to arrive at maturity, and "do likewise," the world will 
surely fill up pretty fast, and there will be a perpetual demand for 
" new countries," for the surplus population, or for those other less 
pleasant resources, " war, pestilence, and famine." But philosophers 
ought always to discriminate between the existing state of affairs, and 
a state of affairs that may, can, or should exist. 

There are many forcible reasons for believing that the earth now 
has, and always will have, room enough for all the population that can 
be produced by human beings who live according to the laws of their 
being, and till the ground according to the best lights of science and 
experience. If the human body develops slowly and healthfully, the 
periods of infancy, childhood, and adolescence will be greatly pro- 
longed ; the period of youth may extend to what we now call old age, 
while vigorous manhood may reach onward to some point between 
one and two hundred years, or even beyond ; and under such circum- 
stances it is probable, that the number of offspring in each family would 
be less instead of greater than the average of the present day; at least 
such was the fact with the early inhabitants of the earth with whose 
histories we are familiar. 

Again, we have many evidences that the surface of the earth actually 
enlarges continually. The proportion of the land is gradually gaining 
upon the water. Not only are the lakes, and seas, and oceans filling 
up, and the wild, frozen wastes of the polar regions destined to become, 
in due process of time, luxuriant harvest fields and flowery gardens, 
but it is even probable that the entire magnitude or bulk of the earth 
enlarges by constant accessions of matter, absirbed and condensed from 


the gaseous elemei::s floating in what we call space. If these views 
are correct, and they are certainly not wholly speculative, they afford 
a complete solution of the problem of population and subsistence, and 
furnish politicians with a key to a system of legislation that shall not 
be limited to acts, enactments, and amendments of acts, almost exclu- 
sively relating to the " rights of property," but which shall, in its higher, 
broader, nobler grasp, comprehend also the progress of humanity. 
But the chief use and purpose of a long life are yet to be named. As 
society is now constituted, the principal force of the mental energies 
of the world is expended in contriving a thousand ways and providing 
a thousand means to gratify the corporeal and animal passions, ren- 
dered insatiate by morbid cravings and disorders of all kinds, and in 
repairing, or rather attempting to repair, the mischiefs and miseries 
induced by bad habits. The intellectual aud moral mind, the spiritual 
nature, has but little opportunity for cultivation and development until 
the later periods of life, and then the body is worn out, and the mind 
has nothing to sustain it. Even the rich stores of knowledge accumu- 
lated by those who are placed in circumstances peculiarly fortunate 
for moral research and scientific investigation are mostly lost to others, 
because their voluntary habits have so disordered the body, that the 
lamp of life goes out before they have time to arrange, compare, 
prove, and demonstrate the results of their study and experience, and 
communicate them to the world. The "uncertainty of life," which hangs 
like a depressing incubus upon the majority of minds, has a blighting 
effect on human intellect, and a demoralizing influence on human affec- 
tions. As most people live, they feel an assurance of a special liability 
to some " mysterious providence," which may at any moment termi- 
nate their existence, and that entirely independent of any natural cause 
or law which they can either understand or control. The state of mind 
induced by such confused fears and apprehensions must be exceedingly 
superstitious, and nothing is more stupefying to all the powers of intel- 
lect than superstition. Such persons cannot reason well because their 
reflective powers are spell-bound by an absurd fantasy, and they dare 
not attempt to reason much for fear they will reason wrong. Imagin- 
ing their safety to consist in ~he passive instead of the active state of 
mind, they make " discretion ..he better part of valor," and try harder 
to believe than to understand. But, moreover, this blinded and bigoted 
state of mind renders its possessor eminently short-sighted and selfish. 
He is unwilling to trust God, man, or nature, and aims to make sure 
of every thing, and enjoy as he goes along. Hence he is always pur- 
suing petty expedients for momentary pleasure, instead of seeking per- 
manent and substantial happiness in following out the laws of his 


organization. He becomes in society one who seeks to appropriate 
as much as possible, and impart as little as possible. He is always 
pre-eminently conservative, uniformly goes for keeping all things as 
they are, and invariably opposes all new creeds, or innovations upon 
established usages. So far as society, or the world, or the human 
family is concerned, he is useless, or rather worse than useless. But 
let, the same person be well instructed in the philosophy of life, let 
him feel competent to preserve his own health, and have a full assur- 
ance that, casualties excepted, his days may be long in the land, and 
he will straightway look forward to a better and higher destiny, forego 
many present temporary gratifications, discipline his mind for the more 
important future, and become a more useful as well as more happy 
member of the social compact. Instead of finding his pleasure in 
abstracting all he can from the enjoyments of others, he will seek and 
find his highest happiness in some pursuit which will be conducive to 
the general good. 

Special Means Conducive to Longevity. — In strict truth there 
are no special means for promoting health and attaining longevity, ex- 
cept in the negative sens* — the avoidance of special errors. The gen- 
eral adaptation of all the hygienic agencies to the particular circum- 
stances in which we are placed, constitutes our proper rule of action. 
But there is one principle involved in this subject more important 
than any other, and as it is more disregarded, and probably less under- 
stood, by people generally than any other, it may be well to notice it 
specifically in this place. 

We have seen that, from the cradle to the grave, the proportions 
of the solid particles of the body are constantly gaining upon the fluids; 
natural death resulting when, provided no disease intervenes, the con- 
solidation of the structures has progressed so far that the fluids cannot 
permeate the capillaries sufficiently to maintain the functions of assim- 
ilation and depuration. As the fluids and solids are both formed mainly 
from the materials taken into the stomach as food and drink, it follows 
that the character of the aliment has a controlling influence, beyond that 
of any other hygienic circumstance, in determining the period when nat- 
ural death shall take place. Gross, concentrated, obstructing food, and 
all extraneous earthy or saline ingredients accidentally mingled with our 
food and drink, or employed as condiments, must necessarily abridge the 
term of our existence. All the early historians agree that the primitive 
inhabitants of the earth were frugivorcus, subsisting mainly, if not 
wholly, on fruits. But if the primitive inhabitants employed as food 
roots, and tender leaves, and plants as well as fruits, they still had a 


kind of aliment remarkably fluid and unconcentrated as compaied with 
the dishes generally eaten at the present day. And if, further, they 
employed any of the cereal grains — as flouring-mills were then un- 
known, and no method had been devised for separating the bran from 
flour — they were used in their most perfect condition, both as respects 
quality and preparation. The flesh of animals, it is conceded on all 
hands, was not then even thought of as food for human beings. So 
far, then, as the dietetic habits of the immediate descendants of the 
first pair were concerned, they united all the conditions requisite to 
prolong life to the utmost limit of the laws of life. 

The principle, therefore, seems established, that the kind of food 
which contains a large proportion of fluid, as compared with its solid 
matter, and a large proportion of bulk, as compared with its nutriment, 
is best adapted to sustain permanently the integrity of the organism, 
provided it contain also the requisite elements for prolonged nutrition. 
Those who employ a diet largely farinaceous — those who make bread 
" the staff of life" iu their dietetic system, require a largn proportion 
of cruder vegetables, less nutritious roots, or succulent fruits. True, 
an individual might do very well on "bread alone," if he were rigidly 
abstemious, but the tendency would be, if the habit were extended 
through several generations, to hasten the consolidation of the struc- 
tures, and bring on premature old age. 

Nearly all the arts of commerce and of cookery are, and have been 
for many centuries, directly calculated to disorder the human body, 
and shorten the duration of its existence. Concentration, stimulation, 
and complication, with many extraneous additions, have generally been 
the aim of the cook, and the prescription of the physician ; and the 
result is, that disease is the general rule of society, and health the ex- 
ception,while the average period of time between birth and death has 
been fearfully diminished. 

Another advantage in employing a large proportion of watery fruits 
and vegetables is, in supplying the system in this way with the water 
,t requires, in its purest state. Most of the water used as a beverage 
and for cooking purposes is more or less impregnated with deleterious 
particles, while that found in the juices of fruits and vegetables is 
nearly free of every thing of the kind. We know that the organic 
economy requires a due supply of certain earthy matters, as phosphate 
and carbonate of lime, for the sustenance of the osseous system ; but 
it is obvious that an undue supply must obstruct the minute ramifica- 
tions of vessels, and render the fil res rigid and friable. The depurat- 
ing organs have the functional ability to secrete and expel from the 
tody the surplus saline and earthy matters to a certain extent; but if 


they are taken into the system beyond that ability, they must neces 
sarily accumulate constantly, and exercise a very important influence 
in bringing the functions of life to an early termination. 

I admit that a stimulating, concentrated, and even constipating and 
obstructing regimen, may produce a rapid development of the body ; 
it may produce extraordinary precocity in mind or body, or both. 
But it is a kind of development unforttmate for its possessor and for 
society. It is a process which makes the chi.l a giant and the man a t 
dwarf. It may produce manifestations of maturity at twelve, and 
symptoms of decay at twenty. Besides, it always and invariably dis- 
orders the individual ; and if, haplessly, the forced production of a man 
propagate his kind, the offspring will inherit a malformed and imperfect 

It has been urged, with reason, too, that the difficulties and pains of 
child-bearing are closely connected with the quality of food, as i-egards 
concentration. There is little doubt, I think, that the structures of 
both mother and child are more inflexible, inelastic, and unyielding, 
when the food has been too stimulating, too concentrated, or in any 
respect obstructing — a condition which obviously complicates the dan- 
gers and aggravates the sufferings of parturition. In fact, this subject 
has been amply and practically illustrated during the last seven or eight 
years in the city of New York, where nearly all the mothers and in- 
fants treated on the ordinary or allopathic system have experienced 
great suffering, and been "doctored through" many diseases; while 
all, as far as I have any knowledge, treated hydropathically, have es- 
caped a great degree of the usual suffering, and all of the diseases 
usually incident to the lying-in period. 

A late author, who has perpetrated the very common mistake of 
taking a fact for a principle, and a principle for a theory, and a theory 
for a system, and then turning the system into a hobby, has undertaken 
to show that all kinds of foods and drinks are conducive to or detractive 
from longevity, exactly in the ratio that their constituents contain less 
or more of saline or other earthy ingredients. According to his notion 
wheat is the very luorst article of food known ; the other grains are 
highly deleterious, while all kinds of " fish, flesh, and fowl," and even 
ardent spirits and tobacco, are healthful, because they contain scarcely 
any phosphate of lime or other earthy matters ! As a specimen of his 
reasoning, or, rather, misapplication of facts, I make the following ex- 
tract from his work, especially as it is a fair sample of the manner in 
which facts are generally misapprehended or misapplied by the medi- 
cal profession : 

" The peasantry of those parts of Ireland where wheaton-bread, or 


any kind of grain food is scarcely ever tasted, but where potatoes, fish, 
turnips, greens, and fresh vegetables, generally form their principal 
diet, all of which things contain a moderate amount of earthy matter 
are proverbial for health, activity, and a tolerable longevity. The En- 
glish peasantry consume one half more solid grain food, as bread and 
pastry, than the Irish, and are greatly inferior both in health, activity, 
duration of life, and in temper and disposition. Although the same 
external conditions, fresh air and exercise, and much better clothing 
and lodging, are enjoyed by the English, they are more bony, rigid/ 
chimsy, and stupid than the Irish." 

I think the fine jlour, with the greater portion of beer, beef, and 
plum-pudding, accessible to the English peasantry, explain these phe- 
nomena perfectly. 

Occupation as Affecting Longevity. — The industrial relations 
of individuals, though important, are less so than domestic conditions 
and circumstances, as influencing the duration of life. The acknowl- 
edged theories and the collected statistics of physiologists exhibit some 
discrepancies, with regard to the connection between occupation and 
longevity, and medical men have been utterly unable to explain or 
reconcile these discrepancies. Thus, while agriculture is universally 
allowed to be the most healthful occupation known, the average lives 
of farmers, though comparing favorably with mechanics, tradesmen, 
'laborers, factory operatives, etc., is lower in the scale of longevity 
than that of several other classes. In some parts of England, where 
this subject has been investigated, particularly in Manchester and Rut- 
landshire, the "upper classes," or "gentry" were found to be nearly 
twice as long-lived as the "lower classes," or "workers." These 
facts require a thorough analysis, or we shall be led into the monstrous 
absurdity that idl